What is Sprint Velocity? How to Estimate Velocity in Agile? (2024)

What is Sprint Velocity? How to Estimate Velocity in Agile? (1)

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What is Sprint Velocity? How to Estimate Velocity in Agile? (2)What is Sprint Velocity? How to Estimate Velocity in Agile?

Sprint velocity is a metric commonly used in Agile software development, particularly in Scrum, to measure the amount of work a development team can complete in a single sprint.

Velocity is typically measured in story points, which are relative units of measurement used to estimate the complexity and effort required to complete a user story.

At the end of each sprint, the team calculates their sprint velocity by summing up the story points of all the user stories they successfully completed during that sprint.

By understanding and using Velocity effectively, teams can improve their planning and deliver better results.

This article delves into the depths of Sprint Velocity, explaining its essence, measurement, significance, and how to harness it effectively.

Table Of Contents-

  • What is Sprint Velocity in Agile?
  • How to Calculate Sprint Velocity?
  • Why Teams Measure Sprint Velocity?
  • Improving Sprint Velocity
  • Limitations of Velocity
  • Regulating Your Team's Sprint Velocity
  • Conclusion
  • Multiple choice Questions

What is Sprint Velocity in Agile?

Sprint Velocity, often simply referred to as "velocity," represents the quantity of story points completed by a team within a single Sprint.

While some teams might prefer using different measurements, such as hours or completed stories, the fundamental concept remains unchanged - velocity quantifies the amount of work a team accomplishes during a Sprint.

To calculate sprint velocity, two essential variables come into play: the amount of work accomplished by the Agile team and the time it takes to complete that work.

It's crucial to recognize that sprint velocity is a descriptive metric, not a success metric. It serves to gauge your team's capacity rather than aiming to enhance that capacity.

How to Calculate Sprint Velocity?

The measurement of Sprint Velocity is straightforward.

At the conclusion of each Sprint, tally the total story points associated with each completed user story.

This sum constitutes your team's velocity metric for that Sprint.

For example, if your team estimates and completes three user stories

  • A (4 points),
  • B (2 points),
  • C (3 points)

your velocity for that Sprint stands at 9.

However, it's important to note that any incomplete user stories should not be included in the calculation, serving as a reminder for teams to break down tasks into manageable pieces in future Sprints.

Remember, only those PBIs that fulfill the Definition of Done should be included.

If you start capturing the Sprint Velocity for few sprints, you can derive the average sprint velocity.

For Example:

To determine your average sprint velocity, sum the story points completed in each of the past three sprints and then divide by three. This provides a reliable baseline for future sprint planning.

Suppose the total story points completed in those three sprints were 96. In that case, your average sprint velocity would be 96 ÷ 3 = 32 story points per sprint.

Why Teams Measure Sprint Velocity?

Sprint Velocity offers several advantages for Agile teams:

  1. Enhanced Sprint Planning

    Velocity empowers teams to make more precise Sprint plans by providing insights into how many story points they can realistically accomplish within a Sprint.

    It serves as a foundation for productive discussions during Sprint Planning sessions, helping teams set reasonable objectives.

  2. Visualizing Progress

    Visualizing Sprint Velocity over time, often in the form of a Burndown chart, provides teams with valuable insights into their progress throughout the Sprint.

    Teams can assess whether story points are consistently completed over the duration of the Sprint or if there's a tendency to rush toward the end.

    By comparing actual progress to the "ideal burndown" line, teams can gauge whether they are on track or falling behind, allowing for necessary adjustments.

  3. Focus During Retrospectives

    Sprint Retrospectives are an ideal opportunity to leverage Sprint Velocity. It can serve as a focal point at the beginning of a retrospective, enabling teams to identify potential issues or assess the effectiveness of recent process changes.

    For instance, if a team's velocity fluctuates significantly between Sprints, it could signal that user stories are too large. In response, teams may need to split stories into smaller, more manageable tasks.

    However, it could also indicate burnout, blockers, or other process-related challenges that require attention and resolution.

  4. Optimization Opportunities

    Improving Sprint Velocity is a goal for many Agile teams, and there are several strategies to achieve this:

    • Mastering Backlog Refinement: Thoroughly refined backlogs with detailed information enable team members to start tasks with all the necessary information, enhancing their ability to execute efficiently.

    • Automation: Automating aspects of the work process, such as tests and code generation, can lead to significant improvements in velocity.

    • Awareness of Team Dynamics: Keeping an eye on changes or shortcomings within the team can help identify opportunities for improvement. Whether it's shifting requirements, missing skills, or team members facing personal challenges, addressing these factors can positively impact velocity.

    • Managing External Dependencies: Sometimes, the source of velocity issues lies outside the team. Delays caused by external factors, such as slow customer feedback or complex approval processes, can hinder velocity. Identifying and addressing these dependencies can be a game-changer.

    • Dedicated Retrospectives: Holding retrospectives solely focused on optimizing velocity can provide valuable insights and opportunities for improvement.

However, it's important to note that during the initial Sprints of a team, velocity may fluctuate significantly.

This period is characterized by calibration of estimates, longer meetings, and team members becoming acclimated to the codebase.

Thus, relying on and expecting a stable velocity is advisable only after three to five Sprints when sufficient data becomes available to make meaningful assessments.

Improving Sprint Velocity

Achieving and maintaining a stable sprint velocity is essential for Agile success. To stabilize and enhance your team's velocity, consider these tips:

  • Write clear and concise user stories.
  • Maintain consistent team membership and size.
  • Use sprint retrospectives to identify and address areas for improvement.
  • Eliminate dependencies that can hinder progress.
  • Develop a robust definition of "done" for tasks.
  • Prioritize quality over speed.
  • Allocate sufficient time for thorough testing.
  • Seek additional expertise when needed.
  • Ensure ongoing training to keep team members up to date with new technologies.

Limitations of Velocity

While Velocity is a helpful planning tool, it's crucial to recognize its limitations:

  1. Velocity is specific to a team: Comparing the Velocity of different teams is not productive, as each team's context, skills, and experience are unique.
  2. Velocity may vary due to changes in team composition: If a team member leaves or joins the team, it may affect the Velocity.
  3. Velocity is not a measure of value: A high Velocity doesn't necessarily mean that the team is delivering high-value features; the focus should be on delivering the most valuable PBIs first.

Regulating Your Team's Sprint Velocity

Consistency in sprint velocity is pivotal for effective project management.

Inconsistent velocity may signify underlying issues.

Here are some tips to maintain consistent sprint velocity:

  1. Clarify User Stories:Ensure that user stories are clear and understandable before the sprint commences. A well-defined user story reduces ambiguity and allows team members to focus on the task at hand, boosting velocity.

  2. Maintain Consistency:Avoid frequent changes in variables, such as team composition, sprint length, or processes, which can affect sprint velocity. Keeping these factors stable promotes steady performance.

  3. Establish a Uniform Definition of "Done":A clear understanding of what constitutes a "done" user story enhances estimation accuracy and, consequently, sprint velocity. Define "done" criteria to standardize work assessment.

  4. Host Sprint Retrospectives:Leverage the Agile methodology's iterative nature by conducting sprint retrospectives. These meetings provide a platform to reflect on past sprints, identify areas for improvement, and implement lessons learned to enhance sprint velocity.


Sprint Velocity is a valuable instrument in the Agile toolkit, but its effective use requires a nuanced understanding.

By leveraging it as a means to enhance planning, visualize progress, focus retrospectives, and identify optimization opportunities, teams can navigate their Agile journeys more effectively.

However, it's crucial to avoid common misconceptions about velocity, such as using it for external forecasting or tracking team productivity.

Agile success ultimately hinges on the team's ability to adapt and align their practices with the overarching goal of delivering value to customers.

Multiple choice Questions

What is Velocity in Scrum?

  1. The speed at which a team completes tasks.
  2. The sum of story points completed by a Scrum team during a Sprint.
  3. The amount of time it takes a team to complete a Sprint.
  4. The number of tasks assigned to a team during a Sprint.

How is Velocity calculated?

  1. By adding up the story points of all completed PBIs in a Sprint.
  2. By dividing the total story points by the number of team members.
  3. By multiplying the number of completed tasks by the average task duration.
  4. By measuring the time it takes for a team to complete all tasks.

Why should Velocity not be used as a measure of individual performance?

  1. Because it only measures the speed of the team.
  2. Because it is only relevant for the Product Owner.
  3. Because it is a measure of the team's overall capacity.
  4. Because it does not account for external factors.

Which of the following is NOT a limitation of Velocity?

  1. Velocity is specific to a team.
  2. Velocity may vary due to changes in team composition.
  3. Velocity is not a measure of value.
  4. Velocity accurately measures individual performance.
Burn-Down ChartsCumulative Flow Diagrams
What is Sprint Velocity? How to Estimate Velocity in Agile? (2024)


What is Sprint Velocity? How to Estimate Velocity in Agile? ›

How to calculate sprint velocity. You can calculate sprint velocity with a simple math equation: divide the number of backlog items (or story points, if that's what your team uses) by the total length of your sprint in days. Figuring out how much your team can complete in an average sprint is relatively simple.

How to estimate sprint velocity? ›

Simply add up the total of story points completed from each sprint, then divide by the number of sprints. So, your average sprint velocity is 96 ÷ 3 = 32.

How do I calculate velocity in Agile? ›

Once your Sprint is complete, you can calculate your velocity by totaling the story points for each completed user story. For example: Say you estimated story A at four points, story B at two points, and story C at three points, and you completed all three. Your velocity is 9.

How do you calculate sprint velocity in Jira? ›

Calculating velocity

Velocity is calculated by taking the average of the total completed estimates over the last several sprints. So in the chart above, the team's velocity is (17.5 + 13.5 + 38.5 + 18 + 33 + 28) / 6 = 24.75 (we've ignored the zero story point sprint).

How do you measure velocity? ›

The most basic formula for calculating velocity is velocity (v) = distance (d)/time (t). If you don't already know the time and distance, you'll need to calculate them first. Subtract the initial position from the final position to find distance, and subtract the start time from the end time to find the time.

How do you track velocity in Scrum? ›

What is velocity in scrum? In Scrum and other Agile project management frameworks, velocity serves as an Agile metric for estimating the amount of work a Scrum team can complete within a given time frame—typically a single sprint.

How to improve sprint velocity? ›

How do you improve your Scrum sprint velocity and quality?
  1. Define clear sprint goals.
  2. Plan your sprint capacity.
  3. Implement agile engineering practices.
  4. Conduct effective sprint reviews. ...
  5. Perform regular sprint retrospectives.
  6. Monitor and track sprint metrics. ...
  7. Here's what else to consider.
Jul 18, 2023

What is the difference between sprint velocity and capacity? ›

Velocity is a measurement of the average amount of story points delivered across a given time period. Capacity is an estimate of the total amount of engineering time available for a given sprint.

What is the standard velocity in Agile? ›

Agile velocity is a metric that calculates how long user stories within a particular sprint have taken to complete against their estimate. This allows project managers to accurately predict how long future sprints, or an overall project, will take to complete.

What is the velocity test in Agile? ›

Velocity takes a mathematical approach to measure how much work a team completes on average during each sprint, comparing the actual completed tasks with the team's estimated efforts.

What is the correct formula for velocity? ›

Finding the final velocity is simple, with a few calculations and basic conceptual knowledge. Determine the object's original velocity by dividing the time it took for the object to travel a given distance by the total distance. In the equation V = d/t, V is the velocity, d is the distance, and t is the time.

What is the velocity and burndown chart in Agile? ›

The Burndown will also show a list of any in-completed Issues, meaning, any Issue that is closed outside the end date of the Sprint. Velocity is how the team is able to measure the amount of work they have completed in a typical time frame, or over a longer timeframe.

How do I track velocity in Kanban Jira? ›

Decide on which Jira dashboard you want to add the Kanban Velocity gadget. Create a new Jira dashboard or choose an existing one. Add the Kanban Velocity gadget to your Jira dashboard by clicking the Add Gadget button from your dashboard and then by selecting and adding the Kanban Velocity Gadget.

What is the best way to calculate velocity? ›

To calculate velocity, you divide your distance traveled by the time it took to travel that distance and you add your direction to it.

What method is used to measure velocity? ›

Velocity can be measured directly, using a flowmeter (essentially a speedometer for water, Fig. 3.8 and Section 3.1. 3) or inferred by timing the movement of a float in the water (Fig. 3.5).

What are the three formulas for velocity? ›

The three equations are,
  • v = u + at.
  • v² = u² + 2as.
  • s = ut + ½at²

What is the formula for running velocity? ›

Equation for Velocity

To figure out velocity, you divide the distance by the time it takes to travel that same distance, then you add your direction to it. For example, if you traveled 50 miles in 1 hour going west, then your velocity would be 50 miles/1 hour westwards, or 50 mph westwards.

How do you estimate average velocity? ›

To calculate the average velocity, we need to divide the total displacement by the total time elapsed.

How do you estimate in sprints? ›

During sprint planning, we break the stories down into tasks, estimate those tasks, and compare the task estimates against our capacity. It's that, not points, that keep us from overcommitting in this sprint. No need to change the estimate.

What is the formula for calculating speed velocity? ›

The speed formula is expressed by speed = distance time , while the velocity formula is expressed by velocity = displacement time .

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