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Summary of Content for Texas Instruments TI-83 Plus Calculator Guidebook PDF

Page 1

07/23/03 2001-2003 Texas Instruments

TI

TI-83 Plus /

TI-83 Plus Silver Edition

Graphing Calculator Guidebook

On/Off Graphing a function Menus Modes Using parentheses Lists

Tables Data and lists Matrices Split screen

Inferential statistics Archiving/Unarchiving Programming Menu maps

Sending and receiving Troubleshooting Formulas Support and service

More Information

First Steps

Creating

Beyond the Basics

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TI-83 Plus

Important

Texas Instruments makes no warranty, either express or implied, including but not limited to any implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, regarding any programs or book materials and makes such materials available solely on an as-is basis.

In no event shall Texas Instruments be liable to anyone for special, collateral, incidental, or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the purchase or use of these materials, and the sole and exclusive liability of Texas Instruments, regardless of the form of action, shall not exceed the purchase price of this equipment. Moreover, Texas Instruments shall not be liable for any claim of any kind whatsoever against the use of these materials by any other party.

Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Macintosh is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.

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TI-83 Plus

US FCC Information Concerning Radio Frequency Interference

This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference with radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation.

If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, you can try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures: Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna. Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver. Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to

which the receiver is connected. Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/television technician for

help.

Caution: Any changes or modifications to this equipment not expressly approved by Texas Instruments may void your authority to operate the equipment.

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 1

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition

Documentation Conventions

In the body of this guidebook, TI-83 Plus (in silver) refers to the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition. Sometimes, as in Chapter 19, the full name TI-83 Plus Silver Edition is used to distinguish it from the TI-83 Plus.

All the instructions and examples in this guidebook also work for the TI-83 Plus. All the functions of the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition and the TI-83 Plus are the same. The two calculators differ only in available RAM memory and Flash application ROM memory.

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 2

TI-83 Plus Keyboard

Generally, the keyboard is divided into these zones: graphing keys, editing keys, advanced function keys, and scientific calculator keys.

Keyboard Zones

Graphing Graphing keys access the interactive graphing features.

Editing Editing keys allow you to edit expressions and values.

Advanced Advanced function keys display menus that access the advanced functions.

Scientific Scientific calculator keys access the capabilities of a standard scientific calculator.

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 3

TI-83 Plus

Editing Keys

Advanced Function Keys

Scientific Calculator Keys

Graphing Keys

Colors may vary in actual product.

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 4

Using the Color.Coded Keyboard

The keys on the TI-83 Plus are color-coded to help you easily locate the key you need.

The light gray keys are the number keys. The blue keys along the right side of the keyboard are the common math functions. The blue keys across the top set up and display graphs. The blue key provides access to applications such as the Finance application.

The primary function of each key is printed on the keys. For example, when you press , the MATH menu is displayed.

Using the y and Keys

The secondary function of each key is printed in yellow above the key. When you press the yellow y key, the character, abbreviation, or word printed in yellow above the other keys becomes active for the next keystroke. For example, when you press y and then , the TEST

menu is displayed. This guidebook describes this keystroke combination as y :.

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 5

The alpha function of each key is printed in green above the key. When you press the green key, the alpha character printed in green above the other keys becomes active for the next keystroke. For example, when you press and then , the letter A is entered. This guidebook describes this keystroke combination as [A].

The y key accesses the second function printed in yellow above each key.

The key accesses the alpha function printed in green above each key.

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 6

Turning On and Turning Off the TI-83 Plus

Turning On the Calculator

To turn on the TI-83 Plus, press .

If you previously had turned off the calculator by pressing y M, the TI-83 Plus displays the home screen as it was when you last used it and clears any error.

If Automatic Power Down (APD) had previously turned off the calculator, the TI-83 Plus will return exactly as you left it, including the display, cursor, and any error.

If the TI-83 Plus is turned off and you connect it to another calculator or personal computer, the TI-83 Plus will wake up when you complete the connection.

If the TI-83 Plus is turned off and connected to another calculator or personal computer, any communication activity will wake up the TI-83 Plus.

To prolong the life of the batteries, APD turns off the TI-83 Plus automatically after about five minutes without any activity.

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 7

Turning Off the Calculator

To turn off the TI-83 Plus manually, press y M.

All settings and memory contents are retained by Constant MemoryTM.

Any error condition is cleared.

Batteries

The TI-83 Plus uses four AAA alkaline batteries and has a user- replaceable backup lithium battery (CR1616 or CR1620). To replace batteries without losing any information stored in memory, follow the steps in Appendix B.

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 8

Setting the Display Contrast

Adjusting the Display Contrast

You can adjust the display contrast to suit your viewing angle and lighting conditions. As you change the contrast setting, a number from 0 (lightest) to 9 (darkest) in the top-right corner indicates the current level. You may not be able to see the number if contrast is too light or too dark.

Note: The TI-83 Plus has 40 contrast settings, so each number 0 through 9 represents four settings.

The TI-83 Plus retains the contrast setting in memory when it is turned off.

To adjust the contrast, follow these steps.

1. Press and release the y key.

2. Press and hold or }, which are below and above the contrast symbol (yellow, half-shaded circle).

lightens the screen.

} darkens the screen.

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 9

Note: If you adjust the contrast setting to 0, the display may become completely blank. To restore the screen, press and release y, and then press and hold } until the display reappears.

When to Replace Batteries

When the batteries are low, a low-battery message is displayed when you:

Turn on the calculator.

Download a new application.

Attempt to upgrade to new software.

To replace the batteries without losing any information in memory, follow the steps in Appendix B.

Generally, the calculator will continue to operate for one or two weeks after the low-battery message is first displayed. After this period, the TI-83 Plus will turn off automatically and the unit will not operate. Batteries must be replaced. All memory should be retained.

Note: The operating period following the first low-battery message could be longer than two weeks if you use the calculator infrequently.

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 10

The Display

Types of Displays

The TI-83 Plus displays both text and graphs. Chapter 3 describes graphs. Chapter 9 describes how the TI-83 Plus can display a horizontally or vertically split screen to show graphs and text simultaneously.

Home Screen

The home screen is the primary screen of the TI-83 Plus. On this screen, enter instructions to execute and expressions to evaluate. The answers are displayed on the same screen.

Displaying Entries and Answers

When text is displayed, the TI-83 Plus screen can display a maximum of 8 lines with a maximum of 16 characters per line. If all lines of the display are full, text scrolls off the top of the display. If an expression on the home screen, the Y= editor (Chapter 3), or the program editor (Chapter 16) is longer than one line, it wraps to the beginning of the next line. In numeric editors such as the window screen (Chapter 3), a long expression scrolls to the right and left.

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 11

When an entry is executed on the home screen, the answer is displayed on the right side of the next line.

Entry Answer

The mode settings control the way the TI-83 Plus interprets expressions and displays answers.

If an answer, such as a list or matrix, is too long to display entirely on one line, an ellipsis (...) is displayed to the right or left. Press ~ and | to display the answer.

Entry Answer

Returning to the Home Screen

To return to the home screen from any other screen, press y 5.

Busy Indicator

When the TI-83 Plus is calculating or graphing, a vertical moving line is displayed as a busy indicator in the top-right corner of the screen. When you pause a graph or a program, the busy indicator becomes a vertical moving dotted line.

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 12

Display Cursors

In most cases, the appearance of the cursor indicates what will happen when you press the next key or select the next menu item to be pasted as a character.

Cursor Appearance Effect of Next Keystroke

Entry Solid rectangle $

A character is entered at the cursor; any existing character is overwritten

Insert Underline __

A character is inserted in front of the cursor location

Second Reverse arrow

A 2nd character (yellow on the keyboard) is entered or a 2nd operation is executed

Alpha Reverse A

An alpha character (green on the keyboard) is entered or SOLVE is executed

Full Checkerboard rectangle #

No entry; the maximum characters are entered at a prompt or memory is full

If you press during an insertion, the cursor becomes an underlined A (A). If you press y during an insertion, the underlined cursor becomes an underlined # (#).

Graphs and editors sometimes display additional cursors, which are described in other chapters.

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 13

Entering Expressions and Instructions

What Is an Expression?

An expression is a group of numbers, variables, functions and their arguments, or a combination of these elements. An expression evaluates to a single answer. On the TI-83 Plus, you enter an expression in the same order as you would write it on paper. For example, pR2 is an expression.

You can use an expression on the home screen to calculate an answer. In most places where a value is required, you can use an expression to enter a value.

Entering an Expression

To create an expression, you enter numbers, variables, and functions from the keyboard and menus. An expression is completed when you press , regardless of the cursor location. The entire expression is evaluated according to Equation Operating System (EOS) rules, and the answer is displayed.

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 14

Most TI-83 Plus functions and operations are symbols comprising several characters. You must enter the symbol from the keyboard or a menu; do not spell it out. For example, to calculate the log of 45, you must press 45. Do not enter the letters L, O, and G. If you enter LOG, the TI-83 Plus interprets the entry as implied multiplication of the variables L, O, and G.

Calculate 3.76 (L7.9 + 5) + 2 log 45.

3 76 7 9 y C 5 2 45

Multiple Entries on a Line

To enter two or more expressions or instructions on a line, separate them with colons ( [:]). All instructions are stored together in last entry (ENTRY) .

Entering a Number in Scientific Notation

To enter a number in scientific notation, follow these steps.

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 15

1. Enter the part of the number that precedes the exponent. This value can be an expression.

2. Press y D. is pasted to the cursor location.

3. If the exponent is negative, press , and then enter the exponent, which can be one or two digits.

When you enter a number in scientific notation, the TI-83 Plus does not automatically display answers in scientific or engineering notation. The mode settings and the size of the number determine the display format.

Functions

A function returns a value. For example, , L, +, (, and log( are the functions in the example on the previous page. In general, the first letter of each function is lowercase on the TI-83 Plus. Most functions take at least one argument, as indicated by an open parenthesis ( ( ) following the name. For example, sin( requires one argument, sin(value).

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 16

Instructions

An instruction initiates an action. For example, ClrDraw is an instruction that clears any drawn elements from a graph. Instructions cannot be used in expressions. In general, the first letter of each instruction name is uppercase. Some instructions take more than one argument, as indicated by an open parenthesis ( ( ) at the end of the name. For example, Circle( requires three arguments, Circle(X,Y,radius).

Interrupting a Calculation

To interrupt a calculation or graph in progress, which is indicated by the busy indicator, press .

When you interrupt a calculation, a menu is displayed.

To return to the home screen, select 1:Quit.

To go to the location of the interruption, select 2:Goto.

When you interrupt a graph, a partial graph is displayed.

To return to the home screen, press or any nongraphing key.

To restart graphing, press a graphing key or select a graphing instruction.

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 17

TI-83 Plus Edit Keys

Keystrokes Result

~ or | Moves the cursor within an expression; these keys repeat.

} or Moves the cursor from line to line within an expression that occupies more than one line; these keys repeat.

On the top line of an expression on the home screen, } moves the cursor to the beginning of the expression.

On the bottom line of an expression on the home screen, moves the cursor to the end of the expression.

y | Moves the cursor to the beginning of an expression.

y ~ Moves the cursor to the end of an expression.

Evaluates an expression or executes an instruction.

On a line with text on the home screen, clears the current line.

On a blank line on the home screen, clears everything on the home screen.

In an editor, clears the expression or value where the cursor is located; it does not store a zero.

{ Deletes a character at the cursor; this key repeats.

y 6 Changes the cursor to an underline (__); inserts characters in front of the underline cursor; to end insertion, press y 6 or press |, }, ~, or .

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 18

Keystrokes Result

y Changes the cursor to ; the next keystroke performs a 2nd operation (an operation in yellow above a key and to the left); to cancel 2nd, press y again.

Changes the cursor to ; the next keystroke pastes an alpha character (a character in green above a key and to the right) or executes SOLVE (Chapters 10 and 11); to cancel , press or press |, }, ~, or .

y 7 Changes the cursor to ; sets alpha-lock; subsequent keystrokes (on an alpha key) paste alpha characters; to cancel alpha-lock, press . If you are prompted to enter a name such as for a group or a program, alpha-lock is set automatically.

Pastes an X in Func mode, a T in Par mode, a q in Pol mode, or an n in Seq mode with one keystroke.

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 19

Setting Modes

Checking Mode Settings

Mode settings control how the TI-83 Plus displays and interprets numbers and graphs. Mode settings are retained by the Constant Memory feature when the TI-83 Plus is turned off. All numbers, including elements of matrices and lists, are displayed according to the current mode settings.

To display the mode settings, press z. The current settings are highlighted. Defaults are highlighted below. The following pages describe the mode settings in detail.

Normal Sci Eng Numeric notation Float 0123456789 Number of decimal places Radian Degree Unit of angle measure Func Par Pol Seq Type of graphing Connected Dot Whether to connect graph points Sequential Simul Whether to plot simultaneously Real a+bi re^qi Real, rectangular complex, or polar complex Full Horiz G-T Full screen, two split-screen modes

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 20

Changing Mode Settings

To change mode settings, follow these steps.

1. Press or } to move the cursor to the line of the setting that you want to change.

2. Press ~ or | to move the cursor to the setting you want.

3. Press .

Setting a Mode from a Program

You can set a mode from a program by entering the name of the mode as an instruction; for example, Func or Float. From a blank program command line, select the mode setting from the mode screen; the instruction is pasted to the cursor location.

Normal, Sci, Eng

Notation modes only affect the way an answer is displayed on the home screen. Numeric answers can be displayed with up to 10 digits and a two-digit exponent. You can enter a number in any format.

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 21

Normal notation mode is the usual way we express numbers, with digits to the left and right of the decimal, as in 12345.67.

Sci (scientific) notation mode expresses numbers in two parts. The significant digits display with one digit to the left of the decimal. The appropriate power of 10 displays to the right of E, as in 1.234567E4.

Eng (engineering) notation mode is similar to scientific notation. However, the number can have one, two, or three digits before the decimal; and the power-of-10 exponent is a multiple of three, as in 12.34567E3.

Note: If you select Normal notation, but the answer cannot display in 10 digits (or the absolute value is less than .001), the TI-83 Plus expresses the answer in scientific notation.

Float, 0123456789

Float (floating) decimal mode displays up to 10 digits, plus the sign and decimal.

0123456789 (fixed) decimal mode specifies the number of digits (0 through 9) to display to the right of the decimal. Place the cursor on the desired number of decimal digits, and then press .

The decimal setting applies to Normal, Sci, and Eng notation modes.

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 22

The decimal setting applies to these numbers:

An answer displayed on the home screen

Coordinates on a graph (Chapters 3, 4, 5, and 6)

The Tangent( DRAW instruction equation of the line, x, and dy/dx values (Chapter 8)

Results of CALCULATE operations (Chapters 3, 4, 5, and 6)

The regression equation stored after the execution of a regression model (Chapter 12)

Radian, Degree

Angle modes control how the TI-83 Plus interprets angle values in trigonometric functions and polar/rectangular conversions.

Radian mode interprets angle values as radians. Answers display in radians.

Degree mode interprets angle values as degrees. Answers display in degrees.

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 23

Func, Par, Pol, Seq

Graphing modes define the graphing parameters. Chapters 3, 4, 5, and 6 describe these modes in detail.

Func (function) graphing mode plots functions, where Y is a function of X (Chapter 3).

Par (parametric) graphing mode plots relations, where X and Y are functions of T (Chapter 4).

Pol (polar) graphing mode plots functions, where r is a function of q (Chapter 5).

Seq (sequence) graphing mode plots sequences (Chapter 6).

Connected, Dot

Connected plotting mode draws a line connecting each point calculated for the selected functions.

Dot plotting mode plots only the calculated points of the selected functions.

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 24

Sequential, Simul

Sequential graphing-order mode evaluates and plots one function completely before the next function is evaluated and plotted.

Simul (simultaneous) graphing-order mode evaluates and plots all selected functions for a single value of X and then evaluates and plots them for the next value of X.

Note: Regardless of which graphing mode is selected, the TI-83 Plus will sequentially graph all stat plots before it graphs any functions.

Real, a+bi, re^qi

Real mode does not display complex results unless complex numbers are entered as input.

Two complex modes display complex results.

a+bi (rectangular complex mode) displays complex numbers in the form a+bi.

re^qi (polar complex mode) displays complex numbers in the form re^qi.

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 25

Full, Horiz, G.T

Full screen mode uses the entire screen to display a graph or edit screen.

Each split-screen mode displays two screens simultaneously.

Horiz (horizontal) mode displays the current graph on the top half of the screen; it displays the home screen or an editor on the bottom half (Chapter 9).

G.T (graph-table) mode displays the current graph on the left half of the screen; it displays the table screen on the right half (Chapter 9).

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 26

Using TI-83 Plus Variable Names

Variables and Defined Items

On the TI-83 Plus you can enter and use several types of data, including real and complex numbers, matrices, lists, functions, stat plots, graph databases, graph pictures, and strings.

The TI-83 Plus uses assigned names for variables and other items saved in memory. For lists, you also can create your own five-character names.

Variable Type Names

Real numbers A, B, ... , Z

Complex numbers A, B, ... , Z

Matrices A, B, C, ... , J

Lists L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, L6, and user-defined names

Functions Y1, Y2, . . . , Y9, Y0

Parametric equations X1T and Y1T, . . . , X6T and Y6T

Polar functions r1, r2, r3, r4, r5, r6

Sequence functions u, v, w

Stat plots Plot1, Plot2, Plot3

Graph databases GDB1, GDB2, . . . , GDB9, GDB0

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Variable Type Names

Graph pictures Pic1, Pic2, ... , Pic9, Pic0

Strings Str1, Str2, ... , Str9, Str0

Apps Applications

AppVars Application variables

Groups Grouped variables

System variables Xmin, Xmax, and others

Notes about Variables

You can create as many list names as memory will allow (Chapter 11).

Programs have user-defined names and share memory with variables (Chapter 16).

From the home screen or from a program, you can store to matrices (Chapter 10), lists (Chapter 11), strings (Chapter 15), system variables such as Xmax (Chapter 1), TblStart (Chapter 7), and all Y= functions (Chapters 3, 4, 5, and 6).

From an editor, you can store to matrices, lists, and Y= functions (Chapter 3).

From the home screen, a program, or an editor, you can store a value to a matrix element or a list element.

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 28

You can use DRAW STO menu items to store and recall graph databases and pictures (Chapter 8).

Although most variables can be archived, system variables including r, t, x, y, and q cannot be archived (Chapter 18)

Apps are independent applications.which are stored in Flash ROM. AppVars is a variable holder used to store variables created by independent applications. You cannot edit or change variables in AppVars unless you do so through the application which created them.

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Storing Variable Values

Storing Values in a Variable

Values are stored to and recalled from memory using variable names. When an expression containing the name of a variable is evaluated, the value of the variable at that time is used.

To store a value to a variable from the home screen or a program using the key, begin on a blank line and follow these steps.

1. Enter the value you want to store. The value can be an expression.

2. Press . ! is copied to the cursor location.

3. Press and then the letter of the variable to which you want to store the value.

4. Press . If you entered an expression, it is evaluated. The value is stored to the variable.

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TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 30

Displaying a Variable Value

To display the value of a variable, enter the name on a blank line on the home screen, and then press .

Archiving Variables (Archive, Unarchive)

You can archive data, programs, or other variables in a section of memory called user data archive where they cannot be edited or deleted inadvertently. Archived variables are indicated by asterisks (*) to the left of the variable names. Archived variables cannot be edited or executed. They can only be seen and unarchived. For example, if you archive list L1, you will see that L1 exists in memory but if you select it and paste the name L1 to the home screen, you wont be able to see its contents or edit it until they are unarchived.

.

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Recalling Variable Values

Using Recall (RCL)

To recall and copy variable contents to the current cursor location, follow these steps. To leave RCL, press .

1. Press y RCL. RCL and the edit cursor are displayed on the bottom line of the screen.

2. Enter the name of the variable in any of five ways.

Press and then the letter of the variable.

Press y LIST, and then select the name of the list, or press y [Ln].

Press y >, and then select the name of the matrix.

Press to display the VARS menu or ~ to display the VARS Y.VARS menu; then select the type and then the name of the variable or function.

Press |, and then select the name of the program (in the program editor only).

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The variable name you selected is displayed on the bottom line and the cursor disappears.

3. Press . The variable contents are inserted where the cursor was located before you began these steps.

Note: You can edit the characters pasted to the expression without affecting the value in memory.

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ENTRY (Last Entry) Storage Area

Using ENTRY (Last Entry)

When you press on the home screen to evaluate an expression or execute an instruction, the expression or instruction is placed in a storage area called ENTRY (last entry). When you turn off the TI-83 Plus, ENTRY is retained in memory.

To recall ENTRY, press y [. The last entry is pasted to the current cursor location, where you can edit and execute it. On the home screen or in an editor, the current line is cleared and the last entry is pasted to the line.

Because the TI-83 Plus updates ENTRY only when you press , you can recall the previous entry even if you have begun to enter the next expression.

5 7 y [

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Accessing a Previous Entry

The TI-83 Plus retains as many previous entries as possible in ENTRY, up to a capacity of 128 bytes. To scroll those entries, press y [ repeatedly. If a single entry is more than 128 bytes, it is retained for ENTRY, but it cannot be placed in the ENTRY storage area.

1 A 2 B y [

If you press y [ after displaying the oldest stored entry, the newest stored entry is displayed again, then the next-newest entry, and so on.

y [

Reexecuting the Previous Entry

After you have pasted the last entry to the home screen and edited it (if you chose to edit it), you can execute the entry. To execute the last entry, press .

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To reexecute the displayed entry, press again. Each reexecution displays an answer on the right side of the next line; the entry itself is not redisplayed.

0 N N 1 N : N

Multiple Entry Values on a Line

To store to ENTRY two or more expressions or instructions, separate each expression or instruction with a colon, then press . All expressions and instructions separated by colons are stored in ENTRY.

When you press y [, all the expressions and instructions separated by colons are pasted to the current cursor location. You can edit any of the entries, and then execute all of them when you press .

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For the equation A=pr2, use trial and error to find the radius of a circle that covers 200 square centimeters. Use 8 as your first guess.

8 R [:] y B R y [

y | 7 y 6 95

Continue until the answer is as accurate as you want.

Clearing ENTRY

Clear Entries (Chapter 18) clears all data that the TI-83 Plus is holding in the ENTRY storage area.

Using Ans in an Expression

When an expression is evaluated successfully from the home screen or from a program, the TI-83 Plus stores the answer to a storage area called Ans (last answer). Ans may be a real or complex number, a list, a matrix, or a string. When you turn off the TI-83 Plus, the value in Ans is retained in memory.

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You can use the variable Ans to represent the last answer in most places. Press y Z to copy the variable name Ans to the cursor location. When the expression is evaluated, the TI-83 Plus uses the value of Ans in the calculation.

Calculate the area of a garden plot 1.7 meters by 4.2 meters. Then calculate the yield per square meter if the plot produces a total of 147 tomatoes.

1 7 4 2 147 y Z

Continuing an Expression

You can use Ans as the first entry in the next expression without entering the value again or pressing y Z. On a blank line on the home screen, enter the function. The TI-83 Plus pastes the variable name Ans to the screen, then the function.

5 2 9 9

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Storing Answers

To store an answer, store Ans to a variable before you evaluate another expression.

Calculate the area of a circle of radius 5 meters. Next, calculate the volume of a cylinder of radius 5 meters and height 3.3 meters, and then store the result in the variable V.

y B 5 3 3 V

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TI-83 Plus Menus

Using a TI-83 Plus Menu

You can access most TI-83 Plus operations using menus. When you press a key or key combination to display a menu, one or more menu names appear on the top line of the screen.

The menu name on the left side of the top line is highlighted. Up to seven items in that menu are displayed, beginning with item 1, which also is highlighted.

A number or letter identifies each menu items place in the menu. The order is 1 through 9, then 0, then A, B, C, and so on. The LIST NAMES, PRGM EXEC, and PRGM EDIT menus only label items 1 through 9 and 0.

When the menu continues beyond the displayed items, a down arrow ($) replaces the colon next to the last displayed item.

When a menu item ends in an ellipsis (...), the item displays a secondary menu or editor when you select it.

When an asterisk (*) appears to the left of a menu item, that item is stored in user data archive (Chapter 18).

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To display any other menu listed on the top line, press ~ or | until that menu name is highlighted. The cursor location within the initial menu is irrelevant. The menu is displayed with the cursor on the first item.

Note: The Menu Map in Appendix A shows each menu, each operation under each menu, and the key or key combination you press to display each menu.

Displaying a Menu

While using your TI-83 Plus, you often will need to access items from its menus.

When you press a key that displays a menu, that menu temporarily replaces the screen where you are working. For example, when you press , the MATH menu is displayed as a full screen.

After you select an item from a menu, the screen where you are working usually is displayed again.

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Moving from One Menu to Another

Some keys access more than one menu. When you press such a key, the names of all accessible menus are displayed on the top line. When you highlight a menu name, the items in that menu are displayed. Press ~ and | to highlight each menu name.

Scrolling a Menu

To scroll down the menu items, press . To scroll up the menu items, press }.

To page down six menu items at a time, press . To page up six menu items at a time, press }. The green arrows on the calculator, between and }, are the page-down and page-up symbols.

To wrap to the last menu item directly from the first menu item, press }. To wrap to the first menu item directly from the last menu item, press .

Selecting an Item from a Menu

You can select an item from a menu in either of two ways.

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Press the number or letter of the item you want to select. The cursor can be anywhere on the menu, and the item you select need not be displayed on the screen.

Press or } to move the cursor to the item you want, and then press .

After you select an item from a menu, the TI-83 Plus typically displays the previous screen.

Note: On the LIST NAMES, PRGM EXEC, and PRGM EDIT menus, only items 1 through 9 and 0 are labeled in such a way that you can select them by pressing the appropriate number key. To move the cursor to the first item beginning with any alpha character or q, press the key combination for that alpha character or q. If no items begin with that character, the cursor moves beyond it to the next item.

Calculate 327.

27

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Leaving a Menu without Making a Selection

You can leave a menu without making a selection in any of four ways.

Press y 5 to return to the home screen.

Press to return to the previous screen.

Press a key or key combination for a different menu, such as or y 9.

Press a key or key combination for a different screen, such as o or y 0.

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VARS and VARS Y.VARS Menus

VARS Menu

You can enter the names of functions and system variables in an expression or store to them directly.

To display the VARS menu, press . All VARS menu items display secondary menus, which show the names of the system variables. 1:Window, 2:Zoom, and 5:Statistics each access more than one secondary menu.

VARS Y-VARS 1: Window... X/Y, T/q, and U/V/W variables 2: Zoom... ZX/ZY, ZT/Zq, and ZU variables 3: GDB... Graph database variables 4: Picture... Picture variables 5: Statistics... XY, G, EQ, TEST, and PTS variables 6: Table... TABLE variables 7: String... String variables

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Selecting a Variable from the VARS Menu or VARS Y.VARS Menu

To display the VARS Y.VARS menu, press ~. 1:Function, 2:Parametric, and 3:Polar display secondary menus of the Y= function variables.

VARS Y-VARS

1: Function... Yn functions 2: Parametric... XnT, YnT functions 3: Polar... rn functions 4: On/Off... Lets you select/deselect functions

Note: The sequence variables (u, v, w) are located on the keyboard as the second functions of , , and .

To select a variable from the VARS or VARS Y.VARS menu, follow these steps.

1. Display the VARS or VARS Y.VARS menu.

Press to display the VARS menu.

Press ~ to display the VARS Y.VARS menu.

2. Select the type of variable, such as 2:Zoom from the VARS menu or 3:Polar from the VARS Y.VARS menu. A secondary menu is displayed.

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3. If you selected 1:Window, 2:Zoom, or 5:Statistics from the VARS menu, you can press ~ or | to display other secondary menus.

4. Select a variable name from the menu. It is pasted to the cursor location.

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Equation Operating System (EOS)

Order of Evaluation

The Equation Operating System (EOS) defines the order in which functions in expressions are entered and evaluated on the TI-83 Plus. EOS lets you enter numbers and functions in a simple, straightforward sequence.

EOS evaluates the functions in an expression in this order.

Order Number Function

1 Functions that precede the argument, such as (, sin(, or log(

2 Functions that are entered after the argument, such as 2, M1, !, , r, and conversions

3 Powers and roots, such as 2^5 or 5x32

4 Permutations (nPr) and combinations (nCr)

5 Multiplication, implied multiplication, and division

6 Addition and subtraction

7 Relational functions, such as > or

8 Logic operator and

9 Logic operators or and xor

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Note: Within a priority level, EOS evaluates functions from left to right. Calculations within parentheses are evaluated first.

Implied Multiplication

The TI-83 Plus recognizes implied multiplication, so you need not press to express multiplication in all cases. For example, the TI-83 Plus interprets 2p, 4sin(46), 5(1+2), and (25)7 as implied multiplication.

Note: TI-83 Plus implied multiplication rules, although like theTI.83, differ from those of the TI.82. For example, the TI-83 Plus evaluates 12X as (12)X, while the TI.82 evaluates 12X as 1/(2X) (Chapter 2).

Parentheses

All calculations inside a pair of parentheses are completed first. For example, in the expression 4(1+2), EOS first evaluates the portion inside the parentheses, 1+2, and then multiplies the answer, 3, by 4.

You can omit the close parenthesis ( ) ) at the end of an expression. All open parenthetical elements are closed automatically at the end of an expression. This is also true for open parenthetical elements that precede the store or display-conversion instructions.

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Note: An open parenthesis following a list name, matrix name, or Y= function name does not indicate implied multiplication. It specifies elements in the list (Chapter 11) or matrix (Chapter 10) and specifies a value for which to solve the Y= function.

Negation

To enter a negative number, use the negation key. Press and then enter the number. On the TI-83 Plus, negation is in the third level in the EOS hierarchy. Functions in the first level, such as squaring, are evaluated before negation.

For example, MX2, evaluates to a negative number (or 0). Use parentheses to square a negative number.

Note: Use the key for subtraction and the key for negation. If you press to enter a negative number, as in 9 7, or if you press to indicate subtraction, as in 9 7, an error occurs. If you press A B, it is interpreted as implied multiplication (AMB).

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Special Features of the TI-83 Plus

Flash Electronic Upgradability

The TI-83 Plus uses Flash technology, which lets you upgrade to future software versions without buying a new calculator.

For details, refer to: Chapter 19

As new functionality becomes available, you can electronically upgrade your TI-83 Plus from the Internet. Future software versions include maintenance upgrades that will be released free of charge, as well as new applications and major software upgrades that will be available for purchase from the TI web site: education.ti.com

1.56 Megabytes (M) of Available Memory

1.56 M of available memory are built into the TI-83 Plus. About 24 kilobytes (K) of RAM (random access memory) are available for you to compute and store functions, programs, and data.

For details, refer to: Chapter 18

About 1.54 M of user data archive allow you to store data, programs, applications, or any other variables to a safe location where they cannot

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be edited or deleted inadvertently. You can also free up RAM by archiving variables to user data

Applications

Applications can be installed to customize the TI-83 Plus to your classroom needs. The big 1.54 M archive space lets you store up to 94 applications at one time. Applications can also be stored on a computer for later use or linked unit-to-unit.

For details, refer to: Chapter 18

Archiving

You can store variables in the TI-83 Plus user data archive, a protected area of memory separate from RAM. The user data archive lets you:

For details, refer to: Chapter 18

Store data, programs, applications or any other variables to a safe location where they cannot be edited or deleted inadvertently.

Create additional free RAM by archiving variables.

By archiving variables that do not need to be edited frequently, you can free up RAM for applications that may require additional memory.

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Calculator-Based Laboratory (CBL 2, CBL) and Calculator-Based Ranger (CBR)

The TI-83 Plus comes with the CBL/CBR application already installed. When coupled with the (optional) CBL 2/CBL or CBR accessories, you can use the TI-83 Plus to analyze real world data.

For details, refer to: Chapter 14

CBL 2/CBL and CBR let you explore mathematical and scientific relationships among distance, velocity, acceleration, and time using data collected from activities you perform.

CBL 2/CBL and CBR differ in that CBL 2/CBL allows you to collect data using several different probes analyzing temperature, light, voltage, or sonic (motion) data. CBR collects data using a built-in Sonic probe. CBL 2/CBL and CBR accessories can be linked together to collect more than one type of data at the same time. You can find more information on CBL 2/CBL and CBR in their user manuals.

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Other TI-83 Plus Features

Getting Started has introduced you to basic TI-83 Plus operations. This guidebook covers the other features and capabilities of the TI-83 Plus in greater detail.

Graphing

You can store, graph, and analyze up to 10 functions, up to six parametric functions, up to six polar functions, and up to three sequences. You can use DRAW instructions to annotate graphs.

For graphing details, refer to: Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, 8

The graphing chapters appear in this order: Function, Parametric, Polar, Sequence, and DRAW.

Sequences

You can generate sequences and graph them over time. Or, you can graph them as web plots or as phase plots.

For details, refer to: Chapter 6

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Tables

You can create function evaluation tables to analyze many functions simultaneously.

For details, refer to: Chapter 7

Split Screen

You can split the screen horizontally to display both a graph and a related editor (such as the Y= editor), the table, the stat list editor, or the home screen. Also, you can split the screen vertically to display a graph and its table simultaneously.

For details, refer to: Chapter 9

Matrices

You can enter and save up to 10 matrices and perform standard matrix operations on them.

For details, refer to: Chapter 10

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Lists

You can enter and save as many lists as memory allows for use in statistical analyses. You can attach formulas to lists for automatic computation. You can use lists to evaluate expressions at multiple values simultaneously and to graph a family of curves.

For details, refer to: Chapter 11

Statistics

You can perform one- and two-variable, list- based statistical analyses, including logistic and sine regression analysis. You can plot the data as a histogram, xyLine, scatter plot, modified or regular box-and-whisker plot, or normal probability plot. You can define and store up to three stat plot definitions.

For details, refer to: Chapter 12

Inferential Statistics

You can perform 16 hypothesis tests and confidence intervals and 15 distribution functions. You can display hypothesis test results graphically or numerically.

For details, refer to: Chapter 13

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Applications

You can use such applications as Finance or the CBL/CBR. With the Finance application you can use time-value-of-money (TVM) functions to analyze financial instruments such as annuities,

For details, refer to: Chapter 14

loans, mortgages, leases, and savings. You can analyze the value of money over equal time periods using cash flow functions. You can amortize loans with the amortization functions. With the CBL/CBR applications and CBL 2/CBL or CBR (optional) accessories, you can use a variety of probes to collect real world data.

Your TI-83 Plus includes Flash applications in addition to the ones mentioned above. Press to see the complete list of applications that came with your calculator.

Documentation for TI Flash applications is on the TI Resource CD. Visit education.ti.com/calc/guides for additional Flash application guidebooks.

CATALOG

The CATALOG is a convenient, alphabetical list of all functions and instructions on the TI-83 Plus. You can paste any function or instruction from the CATALOG to the current cursor location.

For details, refer to: Chapter 15

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Programming

You can enter and store programs that include extensive control and input/output instructions.

For details, refer to: Chapter 16

Archiving

Archiving allows you to store data, programs, or other variables to user data archive where they cannot be edited or deleted inadvertently. Archiving also allows you to free up RAM for variables that may require additional memory.

For details, refer to: Chapter 16

Archived variables are indicated by asterisks (*) to the left of the variable names.

Communication Link

The TI-83 Plus has a port to connect and communicate with another TI-83 Plus, a TI-83 Plus, a TI.83, a TI-82, a TI-73, CBL 2/CBL, or a CBR System.

For details, refer to: Chapter 19

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With the TI Connect or TI-GRAPH LINK software and a TI-GRAPH LINK cable, you can also link the TI-83 Plus to a personal computer.

As future software upgrades become available on the TI web site, you can download the software to your PC and then use the TI Connect or TI-GRAPH LINK software and a TI-GRAPH LINK cable to upgrade your TI-83 Plus.

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Error Conditions

Diagnosing an Error

The TI-83 Plus detects errors while performing these tasks.

Evaluating an expression

Executing an instruction

Plotting a graph

Storing a value

When the TI-83 Plus detects an error, it returns an error message as a menu title, such as ERR:SYNTAX or ERR:DOMAIN. Appendix B describes each error type and possible reasons for the error.

If you select 1:Quit (or press y 5 or ), then the home screen is displayed.

If you select 2:Goto, then the previous screen is displayed with the cursor at or near the error location.

Note: If a syntax error occurs in the contents of a Y= function during program execution, then the Goto option returns to the Y= editor, not to the program.

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Correcting an Error

To correct an error, follow these steps.

1. Note the error type (ERR:error type).

2. Select 2:Goto, if it is available. The previous screen is displayed with the cursor at or near the error location.

3. Determine the error. If you cannot recognize the error, refer to Appendix B.

4. Correct the expression.

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Chapter 2: Math, Angle, and Test Operations

Getting Started: Coin Flip

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

Suppose you want to model flipping a fair coin 10 times. You want to track how many of those 10 coin flips result in heads. You want to perform this simulation 40 times. With a fair coin, the probability of a coin flip resulting in heads is 0.5 and the probability of a coin flip resulting in tails is 0.5.

1. Begin on the home screen. Press | to display the MATH PRB menu. Press 7 to select 7:randBin( (random Binomial). randBin( is pasted to the home screen. Press 10 to enter the number of coin flips. Press . Press 5 to enter the probability of heads. Press . Press 40 to enter the number of simulations. Press .

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2. Press to evaluate the expression. A list of 40 elements is generated with the first 7 displayed. The list contains the count of heads resulting from each set of 10 coin flips. The list has 40 elements because this simulation was performed 40 times. In this example, the coin came up heads five times in the first set of 10 coin flips, five times in the second set of 10 coin flips, and so on.

3. Press ~ or | to view the additional counts in the list. Ellipses (...) indicate that the list continues beyond the screen.

4. Press y L1 to store the data to the list name L1. You then can use the data for another activity, such as plotting a histogram (Chapter 12).

Note: Since randBin( generates random numbers, your list elements may differ from those in the example.

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Keyboard Math Operations

Using Lists with Math Operations

Math operations that are valid for lists return a list calculated element by element. If you use two lists in the same expression, they must be the same length.

+ (Addition), N (Subtraction), (Multiplication), (Division)

You can use + (addition, ), N (subtraction, ), (multiplication, ), and (division, ) with real and complex numbers, expressions, lists, and matrices. You cannot use with matrices.

valueA+valueB valueA N valueB valueAvalueB valueA valueB

Trigonometric Functions

You can use the trigonometric (trig) functions (sine, ; cosine, ; and tangent, ) with real numbers, expressions, and lists. The current angle mode setting affects interpretation. For example, sin(30) in Radian mode returns L.9880316241; in Degree mode it returns .5.

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sin(value) cos(value) tan(value)

You can use the inverse trig functions (arcsine, y ?; arccosine, y @; and arctangent, y A) with real numbers, expressions, and lists. The current angle mode setting affects interpretation.

sinL1(value) cosL1(value) tanL1(value)

Note: The trig functions do not operate on complex numbers.

^ (Power), 2 (Square), ( (Square Root)

You can use ^ (power, ), 2 (square, ), and ( (square root, y C) with real and complex numbers, expressions, lists, and matrices. You cannot use ( with matrices.

value^power value2 (value)

L1 (Inverse)

You can use L1 (inverse, ) with real and complex numbers, expressions, lists, and matrices. The multiplicative inverse is equivalent to the reciprocal, 1x.

valueL1

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log(, 10^(, ln(

You can use log( (logarithm, ), 10^( (power of 10, y G), and ln( (natural log, ) with real or complex numbers, expressions, and lists.

log(value) 10^(power) ln(value)

e^( (Exponential)

e^( (exponential, y J) returns the constant e raised to a power. You can use e^( with real or complex numbers, expressions, and lists.

e^(power)

e (Constant)

e (constant, y [e]) is stored as a constant on the TI-83 Plus. Press y [e] to copy e to the cursor location. In calculations, the TI-83 Plus uses 2.718281828459 for e.

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L (Negation)

M (negation, ) returns the negative of value. You can use M with real or complex numbers, expressions, lists, and matrices.

Mvalue

EOS rules (Chapter 1) determine when negation is evaluated. For example, LA2 returns a negative number, because squaring is evaluated before negation. Use parentheses to square a negated number, as in (LA)2.

Note: On the TI-83 Plus, the negation symbol (M) is shorter and higher than the subtraction sign (N), which is displayed when you press .

p (Pi)

p (Pi, y B) is stored as a constant in the TI-83 Plus. In calculations, the TI-83 Plus uses 3.1415926535898 for p.

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MATH Operations

MATH Menu

To display the MATH menu, press .

MATH NUM CPX PRB

1: 4Frac Displays the answer as a fraction. 2: 4Dec Displays the answer as a decimal. 3: 3 Calculates the cube. 4: 3( Calculates the cube root. 5: x Calculates the xth root. 6: fMin( Finds the minimum of a function. 7: fMax( Finds the maximum of a function. 8: nDeriv( Computes the numerical derivative. 9: fnInt( Computes the function integral. 0: Solver... Displays the equation solver.

4Frac, 4Dec

4Frac (display as a fraction) displays an answer as its rational equivalent. You can use 4Frac with real or complex numbers, expressions, lists, and matrices. If the answer cannot be simplified or the resulting denominator is more than three digits, the decimal equivalent is returned. You can only use 4Frac following value.

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value 4Frac

4Dec (display as a decimal) displays an answer in decimal form. You can use 4Dec with real or complex numbers, expressions, lists, and matrices. You can only use 4Dec following value.

value 4Dec

3(Cube), 3( (Cube Root)

3 (cube) returns the cube of value. You can use 3 with real or complex numbers, expressions, lists, and square matrices.

value3

3( (cube root) returns the cube root of value. You can use 3( with real or complex numbers, expressions, and lists.

3(value)

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x (Root)

x (xth root) returns the xth root of value. You can use x with real or complex numbers, expressions, and lists.

xthrootxvalue

fMin(, fMax(

fMin( (function minimum) and fMax( (function maximum) return the value at which the local minimum or local maximum value of expression with respect to variable occurs, between lower and upper values for variable. fMin( and fMax( are not valid in expression. The accuracy is controlled by tolerance (if not specified, the default is 1L5).

fMin(expression,variable,lower,upper[,tolerance]) fMax(expression,variable,lower,upper[,tolerance])

Note: In this guidebook, optional arguments and the commas that accompany them are enclosed in brackets ([ ]).

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nDeriv(

nDeriv( (numerical derivative) returns an approximate derivative of expression with respect to variable, given the value at which to calculate the derivative and H (if not specified, the default is 1L3). nDeriv( is valid only for real numbers.

nDeriv(expression,variable,value[,H])

nDeriv( uses the symmetric difference quotient method, which approximates the numerical derivative value as the slope of the secant line through these points.

2

)(()( )('

+= xfxf xf

As H becomes smaller, the approximation usually becomes more accurate.

You can use nDeriv( once in expression. Because of the method used to calculate nDeriv(, the TI-83 Plus can return a false derivative value at a nondifferentiable point.

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fnInt(

fnInt( (function integral) returns the numerical integral (Gauss-Kronrod method) of expression with respect to variable, given lower limit, upper limit, and a tolerance (if not specified, the default is 1L5). fnInt( is valid only for real numbers.

fnInt(expression,variable,lower,upper[,tolerance])

Tip: To speed the drawing of integration graphs (when fnInt( is used in a Y= equation), increase the value of the Xres window variable before you press s.

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Using the Equation Solver

Solver

Solver displays the equation solver, in which you can solve for any variable in an equation. The equation is assumed to be equal to zero. Solver is valid only for real numbers.

When you select Solver, one of two screens is displayed.

The equation editor (see step 1 picture below) is displayed when the equation variable eqn is empty.

The interactive solver editor is displayed when an equation is stored in eqn.

Entering an Expression in the Equation Solver

To enter an expression in the equation solver, assuming that the variable eqn is empty, follow these steps.

1. Select 0:Solver from the MATH menu to display the equation editor.

2. Enter the expression in any of three ways.

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Enter the expression directly into the equation solver.

Paste a Y= variable name from the VARS Y.VARS menu to the equation solver.

Press y K, paste a Y= variable name from the VARS Y.VARS

menu, and press . The expression is pasted to the equation solver.

The expression is stored to the variable eqn as you enter it.

3. Press or . The interactive solver editor is displayed.

The equation stored in eqn is set equal to zero and displayed on the top line.

Variables in the equation are listed in the order in which they appear in the equation. Any values stored to the listed variables also are displayed.

The default lower and upper bounds appear in the last line of the editor (bound={L199,199}).

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A $ is displayed in the first column of the bottom line if the editor continues beyond the screen.

Tip: To use the solver to solve an equation such as K=.5MV2, enter eqn:0=KN.5MV2 in the equation editor.

Entering and Editing Variable Values

When you enter or edit a value for a variable in the interactive solver editor, the new value is stored in memory to that variable.

You can enter an expression for a variable value. It is evaluated when you move to the next variable. Expressions must resolve to real numbers at each step during the iteration.

You can store equations to any VARS Y.VARS variables, such as Y1 or r6, and then reference the variables in the equation. The interactive solver editor displays all variables of all Y= functions referenced in the equation.

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Solving for a Variable in the Equation Solver

To solve for a variable using the equation solver after an equation has been stored to eqn, follow these steps.

1. Select 0:Solver from the MATH menu to display the interactive solver editor, if not already displayed.

2. Enter or edit the value of each known variable. All variables, except the unknown variable, must contain a value. To move the cursor to the next variable, press or .

3. Enter an initial guess for the variable for which you are solving. This is optional, but it may help find the solution more quickly. Also, for equations with multiple roots, the TI-83 Plus will attempt to display the solution that is closest to your guess.

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The default guess is calculated as (upper+lower)

2 .

4. Edit bound={lower,upper}. lower and upper are the bounds between which the TI-83 Plus searches for a solution. This is optional, but it may help find the solution more quickly. The default is bound={L199,199}.

5. Move the cursor to the variable for which you want to solve and press \ (above the key).

The solution is displayed next to the variable for which you solved. A solid square in the first column marks the variable for which you solved and indicates that the equation is balanced. An ellipsis shows that the value continues beyond the screen. Note: When a number continues beyond the screen, be sure to press ~ to scroll to the end of the number to see whether it ends with a negative or positive exponent. A very small number may appear to be a large number until you scroll right to see the exponent.

The values of the variables are updated in memory.

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leftNrt=diff is displayed in the last line of the editor. diff is the difference between the left and right sides of the equation. A solid square in the first column next to leftNrt= indicates that the equation has been evaluated at the new value of the variable for which you solved.

Editing an Equation Stored to eqn

To edit or replace an equation stored to eqn when the interactive equation solver is displayed, press } until the equation editor is displayed. Then edit the equation.

Equations with Multiple Roots

Some equations have more than one solution. You can enter a new initial guess or new bounds to look for additional solutions.

Further Solutions

After you solve for a variable, you can continue to explore solutions from the interactive solver editor. Edit the values of one or more variables. When you edit any variable value, the solid squares next to the previous solution and leftNrt=diff disappear. Move the cursor to the variable for which you now want to solve and press \.

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Controlling the Solution for Solver or solve(

The TI-83 Plus solves equations through an iterative process. To control that process, enter bounds that are relatively close to the solution and enter an initial guess within those bounds. This will help to find a solution more quickly. Also, it will define which solution you want for equations with multiple solutions.

Using solve( on the Home Screen or from a Program

The function solve( is available only from CATALOG or from within a program. It returns a solution (root) of expression for variable, given an initial guess, and lower and upper bounds within which the solution is sought. The default for lower is L199. The default for upper is 199. solve( is valid only for real numbers.

solve(expression,variable,guess[,{lower,upper}])

expression is assumed equal to zero. The value of variable will not be updated in memory. guess may be a value or a list of two values. Values must be stored for every variable in expression, except variable, before expression is evaluated. lower and upper must be entered in list format.

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MATH NUM (Number) Operations

MATH NUM Menu

To display the MATH NUM menu, press ~.

MATH NUM CPX PRB 1: abs( Absolute value 2: round( Round 3: iPart( Integer part 4: fPart( Fractional part 5: int( Greatest integer 6: min( Minimum value 7: max( Maximum value 8: lcm( Least common multiple 9: gcd( Greatest common divisor

abs(

abs( (absolute value) returns the absolute value of real or complex (modulus) numbers, expressions, lists, and matrices.

abs(value)

Note: abs( is also available on the MATH CPX menu.

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round(

round( returns a number, expression, list, or matrix rounded to #decimals (9). If #decimals is omitted, value is rounded to the digits that are displayed, up to 10 digits.

round(value[,#decimals])

iPart(, fPart(

iPart( (integer part) returns the integer part or parts of real or complex numbers, expressions, lists, and matrices.

iPart(value)

fPart( (fractional part) returns the fractional part or parts of real or complex numbers, expressions, lists, and matrices.

fPart(value)

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int(

int( (greatest integer) returns the largest integer real or complex numbers, expressions, lists, and matrices.

int(value)

Note: For a given value, the result of int( is the same as the result of iPart( for nonnegative numbers and negative integers, but one integer less than the result of iPart( for negative noninteger numbers.

min(, max(

min( (minimum value) returns the smaller of valueA and valueB or the smallest element in list. If listA and listB are compared, min( returns a list of the smaller of each pair of elements. If list and value are compared, min( compares each element in list with value.

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max( (maximum value) returns the larger of valueA and valueB or the largest element in list. If listA and listB are compared, max( returns a list of the larger of each pair of elements. If list and value are compared, max( compares each element in list with value.

min(valueA,valueB) max(valueA,valueB) min(list) max(list) min(listA,listB) max(listA,listB) min(list,value) max(list,value)

Note: min( and max( also are available on the LIST MATH menu.

lcm(, gcd(

lcm( returns the least common multiple of valueA and valueB, both of which must be nonnegative integers. When listA and listB are specified, lcm( returns a list of the lcm of each pair of elements. If list and value are specified, lcm( finds the lcm of each element in list and value.

gcd( returns the greatest common divisor of valueA and valueB, both of which must be nonnegative integers. When listA and listB are specified, gcd( returns a list of the gcd of each pair of elements. If list and value are specified, gcd( finds the gcd of each element in list and value.

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lcm(valueA,valueB) gcd(valueA,valueB) lcm(listA,listB) gcd(listA,listB) lcm(list,value) gcd(list,value)

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Entering and Using Complex Numbers

Complex-Number Modes

The TI-83 Plus displays complex numbers in rectangular form and polar form. To select a complex-number mode, press z, and then select either of the two modes.

a+bi (rectangular-complex mode) re^qi (polar-complex mode)

On the TI-83 Plus, complex numbers can be stored to variables. Also, complex numbers are valid list elements.

In Real mode, complex-number results return an error, unless you entered a complex number as input. For example, in Real mode ln(L1) returns an error; in a+bi mode ln(L1) returns an answer.

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Real mode a+bi mode

$ $

Entering Complex Numbers

Complex numbers are stored in rectangular form, but you can enter a complex number in rectangular form or polar form, regardless of the mode setting. The components of complex numbers can be real numbers or expressions that evaluate to real numbers; expressions are evaluated when the command is executed.

Note about Radian Versus Degree Mode

Radian mode is recommended for complex number calculations. Internally, the TI-83 Plus converts all entered trigonometric values to radians, but it does not convert values for exponential, logarithmic, or hyperbolic functions.

In degree mode, complex identities such as e^(iq) = cos(q) + i sin(q) are not generally true because the values for cos and sin are converted to radians, while those for e^() are not. For example, e^(i45) = cos(45) + i sin(45) is treated internally as e^(i45) = cos(p/4) + i sin(p/4). Complex identities are always true in radian mode.

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Interpreting Complex Results

Complex numbers in results, including list elements, are displayed in either rectangular or polar form, as specified by the mode setting or by a display conversion instruction. In the example below, polar-complex (re^qi) and Radian modes are set.

Rectangular-Complex Mode

Rectangular-complex mode recognizes and displays a complex number in the form a+bi, where a is the real component, b is the imaginary component, and i is a constant equal to -1.

To enter a complex number in rectangular form, enter the value of a (real component), press or , enter the value of b (imaginary component), and press y V (constant).

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real component(+ or N)imaginary component i

Polar-Complex Mode

Polar-complex mode recognizes and displays a complex number in the form re^qi, where r is the magnitude, e is the base of the natural log, q is the angle, and i is a constant equal to -1.

To enter a complex number in polar form, enter the value of r (magnitude), press y J (exponential function), enter the value of q (angle), press y V (constant), and then press .

magnitudee^(anglei)

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MATH CPX (Complex) Operations

MATH CPX Menu

To display the MATH CPX menu, press ~ ~.

MATH NUM CPX PRB 1: conj( Returns the complex conjugate. 2: real( Returns the real part. 3: imag( Returns the imaginary part. 4: angle( Returns the polar angle. 5: abs( Returns the magnitude (modulus). 6: 4Rect Displays the result in rectangular form. 7: 4Polar Displays the result in polar form.

conj(

conj( (conjugate) returns the complex conjugate of a complex number or list of complex numbers.

conj(a+bi) returns aNbi in a+bi mode. conj(re^(qi)) returns re^(Lqi) in re^qi mode.

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real(

real( (real part) returns the real part of a complex number or list of complex numbers.

real(a+bi) returns a. real(re^(qi)) returns rcos(q).

imag(

imag( (imaginary part) returns the imaginary (nonreal) part of a complex number or list of complex numbers.

imag(a+bi) returns b. imag(re^(qi)) returns rsin(q).

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angle(

angle( returns the polar angle of a complex number or list of complex numbers, calculated as tanL1 (b/a), where b is the imaginary part and a is the real part. The calculation is adjusted by +p in the second quadrant or Np in the third quadrant.

angle(a+bi) returns tanL1(b/a). angle(re^(qi)) returns q, where Lp

abs(

abs( (absolute value) returns the magnitude (modulus), (real2+imag2) , of a complex number or list of complex numbers.

abs(a+bi) returns (a2+b2) . abs(re^(qi)) returns r (magnitude).

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4Rect

4Rect (display as rectangular) displays a complex result in rectangular form. It is valid only at the end of an expression. It is not valid if the result is real.

complex result8Rect returns a+bi.

4Polar

4Polar (display as polar) displays a complex result in polar form. It is valid only at the end of an expression. It is not valid if the result is real.

complex result8Polar returns re^(qi).

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MATH PRB (Probability) Operations

MATH PRB Menu

To display the MATH PRB menu, press |.

MATH NUM CPX PRB

1: rand Random-number generator 2: nPr Number of permutations 3: nCr Number of combinations 4: ! Factorial 5: randInt( Random-integer generator 6: randNorm( Random # from Normal distribution 7: randBin( Random # from Binomial distribution

rand

rand (random number) generates and returns one or more random numbers > 0 and < 1. To generate a list of random-numbers, specify an integer > 1 for numtrials (number of trials). The default for numtrials is 1.

rand[(numtrials)]

Tip: To generate random numbers beyond the range of 0 to 1, you can include rand in an expression. For example, rand5 generates a random number > 0 and < 5.

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With each rand execution, the TI-83 Plus generates the same random- number sequence for a given seed value. The TI-83 Plus factory-set seed value for rand is 0. To generate a different random-number sequence, store any nonzero seed value to rand. To restore the factory- set seed value, store 0 to rand or reset the defaults (Chapter 18).

Note: The seed value also affects randInt(, randNorm(, and randBin( instructions.

nPr, nCr

nPr (number of permutations) returns the number of permutations of items taken number at a time. items and number must be nonnegative integers. Both items and number can be lists.

items nPr number

nCr (number of combinations) returns the number of combinations of items taken number at a time. items and number must be nonnegative integers. Both items and number can be lists.

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items nCr number

! (Factorial)

! (factorial) returns the factorial of either an integer or a multiple of .5. For a list, it returns factorials for each integer or multiple of .5. value must be L.5 and 69.

value!

Note: The factorial is computed recursively using the relationship (n+1)! = nn!, until n is reduced to either 0 or L1/2. At that point, the definition 0!=1 or the definition (L12)!=p is used to complete the calculation. Hence:

n!=n(nN1)(nN2) ... 21, if n is an integer 0 n!= n(nN1)(nN2) ... 12p, if n+12 is an integer 0 n! is an error, if neither n nor n+12 is an integer 0.

(The variable n equals value in the syntax description above.)

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randInt(

randInt( (random integer) generates and displays a random integer within a range specified by lower and upper integer bounds. To generate a list of random numbers, specify an integer >1 for numtrials (number of trials); if not specified, the default is 1.

randInt(lower,upper[,numtrials])

randNorm(

randNorm( (random Normal) generates and displays a random real number from a specified Normal distribution. Each generated value could be any real number, but most will be within the interval [mN3(s), m+3(s)]. To generate a list of random numbers, specify an integer > 1 for numtrials (number of trials); if not specified, the default is 1.

randNorm(m,s[,numtrials])

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randBin(

randBin( (random Binomial) generates and displays a random integer from a specified Binomial distribution. numtrials (number of trials) must be 1. prob (probability of success) must be 0 and 1. To generate a list of random numbers, specify an integer > 1 for numsimulations (number of simulations); if not specified, the default is 1.

randBin(numtrials,prob[,numsimulations])

Note: The seed value stored to rand also affects randInt(, randNorm(, and randBin( instructions.

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ANGLE Operations

ANGLE Menu

To display the ANGLE menu, press y [ANGLE]. The ANGLE menu displays angle indicators and instructions. The Radian/Degree mode setting affects the TI-83 Pluss interpretation of ANGLE menu entries.

ANGLE

1: Degree notation 2: ' DMS minute notation 3: r Radian notation 4: 8DMS Displays as degree/minute/second 5: R8Pr( Returns r, given X and Y 6: R8Pq( Returns q, given X and Y 7: P8Rx( Returns x, given R and q

8: P8Ry( Returns y, given R and q

Entry Notation

DMS (degrees/minutes/seconds) entry notation comprises the degree symbol (), the minute symbol ('), and the second symbol ("). degrees must be a real number; minutes and seconds must be real numbers 0.

degreesminutes'seconds"

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For example, enter for 30 degrees, 1 minute, 23 seconds. If the angle mode is not set to Degree, you must use so that the TI-83 Plus can interpret the argument as degrees, minutes, and seconds.

Degree mode Radian mode

(Degree)

(degree) designates an angle or list of angles as degrees, regardless of the current angle mode setting. In Radian mode, you can use to convert degrees to radians.

value

{value1,value2,value3,value4,...,value n}

also designates degrees (D) in DMS format. ' (minutes) designates minutes (M) in DMS format. " (seconds) designates seconds (S) in DMS format.

Note: " is not on the ANGLE menu. To enter ", press [].

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r (Radians)

r (radians) designates an angle or list of angles as radians, regardless of the current angle mode setting. In Degree mode, you can use r to convert radians to degrees.

valuer

Degree mode

8DMS

8DMS (degree/minute/second) displays answer in DMS format. The mode setting must be Degree for answer to be interpreted as degrees, minutes, and seconds. 8DMS is valid only at the end of a line.

answer8DMS

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R8Pr(, R8Pq(, P8Rx(, P8Ry(

R8Pr( converts rectangular coordinates to polar coordinates and returns r. R8Pq( converts rectangular coordinates to polar coordinates and returns q. x and y can be lists.

R8Pr(x,y), R8Pq(x,y)

Note: Radian mode is set.

P8Rx( converts polar coordinates to rectangular coordinates and returns x. P8Ry( converts polar coordinates to rectangular coordinates and returns y. r and q can be lists.

P8Rx(r,q), P8Ry(r,q)

Note: Radian mode is set.

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TEST (Relational) Operations

TEST Menu

To display the TEST menu, press y :.

This operator... Returns 1 (true) if... TEST LOGIC

1: = Equal 2: Not equal to 3: > Greater than 4: Greater than or equal to 5: < Less than 6: Less than or equal to

=, , >, , <,

Relational operators compare valueA and valueB and return 1 if the test is true or 0 if the test is false. valueA and valueB can be real numbers, expressions, or lists. For = and only, valueA and valueB also can be matrices or complex numbers. If valueA and valueB are matrices, both must have the same dimensions.

Relational operators are often used in programs to control program flow and in graphing to control the graph of a function over specific values.

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valueA=valueB valueAvalueB valueA>valueB valueAvalueB valueA<valueB valueAvalueB

Using Tests

Relational operators are evaluated after mathematical functions according to EOS rules (Chapter 1).

The expression 2+2=2+3 returns 0. The TI-83 Plus performs the addition first because of EOS rules, and then it compares 4 to 5.

The expression 2+(2=2)+3 returns 6. The TI-83 Plus performs the relational test first because it is in parentheses, and then it adds 2, 1, and 3.

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TEST LOGIC (Boolean) Operations

TEST LOGIC Menu

To display the TEST LOGIC menu, press y TEST ~.

This operator... Returns a 1 (true) if... TEST LOGIC

1: and Both values are nonzero (true). 2: or At least one value is nonzero (true). 3: xor Only one value is zero (false). 4: not( The value is zero (false).

Boolean Operators

Boolean operators are often used in programs to control program flow and in graphing to control the graph of the function over specific values. Values are interpreted as zero (false) or nonzero (true).

and, or, xor

and, or, and xor (exclusive or) return a value of 1 if an expression is true or 0 if an expression is false, according to the table below. valueA and valueB can be real numbers, expressions, or lists.

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valueA and valueB valueA or valueB valueA xor valueB

valueA valueB and or xor

0 0 returns 1 1 0

0 0 returns 0 1 1

0 0 returns 0 1 1

0 0 returns 0 0 0

not(

not( returns 1 if value (which can be an expression) is 0.

not(value)

Using Boolean Operations

Boolean logic is often used with relational tests. In the following program, the instructions store 4 into C.

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Chapter 3: Function Graphing

Getting Started: Graphing a Circle

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

Graph a circle of radius 10, centered on the origin in the standard viewing window. To graph this circle, you must enter separate formulas for the upper and lower portions of the circle. Then use ZSquare (zoom square) to adjust the display and make the functions appear as a circle.

1. In Func mode, press o to display the Y= editor. Press y 100 to enter the expression Y=(100NX2), which defines the top half of the circle.

The expression Y=L(100NX2) defines the bottom half of the circle. On the TI-83 Plus, you can define one function in terms of another. To define Y2=LY1, press to enter the negation sign. Press ~ to display the VARS Y.VARS

menu. Then press to select 1:Function. The FUNCTION secondary menu is displayed. Press 1 to select 1:Y1.

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2. Press q 6 to select 6:ZStandard. This is a quick way to reset the window variables to the standard values. It also graphs the functions; you do not need to press .

Notice that the functions appear as an ellipse in the standard viewing window.

3. To adjust the display so that each pixel represents an equal width and height, press q 5 to select 5:ZSquare. The functions are replotted and now appear as a circle on the display.

4. To see the ZSquare window variables, press p and notice the new values for Xmin, Xmax, Ymin, and Ymax.

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Defining Graphs

TI-83 PlusGraphing Mode Similarities

Chapter 3 specifically describes function graphing, but the steps shown here are similar for each TI-83 Plus graphing mode. Chapters 4, 5, and 6 describe aspects that are unique to parametric graphing, polar graphing, and sequence graphing.

Defining a Graph

To define a graph in any graphing mode, follow these steps. Some steps are not always necessary.

1. Press z and set the appropriate graph mode.

2. Press o and enter, edit, or select one or more functions in the Y= editor.

3. Deselect stat plots, if necessary.

4. Set the graph style for each function.

5. Press p and define the viewing window variables.

6. Press y . and select the graph format settings.

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Displaying and Exploring a Graph

After you have defined a graph, press to display it. Explore the behavior of the function or functions using the TI-83 Plus tools described in this chapter.

Saving a Graph for Later Use

You can store the elements that define the current graph to any of 10 graph database variables (GDB1 through GDB9, and GDB0; Chapter 8). To recreate the current graph later, simply recall the graph database to which you stored the original graph.

These types of information are stored in a GDB.

Y= functions

Graph style settings

Window settings

Format settings

You can store a picture of the current graph display to any of 10 graph picture variables (Pic1 through Pic9, and Pic0; Chapter 8). Then you can superimpose one or more stored pictures onto the current graph.

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Setting the Graph Modes

Checking and Changing the Graphing Mode

To display the mode screen, press z. The default settings are highlighted below. To graph functions, you must select Func mode before you enter values for the window variables and before you enter the functions.

The TI-83 Plus has four graphing modes.

Func (function graphing)

Par (parametric graphing; Chapter 4)

Pol (polar graphing; Chapter 5)

Seq (sequence graphing; Chapter 6)

Other mode settings affect graphing results. Chapter 1 describes each mode setting.

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Float or 0123456789 (fixed) decimal mode affects displayed graph coordinates.

Radian or Degree angle mode affects interpretation of some functions.

Connected or Dot plotting mode affects plotting of selected functions.

Sequential or Simul graphing-order mode affects function plotting when more than one function is selected.

Setting Modes from a Program

To set the graphing mode and other modes from a program, begin on a blank line in the program editor and follow these steps.

1. Press z to display the mode settings.

2. Press , ~, |, and } to place the cursor on the mode that you want to select.

3. Press to paste the mode name to the cursor location.

The mode is changed when the program is executed.

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Defining Functions

Displaying Functions in the Y= Editor

To display the Y= editor, press o. You can store up to 10 functions to the function variables Y1 through Y9, and Y0. You can graph one or more defined functions at once. In this example, functions Y1 and Y2 are defined and selected.

Defining or Editing a Function

To define or edit a function, follow these steps.

1. Press o to display the Y= editor.

2. Press to move the cursor to the function you want to define or edit. To erase a function, press .

3. Enter or edit the expression to define the function.

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You may use functions and variables (including matrices and lists) in the expression. When the expression evaluates to a nonreal number, the value is not plotted; no error is returned.

The independent variable in the function is X. Func mode defines as X. To enter X, press or press [X].

When you enter the first character, the = is highlighted, indicating that the function is selected.

As you enter the expression, it is stored to the variable Yn as a user- defined function in the Y= editor.

4. Press or to move the cursor to the next function.

Defining a Function from the Home Screen or a Program

To define a function from the home screen or a program, begin on a blank line and follow these steps.

1. Press [], enter the expression, and then press [] again.

2. Press .

3. Press ~ 1 to select 1:Function from the VARS Y.VARS menu.

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4. Select the function name, which pastes the name to the cursor location on the home screen or program editor.

5. Press to complete the instruction.

"expression"!Yn

When the instruction is executed, the TI-83 Plus stores the expression to the designated variable Yn, selects the function, and displays the message Done.

Evaluating Y= Functions in Expressions

You can calculate the value of a Y= function Yn at a specified value of X. A list of values returns a list.

Yn(value) Yn({value1,value2,value3, . . .,value n})

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Selecting and Deselecting Functions

Selecting and Deselecting a Function

You can select and deselect (turn on and turn off) a function in the Y= editor. A function is selected when the = sign is highlighted. The TI-83 Plus graphs only the selected functions. You can select any or all functions Y1 through Y9, and Y0.

To select or deselect a function in the Y= editor, follow these steps.

1. Press o to display the Y= editor.

2. Move the cursor to the function you want to select or deselect.

3. Press | to place the cursor on the functions = sign.

4. Press to change the selection status.

When you enter or edit a function, it is selected automatically. When you clear a function, it is deselected.

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Turning On or Turning Off a Stat Plot in the Y= Editor

To view and change the on/off status of a stat plot in the Y= editor, use Plot1 Plot2 Plot3 (the top line of the Y= editor). When a plot is on, its name is highlighted on this line.

To change the on/off status of a stat plot from the Y= editor, press } and ~ to place the cursor on Plot1, Plot2, or Plot3, and then press .

Selecting and Deselecting Functions from the Home Screen or a Program

To select or deselect a function from the home screen or a program, begin on a blank line and follow these steps.

1. Press ~ to display the VARS Y.VARS menu.

2. Select 4:On/Off to display the ON/OFF secondary menu.

Plot1 is turned on. Plot2 and Plot3 are turned off.

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3. Select 1:FnOn to turn on one or more functions or 2:FnOff to turn off one or more functions. The instruction you select is copied to the cursor location.

4. Enter the number (1 through 9, or 0; not the variable Yn) of each function you want to turn on or turn off.

If you enter two or more numbers, separate them with commas.

To turn on or turn off all functions, do not enter a number after FnOn or FnOff.

FnOn[function#,function#, . . .,function n] FnOff[function#,function#, . . .,function n]

5. Press . When the instruction is executed, the status of each function in the current mode is set and Done is displayed.

For example, in Func mode, FnOff :FnOn 1,3 turns off all functions in the Y= editor, and then turns on Y1 and Y3.

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Setting Graph Styles for Functions

Graph Style Icons in the Y= Editor

This table describes the graph styles available for function graphing. Use the styles to visually differentiate functions to be graphed together. For example, you can set Y1 as a solid line, Y2 as a dotted line, and Y3 as a thick line.

Icon Style Description

Line A solid line connects plotted points; this is the default in Connected mode

Thick A thick solid line connects plotted points

Above Shading covers the area above the graph

Below Shading covers the area below the graph

Path A circular cursor traces the leading edge of the graph and draws a path

Animate A circular cursor traces the leading edge of the graph without drawing a path

Dot A small dot represents each plotted point; this is the default in Dot mode

Note: Some graph styles are not available in all graphing modes. Chapters 4, 5, and 6 list the styles for Par, Pol, and Seq modes.

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Setting the Graph Style

To set the graph style for a function, follow these steps.

1. Press o to display the Y= editor.

2. Press and } to move the cursor to the function.

3. Press | | to move the cursor left, past the = sign, to the graph style icon in the first column. The insert cursor is displayed. (Steps 2 and 3 are interchangeable.)

4. Press repeatedly to rotate through the graph styles. The seven styles rotate in the same order in which they are listed in the table above.

5. Press ~, }, or when you have selected a style.

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Shading Above and Below

When you select or for two or more functions, the TI-83 Plus rotates through four shading patterns.

Vertical lines shade the first function with a or graph style.

Horizontal lines shade the second.

Negatively sloping diagonal lines shade the third.

Positively sloping diagonal lines shade the fourth.

The rotation returns to vertical lines for the fifth or function, repeating the order described above.

When shaded areas intersect, the patterns overlap.

Note: When or is selected for a Y= function that graphs a family of curves, such as Y1={1,2,3}X, the four shading patterns rotate for each member of the family of curves.

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Setting a Graph Style from a Program

To set the graph style from a program, select H:GraphStyle( from the PRGM CTL menu. To display this menu, press while in the program editor. function# is the number of the Y= function name in the current graphing mode. graphstyle# is an integer from 1 to 7 that corresponds to the graph style, as shown below.

1 = (line) 2 = (thick) 3 = (above) 4 = (below) 5 = (path) 6 = (animate) 7 = (dot)

GraphStyle(function#,graphstyle#)

For example, when this program is executed in Func mode, GraphStyle(1,3) sets Y1 to (above).

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Setting the Viewing Window Variables

The TI-83 Plus Viewing Window

The viewing window is the portion of the coordinate plane defined by Xmin, Xmax, Ymin, and Ymax. Xscl (X scale) defines the distance between tick marks on the x-axis. Yscl (Y scale) defines the distance between tick marks on the y-axis. To turn off tick marks, set Xscl=0 and Yscl=0.

Xmax

Ymin

Ymax

Xscl

Yscl

Xmin

Displaying the Window Variables

To display the current window variable values, press p. The window editor above and to the right shows the default values in Func graphing mode and Radian angle mode. The window variables differ from one graphing mode to another.

Xres sets pixel resolution (1 through 8) for function graphs only. The default is 1.

At Xres=1, functions are evaluated and graphed at each pixel on the x-axis.

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At Xres=8, functions are evaluated and graphed at every eighth pixel along the x-axis.

Tip: Small Xres values improve graph resolution but may cause the TI-83 Plus to draw graphs more slowly.

Changing a Window Variable Value

To change a window variable value from the window editor, follow these steps.

1. Press or } to move the cursor to the window variable you want to change.

2. Edit the value, which can be an expression.

Enter a new value, which clears the original value.

Move the cursor to a specific digit, and then edit it.

3. Press , , or }. If you entered an expression, the TI-83 Plus evaluates it. The new value is stored.

Note: Xmin<Xmax and Ymin<Ymax must be true in order to graph.

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Storing to a Window Variable from the Home Screen or a Program

To store a value, which can be an expression, to a window variable, begin on a blank line and follow these steps.

1. Enter the value you want to store.

2. Press .

3. Press to display the VARS menu.

4. Select 1:Window to display the Func window variables (X/Y secondary menu).

Press ~ to display the Par and Pol window variables (T/q

secondary menu).

Press ~ ~ to display the Seq window variables (U/V/W secondary menu).

5. Select the window variable to which you want to store a value. The name of the variable is pasted to the current cursor location.

6. Press to complete the instruction.

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When the instruction is executed, the TI-83 Plus stores the value to the window variable and displays the value.

@X and @Y

The variables @X and @Y (items 8 and 9 on the VARS (1:Window) X/Y

secondary menu) define the distance from the center of one pixel to the center of any adjacent pixel on a graph (graphing accuracy). @X and @Y are calculated from Xmin, Xmax, Ymin, and Ymax when you display a graph.

@X = (Xmax N Xmin)

94 @Y = (Ymax N Ymin)

62

You can store values to @X and @Y. If you do, Xmax and Ymax are calculated from @X, Xmin, @Y, and Ymin.

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Setting the Graph Format

Displaying the Format Settings

To display the format settings, press y .. The default settings are highlighted below.

RectGC PolarGC Sets cursor coordinates. CoordOn CoordOff Sets coordinates display on or off. GridOff GridOn Sets grid off or on. AxesOn AxesOff Sets axes on or off. LabelOff LabelOn Sets axes label off or on. ExprOn ExprOff Sets expression display on or off.

Format settings define a graphs appearance on the display. Format settings apply to all graphing modes. Seq graphing mode has an additional mode setting (Chapter 6).

Changing a Format Setting

To change a format setting, follow these steps.

1. Press , ~, }, and | as necessary to move the cursor to the setting you want to select.

2. Press to select the highlighted setting.

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RectGC, PolarGC

RectGC (rectangular graphing coordinates) displays the cursor location as rectangular coordinates X and Y.

PolarGC (polar graphing coordinates) displays the cursor location as polar coordinates R and q.

The RectGC/PolarGC setting determines which variables are updated when you plot the graph, move the free-moving cursor, or trace.

RectGC updates X and Y; if CoordOn format is selected, X and Y are displayed.

PolarGC updates X, Y, R, and q; if CoordOn format is selected, R and q are displayed.

CoordOn, CoordOff

CoordOn (coordinates on) displays the cursor coordinates at the bottom of the graph. If ExprOff format is selected, the function number is displayed in the top-right corner.

CoordOff (coordinates off) does not display the function number or coordinates.

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GridOff, GridOn

Grid points cover the viewing window in rows that correspond to the tick marks on each axis.

GridOff does not display grid points.

GridOn displays grid points.

AxesOn, AxesOff

AxesOn displays the axes.

AxesOff does not display the axes.

This overrides the LabelOff/LabelOn format setting.

LabelOff, LabelOn

LabelOff and LabelOn determine whether to display labels for the axes (X and Y), if AxesOn format is also selected.

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ExprOn, ExprOff

ExprOn and ExprOff determine whether to display the Y= expression when the trace cursor is active. This format setting also applies to stat plots.

When ExprOn is selected, the expression is displayed in the top-left corner of the graph screen.

When ExprOff and CoordOn both are selected, the number in the top-right corner specifies which function is being traced.

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Displaying Graphs

Displaying a New Graph

To display the graph of the selected function or functions, press . TRACE, ZOOM instructions, and CALC operations display the graph automatically. As the TI-83 Plus plots the graph, the busy indicator is on. As the graph is plotted, X and Y are updated.

Pausing or Stopping a Graph

While plotting a graph, you can pause or stop graphing.

Press to pause; then press to resume.

Press to stop; then press to redraw.

Smart Graph

Smart Graph is a TI-83 Plus feature that redisplays the last graph immediately when you press , but only if all graphing factors that would cause replotting have remained the same since the graph was last displayed.

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If you performed any of these actions since the graph was last displayed, the TI-83 Plus will replot the graph based on new values when you press s.

Changed a mode setting that affects graphs

Changed a function in the current picture

Selected or deselected a function or stat plot

Changed the value of a variable in a selected function

Changed a window variable or graph format setting

Cleared drawings by selecting ClrDraw

Changed a stat plot definition

Overlaying Functions on a Graph

On the TI-83 Plus, you can graph one or more new functions without replotting existing functions. For example, store sin(X) to Y1 in the Y= editor and press . Then store cos(X) to Y2 and press again. The function Y2 is graphed on top of Y1, the original function.

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Graphing a Family of Curves

If you enter a list (Chapter 11) as an element in an expression, the TI-83 Plus plots the function for each value in the list, thereby graphing a family of curves. In Simul graphing-order mode, it graphs all functions sequentially for the first element in each list, and then for the second, and so on.

{2,4,6}sin(X) graphs three functions: 2 sin(X), 4 sin(X), and 6 sin(X).

{2,4,6}sin({1,2,3}X) graphs 2 sin(X), 4 sin(2X), and 6 sin(3X).

Note: When using more than one list, the lists must have the same dimensions.

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Exploring Graphs with the Free-Moving Cursor

Free-Moving Cursor

When a graph is displayed, press |, ~, }, or to move the cursor around the graph. When you first display the graph, no cursor is visible. When you press |, ~, }, or , the cursor moves from the center of the viewing window.

As you move the cursor around the graph, the coordinate values of the cursor location are displayed at the bottom of the screen if CoordOn format is selected. The Float/Fix decimal mode setting determines the number of decimal digits displayed for the coordinate values.

To display the graph with no cursor and no coordinate values, press or . When you press |, ~, }, or , the cursor moves from the same position.

Graphing Accuracy

The free-moving cursor moves from pixel to pixel on the screen. When you move the cursor to a pixel that appears to be on the function, the cursor may be near, but not actually on, the function. The coordinate

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value displayed at the bottom of the screen actually may not be a point on the function. To move the cursor along a function, use r.

The coordinate values displayed as you move the cursor approximate actual math coordinates, *accurate to within the width and height of the pixel. As Xmin, Xmax, Ymin, and Ymax get closer together (as in a Zoom In) graphing accuracy increases, and the coordinate values more closely approximate the math coordinates.

Free- moving cursor on the curve

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Exploring Graphs with TRACE

Beginning a Trace

Use TRACE to move the cursor from one plotted point to the next along a function. To begin a trace, press r. If the graph is not displayed already, press r to display it. The trace cursor is on the first selected function in the Y= editor, at the middle X value on the screen. The cursor coordinates are displayed at the bottom of the screen if CoordOn format is selected. The Y= expression is displayed in the top-left corner of the screen, if ExprOn format is selected.

Moving the Trace Cursor

To move the TRACE cursor do this:

To the previous or next plotted point, press | or ~.

Five plotted points on a function (Xres affects this), press y | or y ~.

To any valid X value on a function, enter a value, and then press .

From one function to another, press } or .

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When the trace cursor moves along a function, the Y value is calculated from the X value; that is, Y=Yn(X). If the function is undefined at an X value, the Y value is blank.

If you move the trace cursor beyond the top or bottom of the screen, the coordinate values at the bottom of the screen continue to change appropriately.

Moving the Trace Cursor from Function to Function

To move the trace cursor from function to function, press and }. The cursor follows the order of the selected functions in the Y= editor. The trace cursor moves to each function at the same X value. If ExprOn format is selected, the expression is updated.

Moving the Trace Cursor to Any Valid X Value

To move the trace cursor to any valid X value on the current function, enter the value. When you enter the first digit, an X= prompt and the number you entered are displayed in the bottom-left corner of the screen. You can enter an expression at the X= prompt. The value must

Trace cursor on the curve

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be valid for the current viewing window. When you have completed the entry, press to move the cursor.

Note: This feature does not apply to stat plots.

Panning to the Left or Right

If you trace a function beyond the left or right side of the screen, the viewing window automatically pans to the left or right. Xmin and Xmax are updated to correspond to the new viewing window.

Quick Zoom

While tracing, you can press to adjust the viewing window so that the cursor location becomes the center of the new viewing window, even if the cursor is above or below the display. This allows panning up and down. After Quick Zoom, the cursor remains in TRACE.

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Leaving and Returning to TRACE

When you leave and return to TRACE, the trace cursor is displayed in the same location it was in when you left TRACE, unless Smart Graph has replotted the graph.

Using TRACE in a Program

On a blank line in the program editor, press r. The instruction Trace is pasted to the cursor location. When the instruction is encountered during program execution, the graph is displayed with the trace cursor on the first selected function. As you trace, the cursor coordinate values are updated. When you finish tracing the functions, press to resume program execution.

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Exploring Graphs with the ZOOM Instructions

ZOOM Menu

To display the ZOOM menu, press q. You can adjust the viewing window of the graph quickly in several ways. All ZOOM instructions are accessible from programs.

ZOOM MEMORY

1:ZBox Draws a box to define the viewing window. 2:Zoom In Magnifies the graph around the cursor. 3:Zoom Out Views more of a graph around the cursor. 4:ZDecimal Sets @X and @Y to 0.1. 5:ZSquare Sets equal-size pixels on the X and Y axes. 6:ZStandard Sets the standard window variables. 7:ZTrig Sets the built-in trig window variables. 8:ZInteger Sets integer values on the X and Y axes. 9:ZoomStat Sets the values for current stat lists. 0:ZoomFit Fits YMin and YMax between XMin and XMax.

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Zoom Cursor

When you select 1:ZBox, 2:Zoom In, or 3:Zoom Out, the cursor on the graph becomes the zoom cursor (+), a smaller version of the free-moving cursor (+).

ZBox

To define a new viewing window using ZBox, follow these steps.

1. Select 1:ZBox from the ZOOM menu. The zoom cursor is displayed at the center of the screen.

2. Move the zoom cursor to any spot you want to define as a corner of the box, and then press . When you move the cursor away from the first defined corner, a small, square dot indicates the spot.

3. Press |, }, ~, or . As you move the cursor, the sides of the box lengthen or shorten proportionately on the screen.

Note: To cancel ZBox before you press , press .

4. When you have defined the box, press to replot the graph.

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To use ZBox to define another box within the new graph, repeat steps 2 through 4. To cancel ZBox, press .

Zoom In, Zoom Out

Zoom In magnifies the part of the graph that surrounds the cursor location. Zoom Out displays a greater portion of the graph, centered on the cursor location. The XFact and YFact settings determine the extent of the zoom.

To zoom in on a graph, follow these steps.

1. Check XFact and YFact; change as needed.

2. Select 2:Zoom In from the ZOOM menu. The zoom cursor is displayed.

3. Move the zoom cursor to the point that is to be the center of the new viewing window.

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4. Press . The TI-83 Plus adjusts the viewing window by XFact and YFact; updates the window variables; and replots the selected functions, centered on the cursor location.

5. Zoom in on the graph again in either of two ways.

To zoom in at the same point, press .

To zoom in at a new point, move the cursor to the point that you want as the center of the new viewing window, and then press .

To zoom out on a graph, select 3:Zoom Out and repeat steps 3 through 5.

To cancel Zoom In or Zoom Out, press .

ZDecimal

ZDecimal replots the functions immediately. It updates the window variables to preset values, as shown below. These values set @X and @Y equal to 0.1 and set the X and Y value of each pixel to one decimal place.

Xmin=L4.7 Ymin=L3.1 Xmax=4.7 Ymax=3.1 Xscl=1 Yscl=1

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ZSquare

ZSquare replots the functions immediately. It redefines the viewing window based on the current values of the window variables. It adjusts in only one direction so that @X=@Y, which makes the graph of a circle look like a circle. Xscl and Yscl remain unchanged. The midpoint of the current graph (not the intersection of the axes) becomes the midpoint of the new graph.

ZStandard

ZStandard replots the functions immediately. It updates the window variables to the standard values shown below.

Xmin=L10 Ymin=L10 Xres=1 Xmax=10 Ymax=10 Xscl=1 Yscl=1

ZTrig

ZTrig replots the functions immediately. It updates the window variables to preset values that are appropriate for plotting trig functions. Those preset values in Radian mode are shown below.

Xmin=L(4724)p Ymin=L4 Xmax=(4724)p Ymax=4 Xscl=p/2 Yscl=1

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ZInteger

ZInteger redefines the viewing window to the dimensions shown below. To use ZInteger, move the cursor to the point that you want to be the center of the new window, and then press ; ZInteger replots the functions.

@X=1 Xscl=10 @Y=1 Yscl=10

ZoomStat

ZoomStat redefines the viewing window so that all statistical data points are displayed. For regular and modified box plots, only Xmin and Xmax are adjusted.

ZoomFit

ZoomFit replots the functions immediately. ZoomFit recalculates YMin and YMax to include the minimum and maximum Y values of the selected functions between the current XMin and XMax. XMin and XMax are not changed.

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Using ZOOM MEMORY

ZOOM MEMORY Menu

To display the ZOOM MEMORY menu, press q ~.

ZOOM MEMORY

1: ZPrevious Uses the previous viewing window. 2: ZoomSto Stores the user-defined window. 3: ZoomRcl Recalls the user-defined window. 4: SetFactors... Changes Zoom In and Zoom Out factors.

ZPrevious

ZPrevious replots the graph using the window variables of the graph that was displayed before you executed the last ZOOM instruction.

ZoomSto

ZoomSto immediately stores the current viewing window. The graph is displayed, and the values of the current window variables are stored in the user-defined ZOOM variables ZXmin, ZXmax, ZXscl, ZYmin, ZYmax, ZYscl, and ZXres.

These variables apply to all graphing modes. For example, changing the value of ZXmin in Func mode also changes it in Par mode.

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ZoomRcl

ZoomRcl graphs the selected functions in a user-defined viewing window. The user-defined viewing window is determined by the values stored with the ZoomSto instruction. The window variables are updated with the user-defined values, and the graph is plotted.

ZOOM FACTORS

The zoom factors, XFact and YFact, are positive numbers (not necessarily integers) greater than or equal to 1. They define the magnification or reduction factor used to Zoom In or Zoom Out around a point.

Checking XFact and YFact

To display the ZOOM FACTORS screen, where you can review the current values for XFact and YFact, select 4:SetFactors from the ZOOM MEMORY

menu. The values shown are the defaults.

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Changing XFact and YFact

You can change XFact and YFact in either of two ways.

Enter a new value. The original value is cleared automatically when you enter the first digit.

Place the cursor on the digit you want to change, and then enter a value or press { to delete it.

Using ZOOM MEMORY Menu Items from the Home Screen or a Program

From the home screen or a program, you can store directly to any of the user-defined ZOOM variables.

From a program, you can select the ZoomSto and ZoomRcl instructions from the ZOOM MEMORY menu.

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Using the CALC (Calculate) Operations

CALCULATE Menu

To display the CALCULATE menu, press y CALC. Use the items on this menu to analyze the current graph functions.

CALCULATE 1:value Calculates a function Y value for a given X. 2:zero Finds a zero (x-intercept) of a function. 3:minimum Finds a minimum of a function. 4:maximum Finds a maximum of a function. 5:intersect Finds an intersection of two functions. 6:dy/dx Finds a numeric derivative of a function. 7:f(x)dx Finds a numeric integral of a function.

value

value evaluates one or more currently selected functions for a specified value of X.

Note: When a value is displayed for X, press to clear the value. When no value is displayed, press to cancel the value operation.

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To evaluate a selected function at X, follow these steps.

1. Select 1:value from the CALCULATE menu. The graph is displayed with X= in the bottom-left corner.

2. Enter a real value, which can be an expression, for X between Xmin and Xmax.

3. Press .

The cursor is on the first selected function in the Y= editor at the X value you entered, and the coordinates are displayed, even if CoordOff format is selected.

To move the cursor from function to function at the entered X value, press } or . To restore the free-moving cursor, press | or ~.

zero

zero finds a zero (x-intercept or root) of a function using solve(. Functions can have more than one x-intercept value; zero finds the zero closest to your guess.

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The time zero spends to find the correct zero value depends on the accuracy of the values you specify for the left and right bounds and the accuracy of your guess.

To find a zero of a function, follow these steps.

1. Select 2:zero from the CALCULATE menu. The current graph is displayed with Left Bound? in the bottom-left corner.

2. Press } or to move the cursor onto the function for which you want to find a zero.

3. Press | or ~ (or enter a value) to select the x-value for the left bound of the interval, and then press . A 4 indicator on the graph screen shows the left bound. Right Bound? is displayed in the bottom-left corner. Press | or ~ (or enter a value) to select the x-value for the right bound, and then press . A 3 indicator on the graph screen shows the right bound. Guess? is then displayed in the bottom-left corner.

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4. Press | or ~ (or enter a value) to select a point near the zero of the function, between the bounds, and then press .

The cursor is on the solution and the coordinates are displayed, even if CoordOff format is selected. To move to the same x-value for other selected functions, press } or . To restore the free-moving cursor, press | or ~.

minimum, maximum

minimum and maximum find a minimum or maximum of a function within a specified interval to a tolerance of 1L5.

To find a minimum or maximum, follow these steps.

1. Select 3:minimum or 4:maximum from the CALCULATE menu. The current graph is displayed.

2. Select the function and set left bound, right bound, and guess as described for zero.

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The cursor is on the solution, and the coordinates are displayed, even if you have selected CoordOff format; Minimum or Maximum is displayed in the bottom-left corner.

To move to the same x-value for other selected functions, press } or . To restore the free-moving cursor, press | or ~.

intersect

intersect finds the coordinates of a point at which two or more functions intersect using solve(. The intersection must appear on the display to use intersect.

To find an intersection, follow these steps.

1. Select 5:intersect from the CALCULATE menu. The current graph is displayed with First curve? in the bottom-left corner.

2. Press or }, if necessary, to move the cursor to the first function, and then press . Second curve? is displayed in the bottom-left corner.

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3. Press or }, if necessary, to move the cursor to the second function, and then press .

4. Press ~ or | to move the cursor to the point that is your guess as to location of the intersection, and then press .

The cursor is on the solution and the coordinates are displayed, even if CoordOff format is selected. Intersection is displayed in the bottom-left corner. To restore the free-moving cursor, press |, }, ~, or .

dy/dx

dy/dx (numerical derivative) finds the numerical derivative (slope) of a function at a point, with H=1L3.

To find a functions slope at a point, follow these steps.

1. Select 6:dy/dx from the CALCULATE menu. The current graph is displayed.

2. Press } or to select the function for which you want to find the numerical derivative.

3. Press | or ~ (or enter a value) to select the X value at which to calculate the derivative, and then press .

The cursor is on the solution and the numerical derivative is displayed.

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To move to the same x-value for other selected functions, press } or . To restore the free-moving cursor, press | or ~.

f(x)dx

f(x)dx (numerical integral) finds the numerical integral of a function in a specified interval. It uses the fnInt( function, with a tolerance of H=1L3.

To find the numerical derivative of a function, follow these steps.

1. Select 7:f(x)dx from the CALCULATE menu. The current graph is displayed with Lower Limit? in the bottom-left corner.

2. Press } or to move the cursor to the function for which you want to calculate the integral.

3. Set lower and upper limits as you would set left and right bounds for zero. The integral value is displayed, and the integrated area is shaded.

Note: The shaded area is a drawing. Use ClrDraw (Chapter 8) or any action that invokes Smart Graph to clear the shaded area.

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Chapter 4: Parametric Graphing

Getting Started: Path of a Ball

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

Graph the parametric equation that describes the path of a ball hit at an initial speed of 30 meters per second, at an initial angle of 25 degrees with the horizontal from ground level. How far does the ball travel? When does it hit the ground? How high does it go? Ignore all forces except gravity.

For initial velocity v0 and angle q, the position of the ball as a function of time has horizontal and vertical components.

Horizontal: X1(t)=tv0cos(q) Vertical: Y1(t)=tv0sin(q)N 1 2 gt2

The vertical and horizontal vectors of the balls motion also will be graphed.

Vertical vector: X2(t)=0 Y2(t)=Y1(t) Horizontal vector: X3(t)=X1(t) Y3(t)=0 Gravity constant: g=9.8 m/sec2

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1. Press z. Press ~ to select Par mode. Press ~ to select Simul for simultaneous graphing of all three parametric equations in this example.

2. Press o. Press 30 25 y ; 1 (to select ) to define X1T in terms of T.

3. Press 30 25 y ; 1 9.8 2 to define Y1T.

The vertical component vector is defined by X2T

and Y2T.

4. Press 0 to define X2T.

5. Press ~ to display the VARS Y.VARS menu. Press 2 to display the PARAMETRIC secondary menu. Press 2 to define Y2T.

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The horizontal component vector is defined by X3T and Y3T.

6. Press ~ 2, and then press 1 to define X3T. Press 0 to define Y3T.

7. Press | | } to change the graph style to for X3T and Y3T. Press } to change the graph style to for X2T and Y2T. Press } to change the graph style to for X1T and Y1T. (These keystrokes assume that all graph styles were set to originally.)

8. Press p. Enter these values for the window variables.

Tmin=0 Xmin=L10 Ymin=L5 Tmax=5 Xmax=100 Ymax=15 Tstep=.1 Xscl=50 Yscl=10

9. Press y . ~ to set AxesOff, which turns off the axes.

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10.Press . The plotting action simultaneously shows the ball in flight and the vertical and horizontal component vectors of the motion.

Tip: To simulate the ball flying through the air, set graph style to (animate) for X1T and Y1T.

11.Press r to obtain numerical results and answer the questions at the beginning of this section.

Tracing begins at Tmin on the first parametric equation (X1T and Y1T). As you press ~ to trace the curve, the cursor follows the path of the ball over time. The values for X (distance), Y (height), and T (time) are displayed at the bottom of the screen.

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Defining and Displaying Parametric Graphs

TI-83 Plus Graphing Mode Similarities

The steps for defining a parametric graph are similar to the steps for defining a function graph. Chapter 4 assumes that you are familiar with Chapter 3: Function Graphing. Chapter 4 details aspects of parametric graphing that differ from function graphing.

Setting Parametric Graphing Mode

To display the mode screen, press z. To graph parametric equations, you must select Par graphing mode before you enter window variables and before you enter the components of parametric equations.

Displaying the Parametric Y= Editor

After selecting Par graphing mode, press o to display the parametric Y= editor.

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In this editor, you can display and enter both the X and Y components of up to six equations, X1T and Y1T through X6T and Y6T. Each is defined in terms of the independent variable T. A common application of parametric graphs is graphing equations over time.

Selecting a Graph Style

The icons to the left of X1T through X6T represent the graph style of each parametric equation (Chapter 3). The default in Par mode is (line), which connects plotted points. Line, (thick), (path), (animate), and (dot) styles are available for parametric graphing.

Defining and Editing Parametric Equations

To define or edit a parametric equation, follow the steps in Chapter 3 for defining a function or editing a function. The independent variable in a parametric equation is T. In Par graphing mode, you can enter the parametric variable T in either of two ways.

Press .

Press T.

Two components, X and Y, define a single parametric equation. You must define both of them.

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Selecting and Deselecting Parametric Equations

The TI-83 Plus graphs only the selected parametric equations. In the Y= editor, a parametric equation is selected when the = signs of both the X and Y components are highlighted. You may select any or all of the equations X1T and Y1T through X6T and Y6T.

To change the selection status, move the cursor onto the = sign of either the X or Y component and press . The status of both the X and Y components is changed.

Setting Window Variables

To display the window variable values, press p. These variables define the viewing window. The values below are defaults for Par graphing in Radian angle mode.

Tmin=0 Smallest T value to evaluate Tmax=6.2831853... Largest T value to evaluate (2p) Tstep=.1308996... T value increment (p24) Xmin=L10 Smallest X value to be displayed Xmax=10 Largest X value to be displayed Xscl=1 Spacing between the X tick marks Ymin=L10 Smallest Y value to be displayed Ymax=10 Largest Y value to be displayed Yscl=1 Spacing between the Y tick marks

Note: To ensure that sufficient points are plotted, you may want to change the T window variables.

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Setting the Graph Format

To display the current graph format settings, press y .. Chapter 3 describes the format settings in detail. The other graphing modes share these format settings; Seq graphing mode has an additional axes format setting.

Displaying a Graph

When you press , the TI-83 Plus plots the selected parametric equations. It evaluates the X and Y components for each value of T (from Tmin to Tmax in intervals of Tstep), and then plots each point defined by X and Y. The window variables define the viewing window.

As the graph is plotted, X, Y, and T are updated.

Smart Graph applies to parametric graphs (Chapter 3).

Window Variables and Y.VARS Menus

You can perform these actions from the home screen or a program.

Access functions by using the name of the X or Y component of the equation as a variable.

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Store parametric equations.

Select or deselect parametric equations.

Store values directly to window variables.

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Exploring Parametric Graphs

Free-Moving Cursor

The free-moving cursor in Par graphing works the same as in Func graphing.

In RectGC format, moving the cursor updates the values of X and Y; if CoordOn format is selected, X and Y are displayed.

In PolarGC format, X, Y, R, and q are updated; if CoordOn format is selected, R and q are displayed.

TRACE

To activate TRACE, press r. When TRACE is active, you can move the trace cursor along the graph of the equation one Tstep at a time. When you begin a trace, the trace cursor is on the first selected function at Tmin. If ExprOn is selected, then the function is displayed.

In RectGC format, TRACE updates and displays the values of X, Y, and T if CoordOn format is on.

In PolarGC format, X, Y, R, q and T are updated; if CoordOn format is selected, R, q, and T are displayed. The X and Y (or R and q) values are calculated from T.

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To move five plotted points at a time on a function, press y | or y ~. If you move the cursor beyond the top or bottom of the screen, the coordinate values at the bottom of the screen continue to change appropriately.

Quick Zoom is available in Par graphing; panning is not (Chapter 3).

Moving the Trace Cursor to Any Valid T Value

To move the trace cursor to any valid T value on the current function, enter the number. When you enter the first digit, a T= prompt and the number you entered are displayed in the bottom-left corner of the screen. You can enter an expression at the T= prompt. The value must be valid for the current viewing window. When you have completed the entry, press to move the cursor.

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ZOOM

ZOOM operations in Par graphing work the same as in Func graphing. Only the X (Xmin, Xmax, and Xscl) and Y (Ymin, Ymax, and Yscl) window variables are affected.

The T window variables (Tmin, Tmax, and Tstep) are only affected when you select ZStandard. The VARS ZOOM secondary menu ZT/Zq items 1:ZTmin, 2:ZTmax, and 3:ZTstep are the zoom memory variables for Par graphing.

CALC

CALC operations in Par graphing work the same as in Func graphing. The CALCULATE menu items available in Par graphing are 1:value, 2:dy/dx, 3:dy/dt, and 4:dx/dt.

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Chapter 5: Polar Graphing

Getting Started: Polar Rose

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

The polar equation R=Asin(Bq) graphs a rose. Graph the rose for A=8 and B=2.5, and then explore the appearance of the rose for other values of A and B.

1. Press z to display the mode screen. Press ~ ~ to select Pol graphing mode. Select the defaults (the options on the left) for the other mode settings.

2. Press o to display the polar Y= editor. Press 8 2.5 to define r1.

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3. Press q 6 to select 6:ZStandard and graph the equation in the standard viewing window. The graph shows only five petals of the rose, and the rose does not appear to be symmetrical. This is because the standard window sets qmax=2p and defines the window, rather than the pixels, as square.

4. Press p to display the window variables. Press 4 y B to increase the value of qmax to 4p.

5. Press q 5 to select 5:ZSquare and plot the graph.

6. Repeat steps 2 through 5 with new values for the variables A and B in the polar equation r1=Asin(Bq). Observe how the new values affect the graph.

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Defining and Displaying Polar Graphs

TI-83 Plus Graphing Mode Similarities

The steps for defining a polar graph are similar to the steps for defining a function graph. Chapter 5 assumes that you are familiar with Chapter 3: Function Graphing. Chapter 5 details aspects of polar graphing that differ from function graphing.

Setting Polar Graphing Mode

To display the mode screen, press z. To graph polar equations, you must select Pol graphing mode before you enter values for the window variables and before you enter polar equations.

Displaying the Polar Y= Editor

After selecting Pol graphing mode, press o to display the polar Y= editor.

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In this editor, you can enter and display up to six polar equations, r1

through r6. Each is defined in terms of the independent variable q.

Selecting Graph Styles

The icons to the left of r1 through r6 represent the graph style of each polar equation (Chapter 3). The default in Pol graphing mode is (line), which connects plotted points. Line, (thick), (path), (animate), and (dot) styles are available for polar graphing.

Defining and Editing Polar Equations

To define or edit a polar equation, follow the steps in Chapter 3 for defining a function or editing a function. The independent variable in a polar equation is q. In Pol graphing mode, you can enter the polar variable q in either of two ways.

Press .

Press q.

Selecting and Deselecting Polar Equations

The TI-83 Plus graphs only the selected polar equations. In the Y= editor, a polar equation is selected when the = sign is highlighted. You may select any or all of the equations.

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To change the selection status, move the cursor onto the = sign, and then press .

Setting Window Variables

To display the window variable values, press p. These variables define the viewing window. The values below are defaults for Pol graphing in Radian angle mode.

qmin=0 Smallest q value to evaluate qmax=6.2831853... Largest q value to evaluate (2p) qstep=.1308996... Increment between q values (p24) Xmin=L10 Smallest X value to be displayed Xmax=10 Largest X value to be displayed Xscl=1 Spacing between the X tick marks Ymin=L10 Smallest Y value to be displayed Ymax=10 Largest Y value to be displayed Yscl=1 Spacing between the Y tick marks

Note: To ensure that sufficient points are plotted, you may want to change the q window variables.

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Setting the Graph Format

To display the current graph format settings, press y .. Chapter 3 describes the format settings in detail. The other graphing modes share these format settings.

Displaying a Graph

When you press , the TI-83 Plus plots the selected polar equations. It evaluates R for each value of q (from qmin to qmax in intervals of qstep) and then plots each point. The window variables define the viewing window.

As the graph is plotted, X, Y, R, and q are updated.

Smart Graph applies to polar graphs (Chapter 3).

Window Variables and Y.VARS Menus

You can perform these actions from the home screen or a program.

Access functions by using the name of the equation as a variable.

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Store polar equations.

Select or deselect polar equations.

Store values directly to window variables.

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Exploring Polar Graphs

Free-Moving Cursor

The free-moving cursor in Pol graphing works the same as in Func graphing. In RectGC format, moving the cursor updates the values of X and Y; if CoordOn format is selected, X and Y are displayed. In PolarGC format, X, Y, R, and q are updated; if CoordOn format is selected, R and q are displayed.

TRACE

To activate TRACE, press r. When TRACE is active, you can move the trace cursor along the graph of the equation one qstep at a time. When you begin a trace, the trace cursor is on the first selected function at qmin. If ExprOn format is selected, then the equation is displayed.

In RectGC format, TRACE updates the values of X, Y, and q; if CoordOn format is selected, X, Y, and q are displayed. In PolarGC format, TRACE

updates X, Y, R, and q; if CoordOn format is selected, R and q are displayed.

To move five plotted points at a time on a function, press y | or y ~. If you move the trace cursor beyond the top or bottom of the

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screen, the coordinate values at the bottom of the screen continue to change appropriately.

Quick Zoom is available in Pol graphing mode; panning is not (Chapter 3).

Moving the Trace Cursor to Any Valid q Value

To move the trace cursor to any valid q value on the current function, enter the number. When you enter the first digit, a q= prompt and the number you entered are displayed in the bottom-left corner of the screen. You can enter an expression at the q= prompt. The value must be valid for the current viewing window. When you complete the entry, press to move the cursor.

ZOOM

ZOOM operations in Pol graphing work the same as in Func graphing. Only the X (Xmin, Xmax, and Xscl) and Y (Ymin, Ymax, and Yscl) window variables are affected.

The q window variables (qmin, qmax, and qstep) are not affected, except when you select ZStandard. The VARS ZOOM secondary menu ZT/Zq items 4:Zqmin, 5:Zqmax, and 6:Zqstep are zoom memory variables for Pol graphing.

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CALC

CALC operations in Pol graphing work the same as in Func graphing. The CALCULATE menu items available in Pol graphing are 1:value, 2:dy/dx, and 3:dr/dq.

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Chapter 6: Sequence Graphing

Getting Started: Forest and Trees

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

A small forest of 4,000 trees is under a new forestry plan. Each year 20 percent of the trees will be harvested and 1,000 new trees will be planted. Will the forest eventually disappear? Will the forest size stabilize? If so, in how many years and with how many trees?

1. Press z. Press ~ ~ ~ to select Seq graphing mode.

2. Press y . and select Time axes format and ExprOn format if necessary.

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3. Press o. If the graph-style icon is not (dot), press | |, press until is displayed, and then press ~ ~.

4. Press ~ 3 to select iPart( (integer part) because only whole trees are harvested. After each annual harvest, 80 percent (.80) of the trees remain.

Press 8 y [u] 1 to define the number of trees after each harvest. Press 1000 to define the new trees. Press 4000 to define the number of trees at the beginning of the program.

5. Press p 0 to set nMin=0. Press 50 to set nMax=50. nMin and nMax evaluate forest size over 50 years. Set the other window variables.

PlotStart=1 Xmin=0 Ymin=0 PlotStep=1 Xmax=50 Ymax=6000

Xscl=10 Yscl=1000

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6. Press r. Tracing begins at nMin (the start of the forestry plan). Press ~ to trace the sequence year by year. The sequence is displayed at the top of the screen. The values for n (number of years), X (X=n, because n is plotted on the x-axis), and Y (tree count) are displayed at the bottom. When will the forest stabilize? With how many trees?

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Defining and Displaying Sequence Graphs

TI-83 Plus Graphing Mode Similarities

The steps for defining a sequence graph are similar to the steps for defining a function graph. Chapter 6 assumes that you are familiar with Chapter 3: Function Graphing. Chapter 6 details aspects of sequence graphing that differ from function graphing.

Setting Sequence Graphing Mode

To display the mode screen, press z. To graph sequence functions, you must select Seq graphing mode before you enter window variables and before you enter sequence functions.

Sequence graphs automatically plot in Simul mode, regardless of the current plotting-order mode setting.

TI-83 Plus Sequence Functions u, v, and w

The TI-83 Plus has three sequence functions that you can enter from the keyboard: u, v, and w. They are above the , , and keys.

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You can define sequence functions in terms of:

The independent variable n

The previous term in the sequence function, such as u(nN1)

The term that precedes the previous term in the sequence function, such as u(nN2)

The previous term or the term that precedes the previous term in another sequence function, such as u(nN1) or u(nN2) referenced in the sequence v(n).

Note: Statements in this chapter about u(n) are also true for v(n) and w(n); statements about u(nN1) are also true for v(nN1) and w(nN1); statements about u(nN2) are also true for v(nN2) and w(nN2).

Displaying the Sequence Y= Editor

After selecting Seq mode, press o to display the sequence Y= editor.

In this editor, you can display and enter sequences for u(n), v(n), and w(n). Also, you can edit the value for nMin, which is the sequence window variable that defines the minimum n value to evaluate.

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The sequence Y= editor displays the nMin value because of its relevance to u(nMin), v(nMin), and w(nMin), which are the initial values for the sequence equations u(n), v(n), and w(n), respectively.

nMin in the Y= editor is the same as nMin in the window editor. If you enter a new value for nMin in one editor, the new value for nMin is updated in both editors.

Note: Use u(nMin), v(nMin), or w(nMin) only with a recursive sequence, which requires an initial value.

Selecting Graph Styles

The icons to the left of u(n), v(n), and w(n) represent the graph style of each sequence (Chapter 3). The default in Seq mode is (dot), which shows discrete values. Dot, (line), and (thick) styles are available for sequence graphing. Graph styles are ignored in Web format.

Selecting and Deselecting Sequence Functions

The TI-83 Plus graphs only the selected sequence functions. In the Y= editor, a sequence function is selected when the = signs of both u(n)= and u(nMin)= are highlighted.

To change the selection status of a sequence function, move the cursor onto the = sign of the function name, and then press . The status is changed for both the sequence function u(n) and its initial value u(nMin).

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Defining and Editing a Sequence Function

To define or edit a sequence function, follow the steps in Chapter 3 for defining a function. The independent variable in a sequence is n.

In Seq graphing mode, you can enter the sequence variable in either of two ways.

Press .

Press y N [N].

You can enter the function name from the keyboard.

To enter the function name u, press y [u] (above ).

To enter the function name v, press y [v] (above ).

To enter the function name w, press y [w] (above ).

Generally, sequences are either nonrecursive or recursive. Sequences are evaluated only at consecutive integer values. n is always a series of consecutive integers, starting at zero or any positive integer.

Nonrecursive Sequences

In a nonrecursive sequence, the nth term is a function of the independent variable n. Each term is independent of all other terms.

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For example, in the nonrecursive sequence below, you can calculate u(5) directly, without first calculating u(1) or any previous term.

The sequence equation above returns the sequence 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, for n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, .

Note: You may leave blank the initial value u(nMin) when calculating nonrecursive sequences.

Recursive Sequences

In a recursive sequence, the nth term in the sequence is defined in relation to the previous term or the term that precedes the previous term, represented by u(nN1) and u(nN2). A recursive sequence may also be defined in relation to n, as in u(n)=u(nN1)+n.

For example, in the sequence below you cannot calculate u(5) without first calculating u(1), u(2), u(3), and u(4).

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Using an initial value u(nMin) = 1, the sequence above returns 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, . . .

Tip: On the TI-83 Plus, you must type each character of the terms. For example, to enter u(nN1), press y [u] .

Recursive sequences require an initial value or values, since they reference undefined terms.

If each term in the sequence is defined in relation to the previous term, as in u(nN1), you must specify an initial value for the first term.

If each term in the sequence is defined in relation to the term that precedes the previous term, as in u(nN2), you must specify initial values for the first two terms. Enter the initial values as a list enclosed in braces ({ }) with commas separating the values.

The value of the first term is 0 and the value of the second term is 1 for the sequence u(n).

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Setting Window Variables

To display the window variables, press p. These variables define the viewing window. The values below are defaults for Seq graphing in both Radian and Degree angle modes.

nMin=1 Smallest n value to evaluate nMax=10 Largest n value to evaluate PlotStart=1 First term number to be plotted PlotStep=1 Incremental n value (for graphing only) Xmin=L10 Smallest X value to be displayed Xmax=10 Largest X value to be displayed Xscl=1 Spacing between the X tick marks Ymin=L10 Smallest Y value to be displayed Ymax=10 Largest Y value to be displayed Yscl=1 Spacing between the Y tick marks

nMin must be an integer 0. nMax, PlotStart, and PlotStep must be integers 1.

nMin is the smallest n value to evaluate. nMin also is displayed in the sequence Y= editor. nMax is the largest n value to evaluate. Sequences are evaluated at u(nMin), u(nMin+1), u(nMin+2) , . . . , u(nMax).

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PlotStart is the first term to be plotted. PlotStart=1 begins plotting on the first term in the sequence. If you want plotting to begin with the fifth term in a sequence, for example, set PlotStart=5. The first four terms are evaluated but are not plotted on the graph.

PlotStep is the incremental n value for graphing only. PlotStep does not affect sequence evaluation; it only designates which points are plotted on the graph. If you specify PlotStep=2, the sequence is evaluated at each consecutive integer, but it is plotted on the graph only at every other integer.

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Selecting Axes Combinations

Setting the Graph Format

To display the current graph format settings, press y .. Chapter 3 describes the format settings in detail. The other graphing modes share these format settings. The axes setting on the top line of the screen is available only in Seq mode.

Time Webuv vw uw Type of sequence plot (axes) RectGC PolarGC Rectangular or polar output CoordOn CoordOff Cursor coordinate display on/off GridOff GridOn Grid display off or on AxesOn AxesOff Axes display on or off LabelOff LabelOn Axes label display off or on ExprOn ExprOff Expression display on or off

Setting Axes Format

For sequence graphing, you can select from five axes formats. The table below shows the values that are plotted on the x-axis and y-axis for each axes setting.

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Axes Setting x-axis y-axis

Time n u(n), v(n), w(n)

Web u(nN1), v(nN1), w(nN1) u(n), v(n), w(n)

uv u(n) v(n)

vw v(n) w(n)

uw u(n) w(n)

Displaying a Sequence Graph

To plot the selected sequence functions, press . As a graph is plotted, the TI-83 Plus updates X, Y, and n.

Smart Graph applies to sequence graphs (Chapter 3).

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Exploring Sequence Graphs

Free-Moving Cursor

The free-moving cursor in Seq graphing works the same as in Func graphing. In RectGC format, moving the cursor updates the values of X and Y; if CoordOn format is selected, X and Y are displayed. In PolarGC format, X, Y, R, and q are updated; if CoordOn format is selected, R and q are displayed.

TRACE

The axes format setting affects TRACE.

When Time, uv, vw, or uw axes format is selected, TRACE moves the cursor along the sequence one PlotStep increment at a time. To move five plotted points at once, press y ~ or y |.

When you begin a trace, the trace cursor is on the first selected sequence at the term number specified by PlotStart, even if it is outside the viewing window.

Quick Zoom applies to all directions. To center the viewing window on the current cursor location after you have moved the trace cursor, press . The trace cursor returns to nMin.

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In Web format, the trail of the cursor helps identify points with attracting and repelling behavior in the sequence. When you begin a trace, the cursor is on the x-axis at the initial value of the first selected function.

Tip: To move the cursor to a specified n during a trace, enter a value for n, and press . For example, to quickly return the cursor to the beginning of the sequence, paste nMin to the n= prompt and press .

Moving the Trace Cursor to Any Valid n Value

To move the trace cursor to any valid n value on the current function, enter the number. When you enter the first digit, an n = prompt and the number you entered are displayed in the bottom-left corner of the screen. You can enter an expression at the n = prompt. The value must be valid for the current viewing window. When you have completed the entry, press to move the cursor.

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ZOOM

ZOOM operations in Seq graphing work the same as in Func graphing. Only the X (Xmin, Xmax, and Xscl) and Y (Ymin, Ymax, and Yscl) window variables are affected.

PlotStart, PlotStep, nMin, and nMax are only affected when you select ZStandard. The VARS Zoom secondary menu ZU items 1 through 7 are the ZOOM MEMORY variables for Seq graphing.

CALC

The only CALC operation available in Seq graphing is value.

When Time axes format is selected, value displays Y (the u(n) value) for a specified n value.

When Web axes format is selected, value draws the web and displays Y (the u(n) value) for a specified n value.

When uv, vw, or uw axes format is selected, value displays X and Y according to the axes format setting. For example, for uv axes format, X represents u(n) and Y represents v(n).

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Evaluating u, v, and w

To enter the sequence names u, v, or w, press y [u], [v], or [w]. You can evaluate these names in any of three ways.

Calculate the nth value in a sequence.

Calculate a list of values in a sequence.

Generate a sequence with u(nstart,nstop[,nstep]). nstep is optional; default is 1.

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Graphing Web Plots

Graphing a Web Plot

To select Web axes format, press y . ~ . A web plot graphs u(n) versus u(nN1), which you can use to study long-term behavior (convergence, divergence, or oscillation) of a recursive sequence. You can see how the sequence may change behavior as its initial value changes.

Valid Functions for Web Plots

When Web axes format is selected, a sequence will not graph properly or will generate an error.

It must be recursive with only one recursion level (u(nN1) but not u(nN2)).

It cannot reference n directly.

It cannot reference any defined sequence except itself.

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Displaying the Graph Screen

In Web format, press to display the graph screen. The TI-83 Plus:

Draws a y=x reference line in AxesOn format.

Plots the selected sequences with u(nN1) as the independent variable.

Note: A potential convergence point occurs whenever a sequence intersects the y=x reference line. However, the sequence may or may not actually converge at that point, depending on the sequences initial value.

Drawing the Web

To activate the trace cursor, press r. The screen displays the sequence and the current n, X, and Y values (X represents u(nN1) and Y represents u(n)). Press ~ repeatedly to draw the web step by step, starting at nMin. In Web format, the trace cursor follows this course.

1. It starts on the x-axis at the initial value u(nMin) (when PlotStart=1).

2. It moves vertically (up or down) to the sequence.

3. It moves horizontally to the y=x reference line.

4. It repeats this vertical and horizontal movement as you continue to press ~.

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Using Web Plots to Illustrate Convergence

Example: Convergence

1. Press o in Seq mode to display the sequence Y= editor. Make sure the graph style is set to (dot), and then define nMin, u(n) and u(nMin) as shown below.

2. Press y . to set Time axes format.

3. Press p and set the variables as shown below. nMin=1 Xmin=0 Ymin=L10 nMax=25 Xmax=25 Ymax=10 PlotStart=1 Xscl=1 Yscl=1 PlotStep=1

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4. Press to graph the sequence.

5. Press y . and select the Web axes setting.

6. Press p and change the variables below. Xmin=L10 Xmax=10

7. Press to graph the sequence.

8. Press r, and then press ~ to draw the web. The displayed cursor coordinates n, X (u(nN1)), and Y (u(n)) change accordingly. When you press ~, a new n value is displayed, and the trace cursor is on the sequence. When you press ~ again, the n value remains the same, and the cursor moves to the y=x reference line. This pattern repeats as you trace the web.

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Graphing Phase Plots

Graphing with uv, vw, and uw

The phase-plot axes settings uv, vw, and uw show relationships between two sequences. To select a phase-plot axes setting, press y ., press ~ until the cursor is on uv, vw, or uw, and then press .

Axes Setting x-axis y-axis

uv u(n) v(n)

vw v(n) w(n)

uw u(n) w(n)

Example: Predator-Prey Model

Use the predator-prey model to determine the regional populations of a predator and its prey that would maintain population equilibrium for the two species.

This example uses the model to determine the equilibrium populations of foxes and rabbits, with initial populations of 200 rabbits (u(nMin)) and 50 foxes (v(nMin)).

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These are the variables (given values are in parentheses):

R = number of rabbits M = rabbit population growth rate without foxes (.05) K = rabbit population death rate with foxes (.001) W = number of foxes G = fox population growth rate with rabbits (.0002) D = fox population death rate without rabbits (.03) n = time (in months) Rn = RnN1(1+MNKWnN1) Wn = WnN1(1+GRnN1ND)

1. Press o in Seq mode to display the sequence Y= editor. Define the sequences and initial values for Rn and Wn as shown below. Enter the sequence Rn as u(n) and enter the sequence Wn as v(n).

2. Press y . to select Time axes format.

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3. Press p and set the variables as shown below. nMin=0 Xmin=0 Ymin=0 nMax=400 Xmax=400 Ymax=300 PlotStart=1 Xscl=100 Yscl=100 PlotStep=1

4. Press to graph the sequence.

5. Press r ~ to individually trace the number of rabbits (u(n)) and foxes (v(n)) over time (n).

Tip: Press a number, and then press to jump to a specific n value (month) while in TRACE.

6. Press y . ~ ~ to select uv axes format.

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7. Press p and change these variables as shown below. Xmin=84 Ymin=25 Xmax=237 Ymax=75 Xscl=50 Yscl=10

8. Press r. Trace both the number of rabbits (X) and the number of foxes (Y) through 400 generations.

Note: When you press r, the equation for u is displayed in the top-left corner. Press } or to see the equation for v.

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Comparing TI-83 Plus and TI-82 Sequence Variables

Sequences and Window Variables

Refer to the table if you are familiar with the TI-82. It shows TI-83 Plus sequences and sequence window variables, as well as their TI-82 counterparts.

TI-83 Plus TI.82

In the Y= editor:

u(n) Un

u(nMin) UnStart (window variable)

v(n) Vn

v(nMin) VnStart (window variable)

w(n) not available

w(nMin) not available

In the window editor:

nMin nStart

nMax nMax

PlotStart nMin

PlotStep not available

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Keystroke Differences Between TI-83 Plus and TI-82

Sequence Keystroke Changes

Refer to the table if you are familiar with the TI-82. It compares TI-83 Plus sequence-name syntax and variable syntax with TI.82 sequence-name syntax and variable syntax.

TI-83 Plus / TI-82 On TI-83 Plus, press: On TI-82, press:

n / n y [n]

u(n) / Un y [u]

y

v(n) / Vn y [v]

y

w(n) y [w]

not available

u(nN1) / UnN1 y [u]

y

v(nN1) / VnN1 y [v]

y

w(nN1) y [w]

not available

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Chapter 7: Tables

Getting Started: Roots of a Function Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

Evaluate the function Y = X3 N 2X at each integer between L10 and 10. How many sign changes occur, and at what X values?

1. Press z to set Func graphing mode.

2. Press o. Press 3 to select 3. Then press 2 to enter the function Y1=X3N2X.

3. Press y - to display the TABLE SETUP

screen. Press 10 to set TblStart=L10. Press 1 to set @Tbl=1.

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Press to select Indpnt: Auto (automatically generated independent values). Press to select Depend: Auto (automatically generated dependent values).

4. Press y 0 to display the table screen.

5. Press until you see the sign changes in the value of Y1. How many sign changes occur, and at what X values?

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Setting Up the Table

TABLE SETUP Screen

To display the TABLE SETUP screen, press y -.

TblStart, @Tbl

TblStart (table start) defines the initial value for the independent variable. TblStart applies only when the independent variable is generated automatically (when Indpnt: Auto is selected).

@Tbl (table step) defines the increment for the independent variable.

Note: In Seq mode, both TblStart and @Tbl must be integers.

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Indpnt: Auto, Indpnt: Ask, Depend: Auto, Depend: Ask

Selections Table Characteristics

Indpnt: Auto Depend: Auto

Values are displayed automatically in both the independent-variable column and in all dependent- variable columns.

Indpnt: Ask Depend: Auto

The table is empty; when you enter a value for the independent variable, all corresponding dependent- variable values are calculated and displayed automatically.

Indpnt: Auto Depend: Ask

Values are displayed automatically for the independent variable; to generate a value for a dependent variable, move the cursor to that cell and press .

Indpnt: Ask Depend: Ask

The table is empty; enter values for the independent variable; to generate a value for a dependent variable, move the cursor to that cell and press .

Setting Up the Table from the Home Screen or a Program

To store a value to TblStart, @Tbl, or TblZnput from the home screen or a program, select the variable name from the VARS TABLE secondary menu. TblZnput is a list of independent-variable values in the current table.

When you press y - in the program editor, you can select IndpntAuto, IndpntAsk, DependAuto, and DependAsk.

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Defining the Dependent Variables

Defining Dependent Variables from the Y= Editor

In the Y= editor, enter the functions that define the dependent variables. Only functions that are selected in the Y= editor are displayed in the table. The current graphing mode is used. In Par mode, you must define both components of each parametric equation (Chapter 4).

Editing Dependent Variables from the Table Editor

To edit a selected Y= function from the table editor, follow these steps.

1. Press y 0 to display the table, then press ~ or | to move the cursor to a dependent-variable column.

2. Press } until the cursor is on the function name at the top of the column. The function is displayed on the bottom line.

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3. Press . The cursor moves to the bottom line. Edit the function.

4. Press or . The new values are calculated. The table and the Y= function are updated automatically.

Note: You also can use this feature to view the function that defines a dependent variable without having to leave the table.

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Displaying the Table

The Table

To display the table, press y 0.

Current cell

Independent-variable values in the first column

Dependent-variable values in the second and third columns

Current cells full value

Note: The table abbreviates the values, if necessary.

Independent and Dependent Variables

The current graphing mode determines which independent and dependent variables are displayed in the table (Chapter 1). In the table above, for example, the independent variable X and the dependent variables Y1 and Y2 are displayed because Func graphing mode is set.

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Graphing Mode Independent Variable Dependent Variable

Func (function) X Y1 through Y9, and Y0

Par (parametric) T X1T/Y1T through X6T/Y6T

Pol (polar) q r1 through r6

Seq (sequence) n u(n), v(n), and w(n)

Clearing the Table from the Home Screen or a Program

From the home screen, select the ClrTable instruction from the CATALOG. To clear the table, press .

From a program, select 9:ClrTable from the PRGM I/O menu or from the CATALOG. The table is cleared upon execution. If IndpntAsk is selected, all independent and dependent variable values on the table are cleared. If DependAsk is selected, all dependent variable values on the table are cleared.

Scrolling Independent-Variable Values

If Indpnt: Auto is selected, you can press } and in the independent- variable column to display more values. As you scroll the column, the corresponding dependent-variable values also are displayed. All dependent-variable values may not be displayed if Depend: Ask is selected.

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Note: You can scroll back from the value entered for TblStart. As you scroll, TblStart is updated automatically to the value shown on the top line of the table. In the example above, TblStart=0 and @Tbl=1 generates and displays values of X=0, , 6; but you can press } to scroll back and display the table for X=M1, , 5.

Displaying Other Dependent Variables

If you have defined more than two dependent variables, the first two selected Y= functions are displayed initially. Press ~ or | to display dependent variables defined by other selected Y= functions. The independent variable always remains in the left column, except during a trace with Par graphing mode and G.T split-screen mode set.

Tip: To simultaneously display two dependent variables on the table that are not defined as consecutive Y= functions, go to the Y= editor and deselect the Y= functions between the two you want to display. For example, to simultaneously display Y4 and Y7 on the table, go to the Y= editor and deselect Y5 and Y6.

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Chapter 8: Draw Instructions

Getting Started: Drawing a Tangent Line

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

Suppose you want to find the equation of the tangent line at X = 2/2 for the function Y = sin(X).

Before you begin, select Radian and Func mode from the mode screen, if necessary.

1. Press o to display the Y= editor. Press to store sin(X) in Y1.

2. Press q 7 to select 7:ZTrig, which graphs the equation in the Zoom Trig window.

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3. Press y < 5 to select 5:Tangent(. The tangent instruction is initiated.

4. Press y C 2 2.

5. Press . The tangent line is drawn; the X value and the tangent-line equation are displayed on the graph.

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Using the DRAW Menu

DRAW Menu

To display the DRAW menu, press y <. The TI-83 Pluss interpretation of these instructions depends on whether you accessed the menu from the home screen or the program editor or directly from a graph.

DRAW POINTS STO

1:ClrDraw Clears all drawn elements. 2:Line( Draws a line segment between 2 points. 3:Horizontal Draws a horizontal line. 4:Vertical Draws a vertical line. 5:Tangent( Draws a line segment tangent to a function. 6:DrawF Draws a function. 7:Shade( Shades an area between two functions. 8:DrawInv Draws the inverse of a function. 9:Circle( Draws a circle. 0:Text( Draws text on a graph screen. A:Pen Activates the free-form drawing tool.

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Before Drawing on a Graph

The DRAW instructions draw on top of graphs. Therefore, before you use the DRAW instructions, consider whether you want to perform one or more of the following actions.

Change the mode settings on the mode screen.

Change the format settings on the format screen.

Enter or edit functions in the Y= editor.

Select or deselect functions in the Y= editor.

Change the window variable values.

Turn stat plots on or off.

Clear existing drawings with ClrDraw.

Note: If you draw on a graph and then perform any of the actions listed above, the graph is replotted without the drawings when you display the graph again.

Drawing on a Graph

You can use any DRAW menu instructions except DrawInv to draw on Func, Par, Pol, and Seq graphs. DrawInv is valid only in Func graphing. The coordinates for all DRAW instructions are the displays x-coordinate and y-coordinate values.

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You can use most DRAW menu and DRAW POINTS menu instructions to draw directly on a graph, using the cursor to identify the coordinates. You also can execute these instructions from the home screen or from within a program. If a graph is not displayed when you select a DRAW

menu instruction, the home screen is displayed.

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Clearing Drawings

Clearing Drawings When a Graph Is Displayed

All points, lines, and shading drawn on a graph with DRAW instructions are temporary.

To clear drawings from the currently displayed graph, select 1:ClrDraw from the DRAW menu. The current graph is replotted and displayed with no drawn elements.

Clearing Drawings from the Home Screen or a Program

To clear drawings on a graph from the home screen or a program, begin on a blank line on the home screen or in the program editor. Select 1:ClrDraw from the DRAW menu. The instruction is copied to the cursor location. Press .

When ClrDraw is executed, it clears all drawings from the current graph and displays the message Done. When you display the graph again, all drawn points, lines, circles, and shaded areas will be gone.

Note: Before you clear drawings, you can store them with StorePic.

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Drawing Line Segments

Drawing a Line Segment Directly on a Graph

To draw a line segment when a graph is displayed, follow these steps.

1. Select 2:Line( from the DRAW menu.

2. Place the cursor on the point where you want the line segment to begin, and then press .

3. Move the cursor to the point where you want the line segment to end. The line is displayed as you move the cursor. Press .

To continue drawing line segments, repeat steps 2 and 3. To cancel Line(, press .

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Drawing a Line Segment from the Home Screen or a Program

Line( also draws a line segment between the coordinates (X1,Y1) and (X2,Y2). The values may be entered as expressions.

Line(X1,Y1,X2,Y2)

To erase a line segment, enter Line(X1,Y1,X2,Y2,0)

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Drawing Horizontal and Vertical Lines

Drawing a Line Directly on a Graph

To draw a horizontal or vertical line when a graph is displayed, follow these steps.

1. Select 3:Horizontal or 4:Vertical from the DRAW menu. A line is displayed that moves as you move the cursor.

2. Place the cursor on the y-coordinate (for horizontal lines) or x-coordinate (for vertical lines) through which you want the drawn line to pass.

3. Press to draw the line on the graph.

To continue drawing lines, repeat steps 2 and 3.

To cancel Horizontal or Vertical, press .

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Drawing a Line from the Home Screen or a Program

Horizontal (horizontal line) draws a horizontal line at Y=y. y can be an expression but not a list.

Horizontal y

Vertical (vertical line) draws a vertical line at X=x. x can be an expression but not a list.

Vertical x

To instruct the TI-83 Plus to draw more than one horizontal or vertical line, separate each instruction with a colon ( : ).

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Drawing Tangent Lines

Drawing a Tangent Line Directly on a Graph

To draw a tangent line when a graph is displayed, follow these steps.

1. Select 5:Tangent( from the DRAW menu.

2. Press and } to move the cursor to the function for which you want to draw the tangent line. The current graphs Y= function is displayed in the top-left corner, if ExprOn is selected.

3. Press ~ and | or enter a number to select the point on the function at which you want to draw the tangent line.

4. Press . In Func mode, the X value at which the tangent line was drawn is displayed on the bottom of the screen, along with the equation of the tangent line. In all other modes, the dy/dx value is displayed.

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Tip: Change the fixed decimal setting on the mode screen if you want to see fewer digits displayed for X and the equation for Y.

Drawing a Tangent Line from the Home Screen or a Program

Tangent( (tangent line) draws a line tangent to expression in terms of X, such as Y1 or X2, at point X=value. X can be an expression. expression is interpreted as being in Func mode.

Tangent(expression,value)

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Drawing Functions and Inverses

Drawing a Function

DrawF (draw function) draws expression as a function in terms of X on the current graph. When you select 6:DrawF from the DRAW menu, the TI-83 Plus returns to the home screen or the program editor. DrawF is not interactive.

DrawF expression

Note: You cannot use a list in expression to draw a family of curves.

Drawing an Inverse of a Function

DrawInv (draw inverse) draws the inverse of expression by plotting X values on the y-axis and Y values on the x-axis. When you select 8:DrawInv from the DRAW menu, the TI-83 Plus returns to the home screen or the program editor. DrawInv is not interactive. DrawInv works in Func mode only.

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DrawInv expression

Note: You cannot use a list in expression to draw a family of curves.

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Shading Areas on a Graph

Shading a Graph

To shade an area on a graph, select 7:Shade( from the DRAW menu. The instruction is pasted to the home screen or to the program editor.

Shade( draws lowerfunc and upperfunc in terms of X on the current graph and shades the area that is specifically above lowerfunc and below upperfunc. Only the areas where lowerfunc < upperfunc are shaded.

Xleft and Xright, if included, specify left and right boundaries for the shading. Xleft and Xright must be numbers between Xmin and Xmax, which are the defaults.

pattern specifies one of four shading patterns.

pattern=1 vertical (default) pattern=2 horizontal pattern=3 negativeslope 45 pattern=4 positiveslope 45

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patres specifies one of eight shading resolutions.

patres=1 shades every pixel (default) patres=2 shades every second pixel patres=3 shades every third pixel patres=4 shades every fourth pixel patres=5 shades every fifth pixel patres=6 shades every sixth pixel patres=7 shades every seventh pixel patres=8 shades every eighth pixel

Shade(lowerfunc,upperfunc[,Xleft,Xright,pattern,patres])

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Drawing Circles

Drawing a Circle Directly on a Graph

To draw a circle directly on a displayed graph using the cursor, follow these steps.

1. Select 9:Circle( from the DRAW menu.

2. Place the cursor at the center of the circle you want to draw. Press .

3. Move the cursor to a point on the circumference. Press to draw the circle on the graph.

Note: This circle is displayed as circular, regardless of the window variable values, because you drew it directly on the display. When you use the Circle( instruction from the home screen or a program, the current window variables may distort the shape.

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To continue drawing circles, repeat steps 2 and 3. To cancel Circle(, press .

Drawing a Circle from the Home Screen or a Program

Circle( draws a circle with center (X,Y) and radius. These values can be expressions.

Circle(X,Y,radius)

Tip: When you use Circle( on the home screen or from a program, the current window values may distort the drawn circle. Use ZSquare (Chapter 3) before drawing the circle to adjust the window variables and make the circle circular.

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Placing Text on a Graph

Placing Text Directly on a Graph

To place text on a graph when the graph is displayed, follow these steps.

1. Select 0:Text( from the DRAW menu.

2. Place the cursor where you want the text to begin.

3. Enter the characters. Press or y 7 to enter letters and q. You may enter TI-83 Plus functions, variables, and instructions. The font is proportional, so the exact number of characters you can place on the graph varies. As you type, the characters are placed on top of the graph.

To cancel Text(, press .

Placing Text on a Graph from the Home Screen or a Program

Text( places on the current graph the characters comprising value, which can include TI-83 Plus functions and instructions. The top-left corner of the first character is at pixel (row,column), where row is an integer between 0 and 57 and column is an integer between 0 and 94. Both row and column can be expressions.

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Text(row,column,value,value)

value can be text enclosed in quotation marks ( " ), or it can be an expression. The TI-83 Plus will evaluate an expression and display the result with up to 10 characters.

Split Screen

On a Horiz split screen, the maximum value for row is 25. On a G.T split screen, the maximum value for row is 45, and the maximum value for column is 46.

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Using Pen to Draw on a Graph

Using Pen to Draw on a Graph

Pen draws directly on a graph only. You cannot execute Pen from the home screen or a program.

To draw on a displayed graph, follow these steps.

1. Select A:Pen from the DRAW menu.

2. Place the cursor on the point where you want to begin drawing. Press to turn on the pen.

3. Move the cursor. As you move the cursor, you draw on the graph, shading one pixel at a time.

4. Press to turn off the pen.

For example, Pen was used to create the arrow pointing to the local minimum of the selected function.

Note: To continue drawing on the graph, move the cursor to a new position where you want to begin drawing again, and then repeat steps 2, 3, and 4. To cancel Pen, press .

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Drawing Points on a Graph

DRAW POINTS Menu

To display the DRAW POINTS menu, press y < ~. The TI-83 Pluss interpretation of these instructions depends on whether you accessed this menu from the home screen or the program editor or directly from a graph.

DRAW POINTS STO 1:Pt-On( Turns on a point. 2:Pt-Off( Turns off a point. 3:Pt-Change( Toggles a point on or off. 4:Pxl-On( Turns on a pixel. 5:Pxl-Off( Turns off a pixel. 6:Pxl-Change( Toggles a pixel on or off. 7:pxl-Test( Returns 1 if pixel on, 0 if pixel off.

Drawing Points Directly on a Graph with Pt.On(

To draw a point on a graph, follow these steps.

1. Select 1:Pt.On( from the DRAW POINTS menu.

2. Move the cursor to the position where you want to draw the point.

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3. Press to draw the point.

To continue drawing points, repeat steps 2 and 3. To cancel Pt.On(, press .

Erasing Points with Pt.Off(

To erase (turn off) a drawn point on a graph, follow these steps.

1. Select 2:Pt.Off( (point off) from the DRAW POINTS menu.

2. Move the cursor to the point you want to erase.

3. Press to erase the point.

To continue erasing points, repeat steps 2 and 3. To cancel Pt.Off(, press .

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Changing Points with Pt.Change(

To change (toggle on or off) a point on a graph, follow these steps.

1. Select 3:Pt.Change( (point change) from the DRAW POINTS menu.

2. Move the cursor to the point you want to change.

3. Press to change the points on/off status.

To continue changing points, repeat steps 2 and 3. To cancel Pt.Change(, press .

Drawing Points from the Home Screen or a Program

Pt.On( (point on) turns on the point at (X=x,Y=y). Pt.Off( turns the point off. Pt.Change( toggles the point on or off. mark is optional; it determines the points appearance; specify 1, 2, or 3, where:

1 = (dot; default) 2 = (box) 3 = + (cross)

Pt.On(x,y[,mark]) Pt.Off(x,y[,mark]) Pt.Change(x,y)

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Note: If you specified mark to turn on a point with Pt.On(, you must specify mark when you turn off the point with Pt.Off(. Pt.Change( does not have the mark option.

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Drawing Pixels

TI-83 Plus Pixels

A pixel is a square dot on the TI-83 Plus display. The Pxl. (pixel) instructions let you turn on, turn off, or reverse a pixel (dot) on the graph using the cursor. When you select a pixel instruction from the DRAW

POINTS menu, the TI-83 Plus returns to the home screen or the program editor. The pixel instructions are not interactive.

Turning On and Off Pixels with Pxl.On( and Pxl.Off(

Pxl.On( (pixel on) turns on the pixel at (row,column), where row is an integer between 0 and 62 and column is an integer between 0 and 94.

Pxl.Off( turns the pixel off. Pxl.Change( toggles the pixel on and off.

Pxl.On(row,column) Pxl.Off(row,column) Pxl.Change(row,column)

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Using pxl.Test(

pxl.Test( (pixel test) returns 1 if the pixel at (row,column) is turned on or 0 if the pixel is turned off on the current graph. row must be an integer between 0 and 62. column must be an integer between 0 and 94.

pxl.Test(row,column)

Split Screen

On a Horiz split screen, the maximum value for row is 30 for Pxl.On(, Pxl.Off(, Pxl.Change(, and pxl.Test(.

On a G.T split screen, the maximum value for row is 50 and the maximum value for column is 46 for Pxl.On(, Pxl.Off(, Pxl.Change(, and pxl.Test(.

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Storing Graph Pictures (Pic)

DRAW STO Menu

To display the DRAW STO menu, press y < |. When you select an instruction from the DRAW STO menu, the TI-83 Plus returns to the home screen or the program editor. The picture and graph database instructions are not interactive.

DRAW POINTS STO

1: StorePic Stores the current picture. 2: RecallPic Recalls a saved picture. 3: StoreGDB Stores the current graph database. 4: RecallGDB Recalls a saved graph database.

Storing a Graph Picture

You can store up to 10 graph pictures, each of which is an image of the current graph display, in picture variables Pic1 through Pic9, or Pic0. Later, you can superimpose the stored picture onto a displayed graph from the home screen or a program.

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A picture includes drawn elements, plotted functions, axes, and tick marks. The picture does not include axes labels, lower and upper bound indicators, prompts, or cursor coordinates. Any parts of the display hidden by these items are stored with the picture.

To store a graph picture, follow these steps.

1. Select 1:StorePic from the DRAW STO menu. StorePic is pasted to the current cursor location.

2. Enter the number (from 1 to 9, or 0) of the picture variable to which you want to store the picture. For example, if you enter 3, the TI-83 Plus will store the picture to Pic3.

Note: You also can select a variable from the PICTURE secondary menu ( 4). The variable is pasted next to StorePic.

3. Press to display the current graph and store the picture.

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Recalling Graph Pictures (Pic)

Recalling a Graph Picture

To recall a graph picture, follow these steps.

1. Select 2:RecallPic from the DRAW STO menu. RecallPic is pasted to the current cursor location.

2. Enter the number (from 1 to 9, or 0) of the picture variable from which you want to recall a picture. For example, if you enter 3, the TI-83 Plus will recall the picture stored to Pic3.

Note: You also can select a variable from the PICTURE secondary menu ( 4). The variable is pasted next to RecallPic.

3. Press to display the current graph with the picture superimposed on it.

Note: Pictures are drawings. You cannot trace a curve that is part of a picture.

Deleting a Graph Picture

To delete graph pictures from memory, use the MEMORY MANAGEMENT /DELETE secondary menu(Chapter 18).

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Storing Graph Databases (GDB)

What Is a Graph Database?

A graph database (GDB) contains the set of elements that defines a particular graph. You can recreate the graph from these elements. You can store up to 10 GDBs in variables GDB1 through GDB9, or GDB0 and recall them to recreate graphs.

A GDB stores five elements of a graph.

Graphing mode Window variables Format settings All functions in the Y= editor and the selection status of each Graph style for each Y= function

GDBs do not contain drawn items or stat plot definitions.

Storing a Graph Database

To store a graph database, follow these steps.

1. Select 3:StoreGDB from the DRAW STO menu. StoreGDB is pasted to the current cursor location.

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2. Enter the number (from 1 to 9, or 0) of the GDB variable to which you want to store the graph database. For example, if you enter 7, the TI-83 Plus will store the GDB to GDB7.

Note: You also can select a variable from the GDB secondary menu ( 3). The variable is pasted next to StoreGDB.

3. Press to store the current database to the specified GDB

variable.

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Recalling Graph Databases (GDB)

Recalling a Graph Database

CAUTION: When you recall a GDB, it replaces all existing Y= functions. Consider storing the current Y= functions to another database before recalling a stored GDB.

To recall a graph database, follow these steps.

1. Select 4:RecallGDB from the DRAW STO menu. RecallGDB is pasted to the current cursor location.

2. Enter the number (from 1 to 9, or 0) of the GDB variable from which you want to recall a GDB. For example, if you enter 7, the TI-83 Plus will recall the GDB stored to GDB7.

Note: You also can select a variable from the GDB secondary menu ( 3). The variable is pasted next to RecallGDB.

3. Press to replace the current GDB with the recalled GDB. The new graph is not plotted. The TI-83 Plus changes the graphing mode automatically, if necessary.

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Deleting a Graph Database

To delete a GDB from memory, use the MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE secondary menu (Chapter 18).

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Chapter 9: Split Screen

Getting Started: Exploring the Unit Circle

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

Use G.T (graph-table) split-screen mode to explore the unit circle and its relationship to the numeric values for the commonly used trigonometric angles of 0, 30, 45, 60, 90, and so on.

1. Press z to display the mode screen. Press ~ to select Degree mode. Press ~ to select Par (parametric) graphing mode.

Press ~ ~ to select G.T (graph-table) split-screen mode.

2. Press y. to display the format screen. Press ~ to select ExprOff.

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3. Press o to display the Y= editor for Par graphing mode. Press to store cos(T) to X1T. Press to store sin(T) to Y1T.

4. Press p to display the window editor. Enter these values for the window variables.

Tmin=0 Xmin=L2.3 Ymin=L2.5 Tmax=360 Xmax=2.3 Ymax=2.5 Tstep=15 Xscl=1 Yscl=1

5. Press r. On the left, the unit circle is graphed parametrically in Degree mode and the trace cursor is activated. When T=0 (from the graph trace coordinates), you can see from the table on the right that the value of X1T (cos(T)) is 1 and Y1T (sin(T)) is 0. Press ~ to move the cursor to the next 15 angle increment. As you trace around the circle in steps of 15, an approximation of the standard value for each angle is highlighted in the table.

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Using Split Screen

Setting a Split-Screen Mode

To set a split-screen mode, press z, and then move the cursor to the bottom line of the mode screen.

Select Horiz (horizontal) to display the graph screen and another screen split horizontally.

Select G.T (graph-table) to display the graph screen and table screen split vertically.

$ $

The split screen is activated when you press any key that applies to either half of the split screen.

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Some screens are never displayed as split screens. For example, if you press z in Horiz or G.T mode, the mode screen is displayed as a full screen. If you then press a key that displays either half of a split screen, such as r, the split screen returns.

When you press a key or key combination in either Horiz or G.T mode, the cursor is placed in the half of the display for which that key applies. For example, if you press r, the cursor is placed in the half in which the graph is displayed. If you press y 0, the cursor is placed in the half in which the table is displayed.

The TI-83 Plus will remain in split-screen mode until you change back to Full screen mode.

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Horiz (Horizontal) Split Screen

Horiz Mode

In Horiz (horizontal) split-screen mode, a horizontal line splits the screen into top and bottom halves.

The top half displays the graph.

The bottom half displays any of these editors.

Home screen (four lines)

Y= editor (four lines)

Stat list editor (two rows)

Window editor (three settings)

Table editor (two rows)

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Moving from Half to Half in Horiz Mode

To use the top half of the split screen:

Press or .

Select a ZOOM or CALC operation.

To use the bottom half of the split screen:

Press any key or key combination that displays the home screen.

Press o (Y= editor).

Press (stat list editor).

Press p (window editor).

Press y 0 (table editor).

Full Screens in Horiz Mode

All other screens are displayed as full screens in Horiz split-screen mode.

To return to the Horiz split screen from a full screen when in Horiz mode, press any key or key combination that displays the graph, home screen, Y= editor, stat list editor, window editor, or table editor.

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G.T (Graph-Table) Split Screen

G.T Mode

In G.T (graph-table) split-screen mode, a vertical line splits the screen into left and right halves.

The left half displays the graph.

The right half displays the table.

Moving from Half to Half in G.T Mode

To use the left half of the split screen:

Press or .

Select a ZOOM or CALC operation.

To use the right half of the split screen, press y 0.

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Using r in G.T Mode

As you move the trace cursor along a graph in the split screens left half in G.T mode, the table on the right half automatically scrolls to match the current cursor values.

Note: When you trace in Par graphing mode, both components of an equation (XnT and YnT) are displayed in the two columns of the table. As you trace, the current value of the independent variable T is displayed on the graph.

Full Screens in G.T Mode

All screens other than the graph and the table are displayed as full screens in G.T split-screen mode.

To return to the G.T split screen from a full screen when in G.T mode, press any key or key combination that displays the graph or the table.

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TI-83 Plus Pixels in Horiz and G.T Modes

TI-83 Plus Pixels in Horiz and G.T Modes

Note: Each set of numbers in parentheses above represents the row and column of a corner pixel, which is turned on.

DRAW POINTS Menu Pixel Instructions

For Pxl.On(, Pxl.Off(, Pxl.Change(, and pxl.Test(:

In Horiz mode, row must be {30; column must be {94.

In G.T mode, row must be {50; column must be {46.

Pxl.On(row,column)

DRAW Menu Text( Instruction

For the Text( instruction:

In Horiz mode, row must be {25; column must be {94.

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In G.T mode, row must be {45; column must be {46.

Text(row,column,"text")

PRGM I/O Menu Output( Instruction

For the Output( instruction:

In Horiz mode, row must be {4; column must be {16.

In G.T mode, row must be {8; column must be {16.

Output(row,column,"text")

Setting a Split-Screen Mode from the Home Screen or a Program

To set Horiz or G.T from a program, follow these steps.

1. Press z while the cursor is on a blank line in the program editor.

2. Select Horiz or G.T.

The instruction is pasted to the cursor location. The mode is set when the instruction is encountered during program execution. It remains in effect after execution.

Note: You also can paste Horiz or G.T to the home screen or program editor from the CATALOG (Chapter 15).

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Chapter 10: Matrices

Getting Started: Systems of Linear Equations

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

Find the solution of X + 2Y + 3Z = 3 and 2X + 3Y + 4Z = 3. On the TI-83 Plus, you can solve a system of linear equations by entering the coefficients as elements in a matrix, and then using rref( to obtain the reduced row-echelon form.

1. Press y >. Press ~ ~ to display the MATRX EDIT menu. Press 1 to select 1: [A]

2. Press 2 4 to define a 24 matrix. The rectangular cursor indicates the current element. Ellipses (...) indicate additional columns beyond the screen.

3. Press 1 to enter the first element. The rectangular cursor moves to the second column of the first row.

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4. Press 2 3 3 to complete the first row for X + 2Y + 3Z = 3.

5. Press 2 3 4 3 to enter the second row for 2X + 3Y + 4Z = 3.

6. Press y 5 to return to the home screen. If necessary, press to clear the home screen. Press y > ~ to display the MATRX MATH menu. Press } to wrap to the end of the menu. Select B:rref( to copy rref( to the home screen.

7. Press y > 1 to select 1: [A] from the MATRX NAMES menu. Press . The reduced row-echelon form of the matrix is displayed and stored in Ans.

1X N 1Z = L3 therefore X = L3 + Z 1Y + 2Z = 3 therefore Y = 3 N 2Z

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Defining a Matrix

What Is a Matrix?

A matrix is a two-dimensional array. You can display, define, or edit a matrix in the matrix editor. The TI-83 Plus has 10 matrix variables, [A] through [J]. You can define a matrix directly in an expression. A matrix, depending on available memory, may have up to 99 rows or columns. You can store only real numbers in TI-83 Plus matrices.

Selecting a Matrix

Before you can define or display a matrix in the editor, you first must select the matrix name. To do so, follow these steps.

1. Press y > | to display the MATRX EDIT menu. The dimensions of any previously defined matrices are displayed.

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2. Select the matrix you want to define. The MATRX EDIT screen is displayed.

Accepting or Changing Matrix Dimensions

The dimensions of the matrix (row column) are displayed on the top line. The dimensions of a new matrix are 1 1. You must accept or change the dimensions each time you edit a matrix. When you select a matrix to define, the cursor highlights the row dimension.

To accept the row dimension, press .

To change the row dimension, enter the number of rows (up to 99), and then press .

The cursor moves to the column dimension, which you must accept or change the same way you accepted or changed the row dimension. When you press , the rectangular cursor moves to the first matrix element.

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Viewing and Editing Matrix Elements

Displaying Matrix Elements

After you have set the dimensions of the matrix, you can view the matrix and enter values for the matrix elements. In a new matrix, all values are zero.

Select the matrix from the MATRX EDIT menu and enter or accept the dimensions. The center portion of the matrix editor displays up to seven rows and three columns of a matrix, showing the values of the elements in abbreviated form if necessary. The full value of the current element, which is indicated by the rectangular cursor, is displayed on the bottom line.

This is an 8 4 matrix. Ellipses in the left or right column indicate additional columns. # or $ in the right column indicate additional rows.

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Deleting a Matrix

To delete matrices from memory, use the MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE

secondary menu (Chapter 18).

Viewing a Matrix

The matrix editor has two contexts, viewing and editing. In viewing context, you can use the cursor keys to move quickly from one matrix element to the next. The full value of the highlighted element is displayed on the bottom line.

Select the matrix from the MATRX EDIT menu, and then enter or accept the dimensions.

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Viewing-Context Keys

Key Function

| or ~ Moves the rectangular cursor within the current row

or } Moves the rectangular cursor within the current column; on the top row, } moves the cursor to the column dimension; on the column dimension, } moves the cursor to the row dimension

Switches to editing context; activates the edit cursor on the bottom line

Switches to editing context; clears the value on the bottom line

Any entry character Switches to editing context; clears the value on the bottom line; copies the character to the bottom line

y 6 Nothing

{ Nothing

Editing a Matrix Element

In editing context, an edit cursor is active on the bottom line. To edit a matrix element value, follow these steps.

1. Select the matrix from the MATRX EDIT menu, and then enter or accept the dimensions.

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2. Press |, }, ~, and to move the cursor to the matrix element you want to change.

3. Switch to editing context by pressing , , or an entry key.

4. Change the value of the matrix element using the editing-context keys described below. You may enter an expression, which is evaluated when you leave editing context.

Note: You can press to restore the value at the rectangular cursor if you make a mistake.

5. Press , }, or to move to another element.

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Editing-Context Keys

Key Function

| or ~ Moves the edit cursor within the value

or } Stores the value displayed on the bottom line to the matrix element; switches to viewing context and moves the rectangular cursor within the column

Stores the value displayed on the bottom line to the matrix element; switches to viewing context and moves the rectangular cursor to the next row element

Clears the value on the bottom line

Any entry character Copies the character to the location of the edit cursor on the bottom line

y 6 Activates the insert cursor

{ Deletes the character under the edit cursor on the bottom line

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Using Matrices with Expressions

Using a Matrix in an Expression

To use a matrix in an expression, you can do any of the following.

Copy the name from the MATRX NAMES menu.

Recall the contents of the matrix into the expression with y K (Chapter 1).

Enter the matrix directly (see below).

Entering a Matrix in an Expression

You can enter, edit, and store a matrix in the matrix editor. You also can enter a matrix directly in an expression.

To enter a matrix in an expression, follow these steps.

1. Press y [ [ ] to indicate the beginning of the matrix.

2. Press y [ [ ] to indicate the beginning of a row.

3. Enter a value, which can be an expression, for each element in the row. Separate the values with commas.

4. Press y [ ] ] to indicate the end of a row.

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5. Repeat steps 2 through 4 to enter all of the rows.

6. Press y [ ] ] to indicate the end of the matrix.

Note: The closing ]] are not necessary at the end of an expression or preceding !.

The resulting matrix is displayed in the form:

[[element1,1,...,element1,n],...,[elementm,1,...,elementm,n]]

Any expressions are evaluated when the entry is executed.

Note: The commas that you must enter to separate elements are not displayed on output.

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Displaying and Copying Matrices

Displaying a Matrix

To display the contents of a matrix on the home screen, select the matrix from the MATRX NAMES menu, and then press .

Ellipses in the left or right column indicate additional columns. # or $ in the right column indicate additional rows. Press ~, |, , and } to scroll the matrix.

Copying One Matrix to Another

To copy a matrix, follow these steps.

1. Press y > to display the MATRX NAMES menu.

2. Select the name of the matrix you want to copy.

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3. Press .

4. Press y > again and select the name of the new matrix to which you want to copy the existing matrix.

5. Press to copy the matrix to the new matrix name.

Accessing a Matrix Element

On the home screen or from within a program, you can store a value to, or recall a value from, a matrix element. The element must be within the currently defined matrix dimensions. Select matrix from the MATRX NAMES

menu.

[matrix](row,column)

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Using Math Functions with Matrices

Using Math Functions with Matrices

You can use many of the math functions on the TI-83 Plus keyboard, the MATH menu, the MATH NUM menu, and the MATH TEST menu with matrices. However, the dimensions must be appropriate. Each of the functions below creates a new matrix; the original matrix remains the same.

+ (Add), (Subtract), (Multiply)

To add () or subtract () matrices, the dimensions must be the same. The answer is a matrix in which the elements are the sum or difference of the individual corresponding elements.

matrixA+matrixB matrixANmatrixB

To multiply () two matrices together, the column dimension of matrixA must match the row dimension of matrixB.

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matrixAmatrixB

Multiplying a matrix by a value or a value by a matrix returns a matrix in which each element of matrix is multiplied by value.

matrixvalue valuematrix

L (Negation)

Negating a matrix () returns a matrix in which the sign of every element is changed (reversed).

Lmatrix

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abs(

abs( (absolute value, MATH NUM menu) returns a matrix containing the absolute value of each element of matrix.

abs(matrix)

round(

round( (MATH NUM menu) returns a matrix. It rounds every element in matrix to #decimals ( 9). If #decimals is omitted, the elements are rounded to 10 digits.

round(matrix[,#decimals])

M1 (Inverse)

Use the L1 function () to invert a matrix (^L1 is not valid). matrix must be square. The determinant cannot equal zero.

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matrixL1

Powers

To raise a matrix to a power, matrix must be square. You can use 2 (), 3 (MATH menu), or ^power () for integer power between 0 and 255.

matrix2

matrix3

matrix^power

Relational Operations

To compare two matrices using the relational operations = and (TEST

menu), they must have the same dimensions. = and compare matrixA and matrixB on an element-by-element basis. The other relational operations are not valid with matrices.

matrixA=matrixB returns 1 if every comparison is true; it returns 0 if any comparison is false.

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matrixAmatrixB returns 1 if at least one comparison is false; it returns 0 if no comparison is false.

iPart(, fPart(, int(

iPart( (integer part), fPart( (fractional part), and int( (greatest integer) are on the MATH NUM menu.

iPart( returns a matrix containing the integer part of each element of matrix.

fPart( returns a matrix containing the fractional part of each element of matrix.

int( returns a matrix containing the greatest integer of each element of matrix.

iPart(matrix) fPart(matrix) int(matrix)

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Using the MATRX MATH Operations

MATRX MATH Menu

To display the MATRX MATH menu, press y > ~.

NAMES MATH EDIT 1: det( Calculates the determinant. 2: T Transposes the matrix. 3: dim( Returns the matrix dimensions. 4: Fill( Fills all elements with a constant. 5: identity( Returns the identity matrix. 6: randM( Returns a random matrix. 7: augment( Appends two matrices. 8: Matr4list( Stores a matrix to a list. 9: List4matr( Stores a list to a matrix. 0: c*msum( Returns the cumulative sums of a matrix. A: ref( Returns the row-echelon form of a matrix. B: rref( Returns the reduced row-echelon form. C: rowSwap( Swaps two rows of a matrix. D: row+( Adds two rows; stores in the second row. E: row( Multiplies the row by a number. F: row+( Multiplies the row, adds to the second row.

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det(

det( (determinant) returns the determinant (a real number) of a square matrix.

det(matrix)

T (Transpose)

T (transpose) returns a matrix in which each element (row, column) is swapped with the corresponding element (column, row) of matrix.

matrixT

Accessing Matrix Dimensions with dim(

dim( (dimension) returns a list containing the dimensions ({rowscolumns}) of matrix.

dim(matrix)

Note: dim(matrix)!Ln:Ln(1) returns the number of rows. dim(matrix)!Ln:Ln(2) returns the number of columns.

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Creating a Matrix with dim(

Use dim( with to create a new matrixname of dimensions rows columns with 0 as each element.

{rows,columns}!dim(matrixname)

Redimensioning a Matrix with dim(

Use dim( with to redimension an existing matrixname to dimensions rows columns. The elements in the old matrixname that are within the new dimensions are not changed. Additional created elements are zeros. Matrix elements that are outside the new dimensions are deleted.

{rows,columns}!dim(matrixname)

Fill(

Fill( stores value to every element in matrixname.

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Fill(value,matrixname)

identity(

identity( returns the identity matrix of dimension rows dimension columns.

identity(dimension)

randM(

randM( (create random matrix) returns a rows columns random matrix of integers L9 and 9. The seed value stored to the rand function controls the values (Chapter 2).

randM(rows,columns)

augment(

augment( appends matrixA to matrixB as new columns. matrixA and matrixB both must have the same number of rows.

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augment(matrixA,matrixB)

Matr4list(

Matr4list( (matrix stored to list) fills each listname with elements from each column in matrix. Matr4list( ignores extra listname arguments. Likewise, Matr4list( ignores extra matrix columns.

Matr4list(matrix,listnameA,...,listname n)

&

Matr4list( also fills a listname with elements from a specified column# in matrix. To fill a list with a specific column from matrix, you must enter column# after matrix.

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Matr4list(matrix,column#,listname)

&

List4matr(

List4matr( (lists stored to matrix) fills matrixname column by column with the elements from each list. If dimensions of all lists are not equal, List4matr( fills each extra matrixname row with 0. Complex lists are not valid.

List4matr(listA,...,list n,matrixname)

&

c*msum(

c*msum( returns cumulative sums of the elements in matrix, starting with the first element. Each element is the cumulative sum of the column from top to bottom.

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c*msum(matrix)

Row Operations

MATRX MATH menu items A through F are row operations. You can use a row operation in an expression. Row operations do not change matrix in memory. You can enter all row numbers and values as expressions. You can select the matrix from the MATRX NAMES menu.

ref(, rref(

ref( (row-echelon form) returns the row-echelon form of a real matrix. The number of columns must be greater than or equal to the number of rows.

ref(matrix)

rref( (reduced row-echelon form) returns the reduced row-echelon form of a real matrix. The number of columns must be greater than or equal to the number of rows.

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rref(matrix)

rowSwap(

rowSwap( returns a matrix. It swaps rowA and rowB of matrix.

rowSwap(matrix,rowA,rowB)

row+(

row+( (row addition) returns a matrix. It adds rowA and rowB of matrix and stores the results in rowB.

row+(matrix,rowA,rowB)

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row(

row( (row multiplication) returns a matrix. It multiplies row of matrix by value and stores the results in row.

row(value,matrix,row)

row+(

row+( (row multiplication and addition) returns a matrix. It multiplies rowA of matrix by value, adds it to rowB, and stores the results in rowB.

row+(value,matrix,rowA,rowB)

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Chapter 11: Lists

Getting Started: Generating a Sequence

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

Calculate the first eight terms of the sequence 1/A2. Store the results to a user- created list. Then display the results in fraction form. Begin this example on a blank line on the home screen.

1. Press y 9 ~ to display the LIST OPS menu.

2. Press 5 to select 5:seq(, which pastes seq( to the current cursor location.

3. Press 1 [A] [A] 1 8 1 to enter the sequence.

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4. Press , and then press y to turn on alpha-lock. Press [S] [E] [Q], and then press to turn off alpha-lock. Press 1 to complete the list name.

5. Press to generate the list and store it in SEQ1. The list is displayed on the home screen. An ellipsis (...) indicates that the list continues beyond the viewing window. Press ~ repeatedly (or press and hold ~) to scroll the list and view all the list elements.

6. Press y 9 to display the LIST NAMES menu. Press 7 to select 7:seq( to paste SEQ1 to the current cursor location. (If SEQ1 is not item 7 on your LIST NAMES menu, move the cursor to SEQ1 before you press .)

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7. Press to display the MATH menu. Press 1 to select 1:4Frac, which pastes 4Frac to the current cursor location.

8. Press to show the sequence in fraction form. Press ~ repeatedly (or press and hold ~) to scroll the list and view all the list elements.

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Naming Lists

Using TI-83 Plus List Names L1 through L6

The TI-83 Plus has six list names in memory: L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, and L6. The list names L1 through L6 are on the keyboard above the numeric keys through . To paste one of these names to a valid screen, press y, and then press the appropriate key. L1 through L6 are stored in stat list editor columns 1 through 6 when you reset memory.

Creating a List Name on the Home Screen

To create a list name on the home screen, follow these steps.

1. Press y E, enter one or more list elements, and then press y F. Separate list elements with commas. List elements can be real numbers, complex numbers, or expressions.

2. Press .

3. Press [letter from A to Z or q] to enter the first letter of the name.

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4. Enter zero to four letters, q, or numbers to complete the name.

5. Press . The list is displayed on the next line. The list name and its elements are stored in memory. The list name becomes an item on the LIST NAMES menu.

Note: If you want to view a user-created list in the stat list editor, you must store it in the stat list editor (Chapter 12).

You also can create a list name in these four places.

At the Name= prompt in the stat list editor

At an Xlist:, Ylist:, or Data List: prompt in the stat plot editor

At a List:, List1:, List2:, Freq:, Freq1:, Freq2:, XList:, or YList: prompt in the inferential stat editors

On the home screen using SetUpEditor

You can create as many list names as your TI-83 Plus memory has space to store.

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Storing and Displaying Lists

Storing Elements to a List

You can store list elements in either of two ways.

Use braces and on the home screen.

Use the stat list editor (Chapter 12).

The maximum dimension of a list is 999 elements.

Tip: When you store a complex number to a list, the entire list is converted to a list of complex numbers. To convert the list to a list of real numbers, display the home screen, and then enter real(listname)!listname.

Displaying a List on the Home Screen

To display the elements of a list on the home screen, enter the name of the list (preceded by , if necessary, and then press . An ellipsis indicates that the list continues beyond the viewing window. Press ~ repeatedly (or press and hold ~) to scroll the list and view all the list elements.

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Copying One List to Another

To copy a list, store it to another list.

Accessing a List Element

You can store a value to or recall a value from a specific list element. You can store to any element within the current list dimension or one element beyond.

listname(element)

Deleting a List from Memory

To delete lists from memory, including L1 through L6, use the MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE secondary menu (Chapter 18). Resetting memory restores L1 through L6. Removing a list from the stat list editor does not delete it from memory.

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Using Lists in Graphing

You can use lists to graph a family of curves (Chapter 3).

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Entering List Names

Using the LIST NAMES Menu

To display the LIST NAMES menu, press y 9. Each item is a user- created list name. LIST NAMES menu items are sorted automatically in alphanumerical order. Only the first 10 items are labeled, using 1 through 9, then 0. To jump to the first list name that begins with a particular alpha character or q, press [letter from A to Z or q].

Tip: From the top of a menu, press } to move to the bottom. From the bottom, press to move to the top.

Note: The LIST NAMES menu omits list names L1 through L6. Enter L1 through L6 directly from the keyboard.

When you select a list name from the LIST NAMES menu, the list name is pasted to the current cursor location.

The list name symbol precedes a list name when the name is pasted where non-list name data also is valid, such as the home screen.

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The symbol does not precede a list name when the name is pasted where a list name is the only valid input, such as the stat list editors Name= prompt or the stat plot editors XList: and YList: prompts.

Entering a User-Created List Name Directly

To enter an existing list name directly, follow these steps.

1. Press y 9 ~ to display the LIST OPS menu.

2. Select B:, which pastes to the current cursor location. is not always necessary.

Note: You also can paste to the current cursor location from the CATALOG (Chapter 15).

3. Enter the characters that comprise the list name.

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Attaching Formulas to List Names

Attaching a Formula to a List Name

You can attach a formula to a list name so that each list element is a result of the formula. When executed, the attached formula must resolve to a list.

When anything in the attached formula changes, the list to which the formula is attached is updated automatically.

When you edit an element of a list that is referenced in the formula, the corresponding element in the list to which the formula is attached is updated.

When you edit the formula itself, all elements in the list to which the formula is attached are updated.

For example, the first screen below shows that elements are stored to L3, and the formula L3+10 is attached to the list name ADD10. The quotation marks designate the formula to be attached to ADD10. Each element of ADD10 is the sum of an element in L3 and 10.

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The next screen shows another list, L4. The elements of L4 are the sum of the same formula that is attached to L3. However, quotation marks are not entered, so the formula is not attached to L4.

On the next line, L6!L3(1):L3 changes the first element in L3 to L6, and then redisplays L3.

The last screen shows that editing L3 updated ADD10, but did not change L4. This is because the formula L3+10 is attached to ADD10, but it is not attached to L4.

Note: To view a formula that is attached to a list name, use the stat list editor (Chapter 12).

Attaching a Formula to a List on the Home Screen or in a Program

To attach a formula to a list name from a blank line on the home screen or from a program, follow these steps.

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1. Press [], enter the formula (which must resolve to a list), and press [] again.

Note: When you include more than one list name in a formula, each list must have the same dimension.

2. Press .

3. Enter the name of the list to which you want to attach the formula.

Press y, and then enter a TI-83 Plus list name L1 through L6.

Press y 9 and select a user.created list name from the LIST NAMES menu.

Enter a user.created list name directly using .

4. Press .

Note: The stat list editor displays a formula-lock symbol next to each list name that has an attached formula. Chapter 12 describes how to use the stat list editor to attach formulas to lists, edit attached formulas, and detach formulas from lists.

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Detaching a Formula from a List

You can detach (clear) an attached formula from a list in several ways.

For example:

Enter ""!listname on the home screen.

Edit any element of a list to which a formula is attached.

Use the stat list editor (Chapter 12).

Use ClrList or ClrAllList to detach a formula from a list (Chapter 18).

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Using Lists in Expressions

Using a List in an Expression

You can use lists in an expression in any of three ways. When you press , any expression is evaluated for each list element, and a list is displayed.

Use L1L6 or any user-created list name in an expression.

Enter the list elements directly.

Use y K to recall the contents of the list into an expression at the cursor location (Chapter 1).

&

Note: You must paste user-created list names to the Rcl prompt by selecting them from the LIST NAMES menu. You cannot enter them directly using .

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Using Lists with Math Functions

You can use a list to input several values for some math functions. Other chapters and Appendix A specify whether a list is valid. The function is evaluated for each list element, and a list is displayed.

When you use a list with a function, the function must be valid for every element in the list. In graphing, an invalid element, such as L1 in ({1,0,L1}), is ignored.

This returns an error.

This graphs X(1) and X(0), but skips X(L1).

When you use two lists with a two-argument function, the dimension of each list must be the same. The function is evaluated for corresponding elements.

When you use a list and a value with a two-argument function, the value is used with each element in the list.

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LIST OPS Menu

LIST OPS Menu

To display the LIST OPS menu, press y 9 ~.

NAMES OPS MATH 1: SortA( Sorts lists in ascending order. 2: SortD( Sorts lists in descending order. 3: dim( Sets the list dimension. 4: Fill( Fills all elements with a constant. 5: seq( Creates a sequence. 6: c*msum( Returns a list of cumulative sums. 7: @List( Returns difference of successive elements. 8: Select( Selects specific data points. 9: augment( Concatenates two lists. 0: List4matr( Stores a list to a matrix. A: Matr4list( Stores a matrix to a list. B: Designates the list-name data type.

SortA(, SortD(

SortA( (sort ascending) sorts list elements from low to high values. SortD( (sort descending) sorts list elements from high to low values. Complex lists are sorted based on magnitude (modulus).

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With one list, SortA( and SortD( sort the elements of listname and update the list in memory.

SortA(listname) SortD(listname)

With two or more lists, SortA( and SortD( sort keylistname, and then sort each dependlist by placing its elements in the same order as the corresponding elements in keylistname. All lists must have the same dimension.

SortA(keylistname,dependlist1[,dependlist2,...,dependlist n]) SortD(keylistname,dependlist1[,dependlist2,...,dependlist n])

Note: In the example, 5 is the first element in L4, and 1 is the first element in L5. After SortA(L4,L5), 5 becomes the second element of L4, and likewise, 1 becomes the second element of L5.

Note: SortA( and SortD( are the same as SortA( and SortD( on the STAT EDIT menu (Chapter 12).

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Using dim( to Find List Dimensions

dim( (dimension) returns the length (number of elements) of list.

dim(list)

Using dim( to Create a List

You can use dim( with to create a new listname with dimension length from 1 to 999. The elements are zeros.

length!dim(listname)

Using dim( to Redimension a List

You can use dim with to redimension an existing listname to dimension length from 1 to 999.

The elements in the old listname that are within the new dimension are not changed.

Extra list elements are filled by 0.

Elements in the old list that are outside the new dimension are deleted.

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length!dim(listname)

Fill(

Fill( replaces each element in listname with value.

Fill(value,listname)

Note: dim( and Fill( are the same as dim( and Fill( on the MATRX MATH menu (Chapter 10).

seq(

seq( (sequence) returns a list in which each element is the result of the evaluation of expression with regard to variable for the values ranging from begin to end at steps of increment. variable need not be defined in memory. increment can be negative; the default value for increment is 1. seq( is not valid within expression. Complex lists are not valid.

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seq(expression,variable,begin,end[,increment])

c*msum(

c*msum( (cumulative sum) returns the cumulative sums of the elements in list, starting with the first element. list elements can be real or complex numbers.

c*msum(list)

@List(

@List( returns a list containing the differences between consecutive elements in list. @List subtracts the first element in list from the second element, subtracts the second element from the third, and so on. The list of differences is always one element shorter than the original list. list elements can be a real or complex numbers.

@List(list)

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Select(

Select( selects one or more specific data points from a scatter plot or xyLine plot (only), and then stores the selected data points to two new lists, xlistname and ylistname. For example, you can use Select( to select and then analyze a portion of plotted CBL 2/CBL or CBR data.

Select(xlistname,ylistname)

Note: Before you use Select(, you must have selected (turned on) a scatter plot or xyLine plot. Also, the plot must be displayed in the current viewing window.

Before Using Select(

Before using Select(, follow these steps.

1. Create two list names and enter the data.

2. Turn on a stat plot, select " (scatter plot) or (xyLine), and enter the two list names for Xlist: and Ylist: (Chapter 12).

3. Use ZoomStat to plot the data (Chapter 3).

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Using Select( to Select Data Points from a Plot

To select data points from a scatter plot or xyLine plot, follow these steps.

1. Press y 9 ~ 8 to select 8:Select( from the LIST OPS menu. Select( is pasted to the home screen.

2. Enter xlistname, press , enter ylistname, and then press to designate list names into which you want the selected data to be stored.

3. Press . The graph screen is displayed with Left Bound? in the bottom-left corner.

4. Press } or (if more than one stat plot is selected) to move the cursor onto the stat plot from which you want to select data points.

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5. Press | and ~ to move the cursor to the stat plot data point that you want as the left bound.

6. Press . A 4 indicator on the graph screen shows the left bound. Right Bound? is displayed in the bottom-left corner.

7. Press | or ~ to move the cursor to the stat plot point that you want for the right bound, and then press .

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The x-values and y-values of the selected points are stored in xlistname and ylistname. A new stat plot of xlistname and ylistname replaces the stat plot from which you selected data points. The list names are updated in the stat plot editor.

Note: The two new lists (xlistname and ylistname) will include the points you select as left bound and right bound. Also, left-bound x-value right-bound x-value must be true.

augment(

augment( concatenates the elements of listA and listB. The list elements can be real or complex numbers.

augment(listA,listB)

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List4matr(

List4matr( (lists stored to matrix) fills matrixname column by column with the elements from each list. If the dimensions of all lists are not equal, then List4matr( fills each extra matrixname row with 0. Complex lists are not valid.

List4matr(list1,list2, . . . ,list n,matrixname)

&

Matr4list(

Matr4list( (matrix stored to lists) fills each listname with elements from each column in matrix. If the number of listname arguments exceeds the number of columns in matrix, then Matr4list( ignores extra listname arguments. Likewise, if the number of columns in matrix exceeds the number of listname arguments, then Matr4list( ignores extra matrix columns.

Matr4list(matrix,listname1,listname2, . . . ,listname n)

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&

Matr4list( also fills a listname with elements from a specified column# in matrix. To fill a list with a specific column from matrix, you must enter a column# after matrix.

Matr4list(matrix,column#,listname)

&

preceding one to five characters identifies those characters as a user- created listname. listname may comprise letters, q, and numbers, but it must begin with a letter from A to Z or q.

listname

Generally, must precede a user-created list name when you enter a user-created list name where other input is valid, for example, on the home screen. Without the , the TI-83 Plus may misinterpret a user- created list name as implied multiplication of two or more characters.

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need not precede a user-created list name where a list name is the only valid input, for example, at the Name= prompt in the stat list editor or the Xlist: and Ylist: prompts in the stat plot editor. If you enter where it is not necessary, the TI-83 Plus will ignore the entry.

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LIST MATH Menu

LIST MATH Menu

To display the LIST MATH menu, press y 9 |.

NAMES OPS MATH 1:min( Returns minimum element of a list. 2:max( Returns maximum element of a list. 3:mean( Returns mean of a list. 4:median( Returns median of a list. 5:sum( Returns sum of elements in a list. 6:prod( Returns product of elements in list. 7:stdDev( Returns standard deviation of a list. 8:variance( Returns the variance of a list.

min(, max(

min( (minimum) and max( (maximum) return the smallest or largest element of listA. If two lists are compared, it returns a list of the smaller or larger of each pair of elements in listA and listB. For a complex list, the element with smallest or largest magnitude (modulus) is returned.

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min(listA[,listB]) max(listA[,listB])

Note: min( and max( are the same as min( and max( on the MATH NUM menu.

mean(, median(

mean( returns the mean value of list. median( returns the median value of list. The default value for freqlist is 1. Each freqlist element counts the number of consecutive occurrences of the corresponding element in list. Complex lists are not valid.

mean(list[,freqlist]) median(list[,freqlist])

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sum(, prod(

sum( (summation) returns the sum of the elements in list. start and end are optional; they specify a range of elements. list elements can be real or complex numbers.

prod( returns the product of all elements of list. start and end elements are optional; they specify a range of list elements. list elements can be real or complex numbers.

sum(list[,start,end]) prod(list[,start,end])

Sums and Products of Numeric Sequences

You can combine sum( or prod( with seq( to obtain:

upper upper

G expression(x) expression(x)

x=lower x=lower

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To evaluate G 2(N1) from N=1 to 4:

stdDev(, variance(

stdDev( returns the standard deviation of the elements in list. The default value for freqlist is 1. Each freqlist element counts the number of consecutive occurrences of the corresponding element in list. Complex lists are not valid.

variance( returns the variance of the elements in list. The default value for freqlist is 1. Each freqlist element counts the number of consecutive occurrences of the corresponding element in list. Complex lists are not valid.

stdDev(list[,freqlist]) variance(list[,freqlist])

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Chapter 12: Statistics

Getting Started: Pendulum Lengths and Periods

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

A group of students is attempting to determine the mathematical relationship between the length of a pendulum and its period (one complete swing of a pendulum). The group makes a simple pendulum from string and washers and then suspends it from the ceiling. They record the pendulums period for each of 12 string lengths.*

Length (cm) Time (sec) Length (cm) Time (sec) 6.5 0.51 24.4 1.01 11.0 0.68 26.6 1.08 13.2 0.73 30.5 1.13 15.0 0.79 34.3 1.26 18.0 0.88 37.6 1.28 23.1 0.99 41.5 1.32

*This example is quoted and adapted from Contemporary Precalculus Through Applications, by the North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics, by permission of Janson Publications, Inc., Dedham, MA. 1-800-322-MATH. 1992. All rights reserved.

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1. Press z to set Func graphing mode.

2. Press 5 to select 5:SetUpEditor. SetUpEditor is pasted to the home screen.

Press . This removes lists from stat list editor columns 1 through 20, and then stores lists L1 through L6 in columns 1 through 6.

Note: Removing lists from the stat list editor does not delete them from memory.

3. Press 1 to select 1:Edit from the STAT

EDIT menu. The stat list editor is displayed. If elements are stored in L1 and L2, press } to move the cursor onto L1, and then press ~ } to clear both lists. Press | to move the rectangular cursor back to the first row in L1.

4. Press 6 5 to store the first pendulum string length (6.5 cm) in L1. The rectangular cursor moves to the next row. Repeat this step to enter each of the 12 string length values in the table.

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5. Press ~ to move the rectangular cursor to the first row in L2.

Press 51 to store the first time measurement (.51 sec) in L2. The rectangular cursor moves to the next row. Repeat this step to enter each of the 12 time values in the table.

6. Press o to display the Y= editor.

If necessary, press to clear the function Y1. As necessary, press }, , and ~ to turn off Plot1, Plot2, and Plot3 from the top line of the Y= editor (Chapter 3). As necessary, press , |, and to deselect functions.

7. Press y , 1 to select 1:Plot1 from the STAT PLOTS menu. The stat plot editor is displayed for plot 1.

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8. Press to select On, which turns on plot 1. Press to select " (scatter plot). Press y d to specify Xlist:L1 for plot 1. Press y e to specify Ylist:L2 for plot 1. Press ~ to select + as the Mark for each data point on the scatter plot.

9. Press q 9 to select 9:ZoomStat from the ZOOM menu. The window variables are adjusted automatically, and plot 1 is displayed. This is a scatter plot of the time-versus-length data.

Since the scatter plot of time-versus-length data appears to be approximately linear, fit a line to the data.

10. Press ~ 4 to select 4:LinReg(ax+b) (linear regression model) from the STAT CALC menu. LinReg(ax+b) is pasted to the home screen.

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11. Press y d y e . Press ~ 1 to display the VARS Y.VARS FUNCTION secondary menu, and then press 1 to select 1:Y1. L1, L2, and Y1 are pasted to the home screen as arguments to LinReg(ax+b).

12. Press to execute LinReg(ax+b). The linear regression for the data in L1 and L2 is calculated. Values for a and b are displayed on the home screen. The linear regression equation is stored in Y1. Residuals are calculated and stored automatically in the list name RESID, which becomes an item on the LIST NAMES menu.

13. Press . The regression line and the scatter plot are displayed.

The regression line appears to fit the central portion of the scatter plot well. However, a residual plot may provide more information about this fit.

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14. Press 1 to select 1:Edit. The stat list editor is displayed.

Press ~ and } to move the cursor onto L3.

Press y 6. An unnamed column is displayed in column 3; L3, L4, L5, and L6 shift right one column. The Name= prompt is displayed in the entry line, and alpha-lock is on.

15. Press y 9 to display the LIST NAMES menu.

If necessary, press to move the cursor onto the list name RESID.

16. Press to select RESID and paste it to the stat list editors Name= prompt.

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17. Press . RESID is stored in column 3 of the stat list editor.

Press repeatedly to examine the residuals.

Notice that the first three residuals are negative. They correspond to the shortest pendulum string lengths in L1. The next five residuals are positive, and three of the last four are negative. The latter correspond to the longer string lengths in L1. Plotting the residuals will show this pattern more clearly.

18. Press y , 2 to select 2:Plot2 from the STAT PLOTS menu. The stat plot editor is displayed for plot 2.

19. Press to select On, which turns on plot 2.

Press to select " (scatter plot). Press y d to specify Xlist:L1 for plot 2. Press [R] [E] [S] [I] [D] (alpha-lock is on) to specify Ylist:RESID for plot 2. Press to select as the mark for each data point on the scatter plot.

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20. Press o to display the Y= editor.

Press | to move the cursor onto the = sign, and then press to deselect Y1. Press } to turn off plot 1.

21. Press q 9 to select 9:ZoomStat from the ZOOM menu. The window variables are adjusted automatically, and plot 2 is displayed. This is a scatter plot of the residuals.

Notice the pattern of the residuals: a group of negative residuals, then a group of positive residuals, and then another group of negative residuals.

The residual pattern indicates a curvature associated with this data set for which the linear model did not account. The residual plot emphasizes a downward curvature, so a model that curves down with the data would be more accurate. Perhaps a function such as square root would fit. Try a power regression to fit a function of the form y = a xb.

22. Press o to display the Y= editor.

Press to clear the linear regression equation from Y1. Press } to turn on plot 1. Press ~ to turn off plot 2.

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23. Press q 9 to select 9:ZoomStat from the ZOOM menu. The window variables are adjusted automatically, and the original scatter plot of time-versus-length data (plot 1) is displayed.

24. Press ~ [A] to select A:PwrReg from the STAT CALC menu. PwrReg is pasted to the home screen.

Press y d y e . Press ~ 1 to display the VARS Y.VARS FUNCTION secondary menu, and then press 1 to select 1:Y1. L1, L2, and Y1 are pasted to the home screen as arguments to PwrReg.

25. Press to calculate the power regression. Values for a and b are displayed on the home screen. The power regression equation is stored in Y1. Residuals are calculated and stored automatically in the list name RESID.

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26. Press . The regression line and the scatter plot are displayed.

The new function y=.192x.522 appears to fit the data well. To get more information, examine a residual plot.

27. Press o to display the Y= editor.

Press | to deselect Y1.

Press } to turn off plot 1. Press ~ to turn on plot 2.

Note: Step 19 defined plot 2 to plot residuals (RESID) versus string length (L1).

28. Press q 9 to select 9:ZoomStat from the ZOOM menu. The window variables are adjusted automatically, and plot 2 is displayed. This is a scatter plot of the residuals.

The new residual plot shows that the residuals are random in sign, with the residuals increasing in magnitude as the string length increases.

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To see the magnitudes of the residuals, continue with these steps.

29. Press r.

Press ~ and | to trace the data. Observe the values for Y at each point.

With this model, the largest positive residual is about 0.041 and the smallest negative residual is about L0.027. All other residuals are less than 0.02 in magnitude.

Now that you have a good model for the relationship between length and period, you can use the model to predict the period for a given string length. To predict the periods for a pendulum with string lengths of 20 cm and 50 cm, continue with these steps.

30. Press ~ 1 to display the VARS Y.VARS

FUNCTION secondary menu, and then press 1 to select 1:Y1. Y1 is pasted to the home screen.

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31. Press 20 to enter a string length of 20 cm.

Press to calculate the predicted time of about 0.92 seconds.

Based on the residual analysis, we would expect the prediction of about 0.92 seconds to be within about 0.02 seconds of the actual value.

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32. Press y [ to recall the Last Entry.

Press | | | 5 to change the string length to 50 cm.

33. Press to calculate the predicted time of about 1.48 seconds.

Since a string length of 50 cm exceeds the lengths in the data set, and since residuals appear to be increasing as string length increases, we would expect more error with this estimate.

Note: You also can make predictions using the table with the TABLE SETUP settings Indpnt:Ask and Depend:Auto (Chapter 7).

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Setting Up Statistical Analyses

Using Lists to Store Data

Data for statistical analyses is stored in lists, which you can create and edit using the stat list editor. The TI-83 Plus has six list variables in memory, L1 through L6, to which you can store data for statistical calculations. Also, you can store data to list names that you create (Chapter 11).

Setting Up a Statistical Analysis

To set up a statistical analysis, follow these steps. Read the chapter for details.

1. Enter the statistical data into one or more lists.

2. Plot the data.

3. Calculate the statistical variables or fit a model to the data.

4. Graph the regression equation for the plotted data.

5. Graph the residuals list for the given regression model.

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Displaying the Stat List Editor

The stat list editor is a table where you can store, edit, and view up to 20 lists that are in memory. Also, you can create list names from the stat list editor.

To display the stat list editor, press , and then select 1:Edit from the STAT EDIT menu.

The top line displays list names. L1 through L6 are stored in columns 1 through 6 after a memory reset. The number of the current column is displayed in the top-right corner.

The bottom line is the entry line. All data entry occurs on this line. The characteristics of this line change according to the current context.

The center area displays up to seven elements of up to three lists; it abbreviates values when necessary. The entry line displays the full value of the current element.

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Using the Stat List Editor

Entering a List Name in the Stat List Editor

To enter a list name in the stat list editor, follow these steps.

1. Display the Name= prompt in the entry line in either of two ways.

Move the cursor onto the list name in the column where you want to insert a list, and then press y 6. An unnamed column is displayed and the remaining lists shift right one column.

Press } until the cursor is on the top line, and then press ~ until you reach the unnamed column.

Note: If list names are stored to all 20 columns, you must remove a list name to make room for an unnamed column.

The Name= prompt is displayed and alpha-lock is on.

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2. Enter a valid list name in any of four ways.

Select a name from the LIST NAMES menu (Chapter 11).

Enter L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, or L6 from the keyboard.

Enter an existing user-created list name directly from the keyboard.

Enter a new user-created list name.

3. Press or to store the list name and its elements, if any, in the current column of the stat list editor.

To begin entering, scrolling, or editing list elements, press . The rectangular cursor is displayed. Note: If the list name you entered in step 2 already was stored in another stat list editor column, then the list and its elements, if any, move to the current column from the previous column. Remaining list names shift accordingly.

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Creating a Name in the Stat List Editor

To create a name in the stat list editor, follow these steps.

1. Display the Name= prompt.

2. Press [letter from A to Z or q] to enter the first letter of the name. The first character cannot be a number.

3. Enter zero to four letters, q, or numbers to complete the new user- created list name. List names can be one to five characters long.

4. Press or to store the list name in the current column of the stat list editor. The list name becomes an item on the LIST NAMES

menu (Chapter 11).

Removing a List from the Stat List Editor

To remove a list from the stat list editor, move the cursor onto the list name and then press {. The list is not deleted from memory; it is only removed from the stat list editor.

Note1: To delete a list name from memory, use the MEMORY MANAGEMENT/ DELETE secondary menu (Chapter 18).

Note 2: If you archive a list, it will be removed from the stat list editor.

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Removing All Lists and Restoring L1 through L6

You can remove all user-created lists from the stat list editor and restore list names L1 through L6 to columns 1 through 6 in either of two ways.

Use SetUpEditor with no arguments.

Reset all memory (Chapter 18).

Clearing All Elements from a List

You can clear all elements from a list in any of five ways.

Use ClrList to clear specified lists.

In the stat list editor, press } to move the cursor onto a list name, and then press .

In the stat list editor, move the cursor onto each element, and then press { one by one.

On the home screen or in the program editor, enter 0!dim(listname) to set the dimension of listname to 0 (Chapter 11).

Use ClrAllLists to clear all lists in memory (Chapter 18).

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Editing a List Element

To edit a list element, follow these steps.

1. Move the rectangular cursor onto the element you want to edit.

2. Press to move the cursor to the entry line.

Note: If you want to replace the current value, you can enter a new value without first pressing . When you enter the first character, the current value is cleared automatically.

3. Edit the element in the entry line.

Press one or more keys to enter the new value. When you enter the first character, the current value is cleared automatically.

Press ~ to move the cursor to the character before which you want to insert, press y 6, and then enter one or more characters.

Press ~ to move the cursor to a character you want to delete, and then press { to delete the character.

To cancel any editing and restore the original element at the rectangular cursor, press .

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Note: You can enter expressions and variables for elements.

4. Press , }, or to update the list. If you entered an expression, it is evaluated. If you entered only a variable, the stored value is displayed as a list element.

When you edit a list element in the stat list editor, the list is updated in memory immediately.

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Attaching Formulas to List Names

Attaching a Formula to a List Name in Stat List Editor

You can attach a formula to a list name in the stat list editor, and then display and edit the calculated list elements. When executed, the attached formula must resolve to a list. Chapter 11 describes in detail the concept of attaching formulas to list names.

To attach a formula to a list name that is stored in the stat list editor, follow these steps.

1. Press to display the stat list editor.

2. Press } to move the cursor to the top line.

3. Press | or ~, if necessary, to move the cursor onto the list name to which you want to attach the formula.

Note: If a formula in quotation marks is displayed on the entry line, then a formula is already attached to the list name. To edit the formula, press , and then edit the formula.

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4. Press [], enter the formula, and press [].

Note: If you do not use quotation marks, the TI-83 Plus calculates and displays the same initial list of answers, but does not attach the formula for future calculations.

Note: Any user-created list name referenced in a formula must be preceded by an symbol (Chapter 11).

5. Press . The TI-83 Plus calculates each list element and stores it to the list name to which the formula is attached. A lock symbol is displayed in the stat list editor, next to the list name to which the formula is attached.

lock symbol

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Using the Stat List Editor When Formula-Generated Lists Are Displayed

When you edit an element of a list referenced in an attached formula, the TI-83 Plus updates the corresponding element in the list to which the formula is attached (Chapter 11).

When a list with a formula attached is displayed in the stat list editor and you edit or enter elements of another displayed list, then the TI-83 Plus takes slightly longer to accept each edit or entry than when no lists with formulas attached are in view.

Tip: To speed editing time, scroll horizontally until no lists with formulas are displayed, or rearrange the stat list editor so that no lists with formulas are displayed.

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Handling Errors Resulting from Attached Formulas

On the home screen, you can attach to a list a formula that references another list with dimension 0 (Chapter 11). However, you cannot display the formula-generated list in the stat list editor or on the home screen until you enter at least one element to the list that the formula references.

All elements of a list referenced by an attached formula must be valid for the attached formula. For example, if Real number mode is set and the attached formula is log(L1), then each element of L1 must be greater than 0, since the logarithm of a negative number returns a complex result.

Tip: If an error menu is returned when you attempt to display a formula- generated list in the stat list editor, you can select 2:Goto, write down the formula that is attached to the list, and then press to detach (clear) the formula. You then can use the stat list editor to find the source of the error. After making the appropriate changes, you can reattach the formula to a list.

If you do not want to clear the formula, you can select 1:Quit, display the referenced list on the home screen, and find and edit the source of the error. To edit an element of a list on the home screen, store the new value to listname(element#) (Chapter 11).

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Detaching Formulas from List Names

Detaching a Formula from a List Name

You can detach (clear) a formula from a list name in several ways.

For example:

In the stat list editor, move the cursor onto the name of the list to which a formula is attached. Press . All list elements remain, but the formula is detached and the lock symbol disappears.

In the stat list editor, move the cursor onto an element of the list to which a formula is attached. Press , edit the element, and then press . The element changes, the formula is detached, and the lock symbol disappears. All other list elements remain.

Use ClrList. All elements of one or more specified lists are cleared, each formula is detached, and each lock symbol disappears. All list names remain.

Use ClrAllLists (Chapter 18). All elements of all lists in memory are cleared, all formulas are detached from all list names, and all lock symbols disappear. All list names remain.

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Editing an Element of a Formula-Generated List

As described above, one way to detach a formula from a list name is to edit an element of the list to which the formula is attached. The TI-83 Plus protects against inadvertently detaching the formula from the list name by editing an element of the formula-generated list.

Because of the protection feature, you must press before you can edit an element of a formula-generated list.

The protection feature does not allow you to delete an element of a list to which a formula is attached. To delete an element of a list to which a formula is attached, you must first detach the formula in any of the ways described above.

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Switching Stat List Editor Contexts

Stat List Editor Contexts

The stat list editor has four contexts.

View-elements context Edit-elements context

View-names context Enter-name context

The stat list editor is first displayed in view-elements context. To switch through the four contexts, select 1:Edit from the STAT EDIT menu and follow these steps.

1. Press } to move the cursor onto a list name. You are now in view-names context. Press ~ and | to view list names stored in other stat list editor columns.

2. Press . You are now in edit-elements context. You may edit any element in a list. All elements of the current list are displayed in braces ( { } )in the entry line. Press ~ and | to view more list elements.

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3. Press again. You are now in view-elements context. Press ~, |, , and } to view other list elements. The current elements full value is displayed in the entry line.

4. Press again. You are now in edit-elements context. You may edit the current element in the entry line.

5. Press } until the cursor is on a list name, then press y 6. You are now in enter-name context.

6. Press . You are now in view-names context.

7. Press . You are now back in view-elements context.

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Stat List Editor Contexts

View-Elements Context

In view-elements context, the entry line displays the list name, the current elements place in that list, and the full value of the current element, up to 12 characters at a time. An ellipsis (...) indicates that the element continues beyond 12 characters.

To page down the list six elements, press . To page up six elements, press }. To delete a list element, press {. Remaining elements shift up one row. To insert a new element, press y 6. 0 is the default value for a new element.

Edit-Elements Context

In edit-elements context, the data displayed in the entry line depends on the previous context.

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When you switch to edit-elements context from view-elements context, the full value of the current element is displayed. You can edit the value of this element, and then press and } to edit other list elements.

&

When you switch to edit-elements context from view-names context, the full values of all elements in the list are displayed. An ellipsis indicates that list elements continue beyond the screen. You can press ~ and | to edit any element in the list.

&

Note: In edit-elements context, you can attach a formula to a list name only if you switched to it from view-names context.

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View-Names Context

In view-names context, the entry line displays the list name and the list elements.

To remove a list from the stat list editor, press {. Remaining lists shift to the left one column. The list is not deleted from memory.

To insert a name in the current column, press y 6. Remaining columns shift to the right one column.

Enter-Name Context

In enter-name context, the Name= prompt is displayed in the entry line, and alpha-lock is on.

At the Name= prompt, you can create a new list name, paste a list name from L1 to L6 from the keyboard, or paste an existing list name from the LIST NAMES menu (Chapter 11). The symbol is not required at the Name= prompt.

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To leave enter-name context without entering a list name, press . The stat list editor switches to view-names context.

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STAT EDIT Menu

STAT EDIT Menu

To display the STAT EDIT menu, press .

EDIT CALC TESTS

1:Edit... Displays the stat list editor. 2:SortA( Sorts a list in ascending order. 3:SortD( Sorts a list in descending order. 4:ClrList Deletes all elements of a list. 5:SetUpEditor Stores lists in the stat list editor.

Note: Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics describes the STAT TESTS menu items.

SortA(, SortD(

SortA( (sort ascending) sorts list elements from low to high values. SortD( (sort descending) sorts list elements from high to low values. Complex lists are sorted based on magnitude (modulus). SortA( and SortD( each can sort in either of two ways.

With one listname, SortA( and SortD( sort the elements in listname and update the list in memory.

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With two or more lists, SortA( and SortD( sort keylistname, and then sort each dependlist by placing its elements in the same order as the corresponding elements in keylistname. This lets you sort two-variable data on X and keep the data pairs together. All lists must have the same dimension.

The sorted lists are updated in memory.

SortA(listname) SortD(listname) SortA(keylistname,dependlist1[,dependlist2,...,dependlist n]) SortD(keylistname,dependlist1[,dependlist2,...,dependlist n])

Note: SortA( and SortD( are the same as SortA( and SortD( on the LIST OPS menu.

ClrList

ClrList clears (deletes) from memory the elements of one or more listnames. ClrList also detaches any formula attached to a listname.

ClrList listname1,listname2,...,listname n

Note: To clear from memory all elements of all list names, use ClrAllLists (Chapter 18).

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SetUpEditor

With SetUpEditor you can set up the stat list editor to display one or more listnames in the order that you specify. You can specify zero to 20 listnames.

Additionally, if you want to use listnames which happen to be archived, the SetUp Editor will automatically unarchive the listnames and place them in the stat list editor at the same time.

SetUpEditor [listname1,listname2,...,listname n]

SetUpEditor with one to 20 listnames removes all list names from the stat list editor and then stores listnames in the stat list editor columns in the specified order, beginning in column 1.

If you enter a listname that is not stored in memory already, then listname is created and stored in memory; it becomes an item on the LIST NAMES

menu.

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Restoring L1 through L6 to the Stat List Editor

SetUpEditor with no listnames removes all list names from the stat list editor and restores list names L1 through L6 in the stat list editor columns 1 through 6.

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Regression Model Features

Regression Model Features

STAT CALC menu items 3 through C are regression models. The automatic residual list and automatic regression equation features apply to all regression models. Diagnostics display mode applies to some regression models.

Automatic Residual List

When you execute a regression model, the automatic residual list feature computes and stores the residuals to the list name RESID. RESID becomes an item on the LIST NAMES menu (Chapter 11).

The TI-83 Plus uses the formula below to compute RESID list elements. The next section describes the variable RegEQ.

RESID = Ylistname N RegEQ(Xlistname)

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Automatic Regression Equation

Each regression model has an optional argument, regequ, for which you can specify a Y= variable such as Y1. Upon execution, the regression equation is stored automatically to the specified Y= variable and the Y= function is selected.

Regardless of whether you specify a Y= variable for regequ, the regression equation always is stored to the TI-83 Plus variable RegEQ, which is item 1 on the VARS Statistics EQ secondary menu.

Note: For the regression equation, you can use the fixed-decimal mode setting to control the number of digits stored after the decimal point (Chapter 1). However, limiting the number of digits to a small number could affect the accuracy of the fit.

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Diagnostics Display Mode

When you execute some regression models, the TI-83 Plus computes and stores diagnostics values for r (correlation coefficient) and r2

(coefficient of determination) or for R2 (coefficient of determination).

r and r2 are computed and stored for these regression models.

LinReg(ax+b) LnReg PwrReg LinReg(a+bx) ExpReg

R2 is computed and stored for these regression models.

QuadReg CubicReg QuartReg

The r and r2 that are computed for LnReg, ExpReg, and PwrReg are based on the linearly transformed data. For example, for ExpReg (y=ab^x), r and r2 are computed on ln y=ln a+x(ln b).

By default, these values are not displayed with the results of a regression model when you execute it. However, you can set the diagnostics display mode by executing the DiagnosticOn or DiagnosticOff instruction. Each instruction is in the CATALOG (Chapter 15).

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Note: To set DiagnosticOn or DiagnosticOff from the home screen, press y N, and then select the instruction for the mode you want. The instruction is pasted to the home screen. Press to set the mode.

When DiagnosticOn is set, diagnostics are displayed with the results when you execute a regression model.

When DiagnosticOff is set, diagnostics are not displayed with the results when you execute a regression model.

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STAT CALC Menu

STAT CALC Menu

To display the STAT CALC menu, press ~.

EDIT CALC TESTS 1:1-Var Stats Calculates 1-variable statistics. 2:2-Var Stats Calculates 2-variable statistics. 3:Med-Med Calculates a median-median line. 4:LinReg(ax+b) Fits a linear model to data. 5:QuadReg Fits a quadratic model to data. 6:CubicReg Fits a cubic model to data. 7:QuartReg Fits a quartic model to data. 8:LinReg(a+bx) Fits a linear model to data. 9:LnReg Fits a logarithmic model to data. 0:ExpReg Fits an exponential model to data. A:PwrReg Fits a power model to data. B:Logistic Fits a logistic model to data. C:SinReg Fits a sinusoidal model to data.

For each STAT CALC menu item, if neither Xlistname nor Ylistname is specified, then the default list names are L1 and L2. If you do not specify freqlist, then the default is 1 occurrence of each list element.

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Frequency of Occurrence for Data Points

For most STAT CALC menu items, you can specify a list of data occurrences, or frequencies (freqlist).

Each element in freqlist indicates how many times the corresponding data point or data pair occurs in the data set you are analyzing.

For example, if L1={15,12,9,14} and FREQ={1,4,1,3}, then the TI-83 Plus interprets the instruction 1.Var Stats L1, FREQ to mean that 15 occurs once, 12 occurs four times, 9 occurs once, and 14 occurs three times.

Each element in freqlist must be 0, and at least one element must be > 0.

Noninteger freqlist elements are valid. This is useful when entering frequencies expressed as percentages or parts that add up to 1. However, if freqlist contains noninteger frequencies, Sx and Sy are undefined; values are not displayed for Sx and Sy in the statistical results.

1.Var Stats

1.Var Stats (one-variable statistics) analyzes data with one measured variable. Each element in freqlist is the frequency of occurrence for each corresponding data point in Xlistname. freqlist elements must be real numbers > 0.

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1.Var Stats [Xlistname,freqlist]

2.Var Stats

2.Var Stats (two-variable statistics) analyzes paired data. Xlistname is the independent variable. Ylistname is the dependent variable. Each element in freqlist is the frequency of occurrence for each data pair (Xlistname,Ylistname).

2.Var Stats [Xlistname,Ylistname,freqlist]

Med.Med (ax+b)

Med.Med (median-median) fits the model equation y=ax+b to the data using the median-median line (resistant line) technique, calculating the summary points x1, y1, x2, y2, x3, and y3. Med.Med displays values for a (slope) and b (y-intercept).

Med.Med [Xlistname,Ylistname,freqlist,regequ]

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LinReg (ax+b)

LinReg(ax+b) (linear regression) fits the model equation y=ax+b to the data using a least-squares fit. It displays values for a (slope) and b (y-intercept); when DiagnosticOn is set, it also displays values for r2 and r.

LinReg(ax+b) [Xlistname,Ylistname,freqlist,regequ]

QuadReg (ax2+bx+c)

QuadReg (quadratic regression) fits the second-degree polynomial y=ax2+bx+c to the data. It displays values for a, b, and c; when DiagnosticOn is set, it also displays a value for R2. For three data points, the equation is a polynomial fit; for four or more, it is a polynomial regression. At least three data points are required.

QuadReg [Xlistname,Ylistname,freqlist,regequ]

CubicReg(ax3+bx2+cx+d)

CubicReg (cubic regression) fits the third-degree polynomial y=ax3+bx2+cx+d to the data. It displays values for a, b, c, and d; when DiagnosticOn is set, it also displays a value for R2. For four points, the equation is a polynomial fit; for five or more, it is a polynomial regression. At least four points are required.

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CubicReg [Xlistname,Ylistname,freqlist,regequ]

QuartReg(ax4+bx3+cx2+ dx+e)

QuartReg (quartic regression) fits the fourth-degree polynomial y=ax4+bx3+cx2+dx+e to the data. It displays values for a, b, c, d, and e; when DiagnosticOn is set, it also displays a value for R2. For five points, the equation is a polynomial fit; for six or more, it is a polynomial regression. At least five points are required.

QuartReg [Xlistname,Ylistname,freqlist,regequ]

LinReg(a+bx)

LinReg(a+bx) (linear regression) fits the model equation y=a+bx to the data using a least-squares fit. It displays values for a (y-intercept) and b (slope); when DiagnosticOn is set, it also displays values for r2 and r.

LinReg(a+bx) [Xlistname,Ylistname,freqlist,regequ]

LnReg(a+b ln(x))

LnReg (logarithmic regression) fits the model equation y=a+b ln(x) to the data using a least-squares fit and transformed values ln(x) and y. It displays values for a and b; when DiagnosticOn is set, it also displays values for r2 and r.

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LnReg [Xlistname,Ylistname,freqlist,regequ]

ExpReg(abx)

ExpReg (exponential regression) fits the model equation y=abx to the data using a least-squares fit and transformed values x and ln(y). It displays values for a and b; when DiagnosticOn is set, it also displays values for r2

and r.

ExpReg [Xlistname,Ylistname,freqlist,regequ]

PwrReg(axb)

PwrReg (power regression) fits the model equation y=axb to the data using a least-squares fit and transformed values ln(x) and ln(y). It displays values for a and b; when DiagnosticOn is set, it also displays values for r2

and r.

PwrReg [Xlistname,Ylistname,freqlist,regequ]

Logisticc/(1+aeLbx)

Logistic fits the model equation y=c/(1+aeLbx) to the data using an iterative least-squares fit. It displays values for a, b, and c.

Logistic [Xlistname,Ylistname,freqlist,regequ]

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SinRega sin(bx+c)+d

SinReg (sinusoidal regression) fits the model equation y=a sin(bx+c)+d to the data using an iterative least-squares fit. It displays values for a, b, c, and d. At least four data points are required. At least two data points per cycle are required in order to avoid aliased frequency estimates.

SinReg [iterations,Xlistname,Ylistname,period,regequ]

iterations is the maximum number of times the algorithm will iterate to find a solution. The value for iterations can be an integer 1 and 16; if not specified, the default is 3. The algorithm may find a solution before iterations is reached. Typically, larger values for iterations result in longer execution times and better accuracy for SinReg, and vice versa.

A period guess is optional. If you do not specify period, the difference between time values in Xlistname must be equal and the time values must be ordered in ascending sequential order. If you specify period, the algorithm may find a solution more quickly, or it may find a solution when it would not have found one if you had omitted a value for period. If you specify period, the differences between time values in Xlistname can be unequal.

Note: The output of SinReg is always in radians, regardless of the Radian/Degree mode setting.

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SinReg Example: Daylight Hours in Alaska for One Year

Compute the regression model for the number of hours of daylight in Alaska during one year.

&

&

With noisy data, you will achieve better convergence results when you specify an accurate estimate for period. You can obtain a period guess in either of two ways.

Plot the data and trace to determine the x-distance between the beginning and end of one complete period, or cycle. The illustration above and to the right graphically depicts a complete period, or cycle.

1 period

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Plot the data and trace to determine the x-distance between the beginning and end of N complete periods, or cycles. Then divide the total distance by N.

After your first attempt to use SinReg and the default value for iterations to fit the data, you may find the fit to be approximately correct, but not optimal. For an optimal fit, execute SinReg 16,Xlistname,Ylistname,2p / b where b is the value obtained from the previous SinReg execution.

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Statistical Variables

The statistical variables are calculated and stored as indicated below. To access these variables for use in expressions, press , and select 5:Statistics. Then select the VARS menu shown in the column below under VARS menu. If you edit a list or change the type of analysis, all statistical variables are cleared.

Variables 1.Var Stats

2.Var Stats Other

VARS menu

mean of x values v v XY

sum of x values Gx Gx G

sum of x2 values Gx2 Gx2 G

sample standard deviation of x Sx Sx XY

population standard deviation of x sx sx XY

number of data points n n XY

mean of y values w XY

sum of y values Gy G

sum of y2 values Gy2 G

sample standard deviation of y Sy XY

population standard deviation of y sy XY

sum of x y Gxy G

minimum of x values minX minX XY

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Variables 1.Var Stats

2.Var Stats Other

VARS menu

maximum of x values maxX maxX XY

minimum of y values minY XY

maximum of y values maxY XY

1st quartile Q1 PTS

median Med PTS

3rd quartile Q3 PTS

regression/fit coefficients a, b EQ

polynomial, Logistic, and SinReg coefficients

a, b, c, d, e

EQ

correlation coefficient r EQ

coefficient of determination r2, R2 EQ

regression equation RegEQ EQ

summary points (Med.Med only) x1, y1, x2, y2, x3, y3

PTS

Q1 and Q3

The first quartile (Q1) is the median of points between minX and Med (median). The third quartile (Q3) is the median of points between Med and maxX.

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Statistical Analysis in a Program

Entering Stat Data

You can enter statistical data, calculate statistical results, and fit models to data from a program. You can enter statistical data into lists directly within the program (Chapter 11).

Statistical Calculations

To perform a statistical calculation from a program, follow these steps.

1. On a blank line in the program editor, select the type of calculation from the STAT CALC menu.

2. Enter the names of the lists to use in the calculation. Separate the list names with a comma.

3. Enter a comma and then the name of a Y= variable, if you want to store the regression equation to a Y= variable.

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Statistical Plotting

Steps for Plotting Statistical Data in Lists

You can plot statistical data that is stored in lists. The six types of plots available are scatter plot, xyLine, histogram, modified box plot, regular box plot, and normal probability plot. You can define up to three plots.

To plot statistical data in lists, follow these steps.

1. Store the stat data in one or more lists.

2. Select or deselect Y= functions as appropriate.

3. Define the stat plot.

4. Turn on the plots you want to display.

5. Define the viewing window.

6. Display and explore the graph.

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" (Scatter)

Scatter plots plot the data points from Xlist and Ylist as coordinate pairs, showing each point as a box ( ), cross ( + ), or dot ( ). Xlist and Ylist must be the same length. You can use the same list for Xlist and Ylist.

(xyLine)

xyLine is a scatter plot in which the data points are plotted and connected in order of appearance in Xlist and Ylist. You may want to use SortA( or SortD( to sort the lists before you plot them.

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(Histogram)

Histogram plots one-variable data. The Xscl window variable value determines the width of each bar, beginning at Xmin. ZoomStat adjusts Xmin, Xmax, Ymin, and Ymax to include all values, and also adjusts Xscl. The inequality (Xmax N Xmin) Xscl 47 must be true. A value that occurs on the edge of a bar is counted in the bar to the right.

(ModBoxplot)

ModBoxplot (modified box plot) plots one-variable data, like the regular box plot, except points that are 1.5 Interquartile Range beyond the quartiles. (The Interquartile Range is defined as the difference between the third quartile Q3 and the first quartile Q1.) These points are plotted individually beyond the whisker, using the Mark ( or + or ) you select. You can trace these points, which are called outliers.

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The prompt for outlier points is x=, except when the outlier is the maximum point (maxX) or the minimum point (minX). When outliers exist, the end of each whisker will display x=. When no outliers exist, minX and maxX are the prompts for the end of each whisker. Q1, Med (median), and Q3 define the box.

Box plots are plotted with respect to Xmin and Xmax, but ignore Ymin and Ymax. When two box plots are plotted, the first one plots at the top of the screen and the second plots in the middle. When three are plotted, the first one plots at the top, the second in the middle, and the third at the bottom.

(Boxplot)

Boxplot (regular box plot) plots one-variable data. The whiskers on the plot extend from the minimum data point in the set (minX) to the first quartile (Q1) and from the third quartile (Q3) to the maximum point (maxX). The box is defined by Q1, Med (median), and Q3.

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Box plots are plotted with respect to Xmin and Xmax, but ignore Ymin and Ymax. When two box plots are plotted, the first one plots at the top of the screen and the second plots in the middle. When three are plotted, the first one plots at the top, the second in the middle, and the third at the bottom.

(NormProbPlot)

NormProbPlot (normal probability plot) plots each observation X in Data List versus the corresponding quantile z of the standard normal distribution. If the plotted points lie close to a straight line, then the plot indicates that the data are normal.

Enter a valid list name in the Data List field. Select X or Y for the Data Axis setting.

If you select X, the TI-83 Plus plots the data on the x-axis and the z-values on the y-axis.

If you select Y, the TI-83 Plus plots the data on the y-axis and the z-values on the x-axis.

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Defining the Plots

To define a plot, follow these steps.

1. Press y ,. The STAT PLOTS menu is displayed with the current plot definitions.

2. Select the plot you want to use. The stat plot editor is displayed for the plot you selected.

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3. Press to select On if you want to plot the statistical data immediately. The definition is stored whether you select On or Off.

4. Select the type of plot. Each type prompts for the options checked in this table.

Plot Type XList YList Mark Freq Data List Data Axis

" Scatter

5. Enter list names or select options for the plot type.

Xlist (list name containing independent data)

Ylist (list name containing dependent data)

Mark ( or + or )

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Freq (frequency list for Xlist elements; default is 1)

Data List (list name for NormProbPlot)

Data Axis (axis on which to plot Data List)

Displaying Other Stat Plot Editors

Each stat plot has a unique stat plot editor. The name of the current stat plot (Plot1, Plot2, or Plot3) is highlighted in the top line of the stat plot editor. To display the stat plot editor for a different plot, press }, ~, and | to move the cursor onto the name in the top line, and then press . The stat plot editor for the selected plot is displayed, and the selected name remains highlighted.

Turning On and Turning Off Stat Plots

PlotsOn and PlotsOff allow you to turn on or turn off stat plots from the home screen or a program. With no plot number, PlotsOn turns on all plots and PlotsOff turns off all plots. With one or more plot numbers (1, 2, and 3), PlotsOn turns on specified plots, and PlotsOff turns off specified plots.

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PlotsOff [1,2,3] PlotsOn [1,2,3]

Note: You also can turn on and turn off stat plots in the top line of the Y= editor (Chapter 3).

Defining the Viewing Window

Stat plots are displayed on the current graph. To define the viewing window, press p and enter values for the window variables. ZoomStat redefines the viewing window to display all statistical data points.

Tracing a Stat Plot

When you trace a scatter plot or xyLine, tracing begins at the first element in the lists.

When you trace a histogram, the cursor moves from the top center of one column to the top center of the next, starting at the first column.

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When you trace a box plot, tracing begins at Med (the median). Press | to trace to Q1 and minX. Press ~ to trace to Q3 and maxX.

When you press } or to move to another plot or to another Y= function, tracing moves to the current or beginning point on that plot (not the nearest pixel).

The ExprOn/ExprOff format setting applies to stat plots (Chapter 3). When ExprOn is selected, the plot number and plotted data lists are displayed in the top-left corner.

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Statistical Plotting in a Program

Defining a Stat Plot in a Program

To display a stat plot from a program, define the plot, and then display the graph.

To define a stat plot from a program, begin on a blank line in the program editor and enter data into one or more lists; then, follow these steps.

1. Press y , to display the STAT PLOTS menu.

2. Select the plot to define, which pastes Plot1(, Plot2(, or Plot3( to the cursor location.

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3. Press y , ~ to display the STAT TYPE menu.

4. Select the type of plot, which pastes the name of the plot type to the cursor location.

5. Press . Enter the list names, separated by commas.

6. Press y , | to display the STAT PLOT MARK menu. (This step is not necessary if you selected 3:Histogram or 5:Boxplot in step 4.)

Select the type of mark ( or + or ) for each data point. The selected mark symbol is pasted to the cursor location.

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7. Press to complete the command line.

Displaying a Stat Plot from a Program

To display a plot from a program, use the DispGraph instruction (Chapter 16) or any of the ZOOM instructions (Chapter 3).

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Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions

Getting Started: Mean Height of a Population

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

Suppose you want to estimate the mean height of a population of women given the random sample below. Because heights among a biological population tend to be normally distributed, a t distribution confidence interval can be used when estimating the mean. The 10 height values below are the first 10 of 90 values, randomly generated from a normally distributed population with an assumed mean of 165.1 centimeters and a standard deviation of 6.35 centimeters (randNorm(165.1,6.35,90) with a seed of 789).

Height (in centimeters) of Each of 10 Women

169.43 168.33 159.55 169.97 159.79 181.42 171.17 162.04 167.15 159.53

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1. Press to display the stat list editor.

Press } to move the cursor onto L1, and then press y 6. The Name= prompt is displayed on the bottom line. The cursor indicates that alpha-lock is on. The existing list name columns shift to the right.

Note: Your stat editor may not look like the one pictured here, depending on the lists you have already stored.

2. Enter [H] [G] [H] [T] at the Name= prompt, and then press . The list to which you will store the womens height data is created.

Press to move the cursor onto the first row of the list. HGHT(1)= is displayed on the bottom line.

3. Press 169 43 to enter the first height value. As you enter it, it is displayed on the bottom line.

Press . The value is displayed in the first row, and the rectangular cursor moves to the next row.

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Enter the other nine height values the same way.

4. Press | to display the STAT TESTS menu, and then press until 8:TInterval is highlighted.

5. Press to select 8:TInterval. The inferential stat editor for TInterval is displayed. If Data is not selected for Inpt:, press | to select Data.

Press and [H] [G] [H] [T] at the List: prompt (alpha-lock is on).

Press 99 to enter a 99 percent confidence level at the C.Level: prompt.

6. Press to move the cursor onto Calculate, and then press . The confidence interval is calculated, and the TInterval results are displayed on the home screen.

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Interpret the results.

The first line, (159.74,173.94), shows that the 99 percent confidence interval for the population mean is between about 159.74 centimeters and 173.94 centimeters. This is about a 14.2 centimeters spread.

The .99 confidence level indicates that in a very large number of samples, we expect 99 percent of the intervals calculated to contain the population mean. The actual mean of the population sampled is 165.1 centimeters, which is in the calculated interval.

The second line gives the mean height of the sample used to compute this interval. The third line gives the sample standard deviation Sx. The bottom line gives the sample size n.

To obtain a more precise bound on the population mean m of womens heights, increase the sample size to 90. Use a sample mean of 163.8 and sample standard deviation Sx of 7.1 calculated from the larger random sample. This time, use the Stats (summary statistics) input option.

7. Press | 8 to display the inferential stat editor for TInterval.

Press ~ to select Inpt:Stats. The editor changes so that you can enter summary statistics as input.

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8. Press 163 8 to store 163.8 to .

Press 7 1 to store 7.1 to Sx.

Press 90 to store 90 to n.

9. Press to move the cursor onto Calculate, and then press to calculate the new 99 percent confidence interval. The results are displayed on the home screen.

If the height distribution among a population of women is normally distributed with a mean m of 165.1 centimeters and a standard deviation of 6.35 centimeters, what height is exceeded by only 5 percent of the women (the 95th percentile)?

10.Press to clear the home screen.

Press y = to display the DISTR

(distributions) menu.

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11. Press 3 to paste invNorm( to the home screen.

Press 95 165 1 6 35 .

.95 is the area, 165.1 is , and 6.35 is .

The result is displayed on the home screen; it shows that five percent of the women are taller than 175.5 centimeters.

Now graph and shade the top 5 percent of the population.

12. Press p and set the window variables to these values.

Xmin=145 Ymin=L.02 Xres=1 Xmax=185 Ymax=.08 Xscl=5 Yscl=0

13. Press y = ~ to display the DISTR DRAW

menu.

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14. Press to paste ShadeNorm( to the home screen.

Press y Z 1 y D 99 165 1 6 35 .

Ans (175.5448205 from step 11) is the lower bound. 199 is the upper bound. The normal curve is defined by a mean of 165.1 and a standard deviation of 6.35.

15. Press to plot and shade the normal curve.

Area is the area above the 95th percentile. low is the lower bound. up is the upper bound.

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Inferential Stat Editors

Displaying the Inferential Stat Editors

When you select a hypothesis test or confidence interval instruction from the home screen, the appropriate inferential statistics editor is displayed. The editors vary according to each test or intervals input requirements. Below is the inferential stat editor for T-Test.

Note: When you select the ANOVA( instruction, it is pasted to the home screen. ANOVA( does not have an editor screen.

Using an Inferential Stat Editor

To use an inferential stat editor, follow these steps.

1. Select a hypothesis test or confidence interval from the STAT TESTS

menu. The appropriate editor is displayed.

2. Select Data or Stats input, if the selection is available. The appropriate editor is displayed.

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3. Enter real numbers, list names, or expressions for each argument in the editor.

4. Select the alternative hypothesis (, <, or >) against which to test, if the selection is available.

5. Select No or Yes for the Pooled option, if the selection is available.

6. Select Calculate or Draw (when Draw is available) to execute the instruction.

When you select Calculate, the results are displayed on the home screen.

When you select Draw, the results are displayed in a graph.

This chapter describes the selections in the above steps for each hypothesis test and confidence interval instruction.

Enter values for arguments

Select Data or Stats input

Select an alternative hypothesis

Select Calculate or Draw output

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Selecting Data or Stats

Most inferential stat editors prompt you to select one of two types of input. (1.PropZInt and 2.PropZTest, 1.PropZInt and 2.PropZInt, c2.Test, and LinRegTTest do not.)

Select Data to enter the data lists as input.

Select Stats to enter summary statistics, such as , Sx, and n, as input.

To select Data or Stats, move the cursor to either Data or Stats, and then press .

Entering the Values for Arguments

Inferential stat editors require a value for every argument. If you do not know what a particular argument symbol represents, see the Inferential Statistics Input Descriptions tables.

When you enter values in any inferential stat editor, the TI-83 Plus stores them in memory so that you can run many tests or intervals without having to reenter every value.

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Selecting an Alternative Hypothesis ( < >)

Most of the inferential stat editors for the hypothesis tests prompt you to select one of three alternative hypotheses.

The first is a alternative hypothesis, such as mm0 for the Z.Test.

The second is a < alternative hypothesis, such as m1 2.SampTTest.

The third is a > alternative hypothesis, such as p1>p2 for the 2.PropZTest.

To select an alternative hypothesis, move the cursor to the appropriate alternative, and then press .

Selecting the Pooled Option

Pooled (2.SampTTest and 2.SampTInt only) specifies whether the variances are to be pooled for the calculation.

Select No if you do not want the variances pooled. Population variances can be unequal.

Select Yes if you want the variances pooled. Population variances are assumed to be equal.

To select the Pooled option, move the cursor to Yes, and then press .

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Selecting Calculate or Draw for a Hypothesis Test

After you have entered all arguments in an inferential stat editor for a hypothesis test, you must select whether you want to see the calculated results on the home screen (Calculate) or on the graph screen (Draw).

Calculate calculates the test results and displays the outputs on the home screen.

Draw draws a graph of the test results and displays the test statistic and p-value with the graph. The window variables are adjusted automatically to fit the graph.

To select Calculate or Draw, move the cursor to either Calculate or Draw, and then press . The instruction is immediately executed.

Selecting Calculate for a Confidence Interval

After you have entered all arguments in an inferential stat editor for a confidence interval, select Calculate to display the results. The Draw option is not available.

When you press , Calculate calculates the confidence interval results and displays the outputs on the home screen.

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Bypassing the Inferential Stat Editors

To paste a hypothesis test or confidence interval instruction to the home screen without displaying the corresponding inferential stat editor, select the instruction you want from the CATALOG menu. Appendix A describes the input syntax for each hypothesis test and confidence interval instruction.

Note: You can paste a hypothesis test or confidence interval instruction to a command line in a program. From within the program editor, select the instruction from either the CATALOG (Chapter 15) or the STAT TESTS menu.

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STAT TESTS Menu

STAT TESTS Menu

To display the STAT TESTS menu, press |. When you select an inferential statistics instruction, the appropriate inferential stat editor is displayed.

Most STAT TESTS instructions store some output variables to memory. For a list of these variables, see the Test and Interval Output Variables table.

EDIT CALC TESTS 1: Z-Test... Test for 1 m, known s 2: T-Test... Test for 1 m, unknown s 3: 2-SampZTest... Test comparing 2 ms, known ss 4: 2-SampTTest... Test comparing 2 ms, unknown ss 5: 1-PropZTest... Test for 1 proportion 6: 2-PropZTest... Test comparing 2 proportions 7: ZInterval... Confidence interval for 1 m, known s 8: TInterval... Confidence interval for 1 m, unknown s 9: 2-SampZInt... Confidence interval for difference of 2 ms, known ss 0: 2-SampTInt... Confidence interval for difference of 2 ms, unknown ss A: 1-PropZInt... Confidence interval for 1 proportion B: 2-PropZInt... Confidence interval for difference of 2 proportions C: c2-Test... Chi-square test for 2-way tables D: 2-SampTest... Test comparing 2 ss

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EDIT CALC TESTS E: LinRegTTest... t test for regression slope and r F: ANOVA( One-way analysis of variance

Note: When a new test or interval is computed, all previous output variables are invalidated.

Inferential Stat Editors for the STAT TESTS Instructions

In this chapter, the description of each STAT TESTS instruction shows the unique inferential stat editor for that instruction with example arguments.

Descriptions of instructions that offer the Data/Stats input choice show both types of input screens.

Descriptions of instructions that do not offer the Data/Stats input choice show only one input screen.

The description then shows the unique output screen for that instruction with the example results.

Descriptions of instructions that offer the Calculate/Draw output choice show both types of screens: calculated and graphic results.

Descriptions of instructions that offer only the Calculate output choice show the calculated results on the home screen.

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Z.Test

Z.Test (one-sample z test; item 1) performs a hypothesis test for a single unknown population mean m when the population standard deviation s is known. It tests the null hypothesis H0: m=m0 against one of the alternatives below.

Ha: mm0 (m:m0)

Ha: m m: )

Ha: m>m0 (m:>m0)

In the example:

L1={299.4 297.7 301 298.9 300.2 297}

Data Stats

Input:

, ,

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TI-83 Plus Inferential Statistics and Distributions 397

Data Stats

Calculated results:

, ,

Drawn results:

Note: All STAT TESTS examples assume a fixed-decimal mode setting of 4 (Chapter 1). If you set the decimal mode to Float or a different fixed-decimal setting, your output may differ from the output in the examples.

T.Test

T.Test (one-sample t test; item 2) performs a hypothesis test for a single unknown population mean m when the population standard deviation s is unknown. It tests the null hypothesis H0: m=m0 against one of the alternatives below.

Ha: mm0 (m:m0) Ha: m m: ) Ha: m>m0 ( m:>m0)

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In the example:

TEST={91.9 97.8 111.4 122.3 105.4 95}

Data Stats

Input:

, ,

Calculated results:

, ,

Drawn results:

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2.SampZTest

2.SampZTest (two-sample z test; item 3) tests the equality of the means of two populations (m1 and m2) based on independent samples when both population standard deviations (s1 and s2) are known. The null hypothesis H0: m1=m2 is tested against one of the alternatives below.

Ha: m1m2 (m1:m2)

Ha: m1 m1: )

Ha: m1>m2 (m1:>m2)

In the example:

LISTA={154 109 137 115 140}

LISTB={108 115 126 92 146}

Data Stats

Input:

, ,

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TI-83 Plus Inferential Statistics and Distributions 400

Calculated results:

, ,

Drawn results:

2.SampTTest

2.SampTTest (two-sample t test; item 4) tests the equality of the means of two populations (m1 and m2) based on independent samples when neither population standard deviation (s1 or s2) is known. The null hypothesis H0: m1=m2 is tested against one of the alternatives below.

Ha: m1m2 (m1:m2) Ha: m1 m1: ) Ha: m1>m2 ( m1:>m2)

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In the example:

SAMP1={12.207 16.869 25.05 22.429 8.456 10.589}

SAMP2={11.074 9.686 12.064 9.351 8.182 6.642}

Data Stats

Input:

, ,

Calculated results:

, ,

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Drawn results:

1.PropZTest

1.PropZTest (one-proportion z test; item 5) computes a test for an unknown proportion of successes (prop). It takes as input the count of successes in the sample x and the count of observations in the sample n. 1.PropZTest tests the null hypothesis H0: prop=p0 against one of the alternatives below.

Ha: propp0 (prop:p0)

Ha: prop prop: )

Ha: prop>p0 (prop:>p0)

Input:

,

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TI-83 Plus Inferential Statistics and Distributions 403

Calculated results:

,

Drawn results:

2.PropZTest

2.PropZTest (two-proportion z test; item 6) computes a test to compare the proportion of successes (p1 and p2) from two populations. It takes as input the count of successes in each sample (x1 and x2) and the count of observations in each sample (n1 and n2). 2.PropZTest tests the null hypothesis H0: p1=p2 (using the pooled sample proportion ) against one of the alternatives below.

Ha: p1p2 (p1:p2)

Ha: p1 p1: )

Ha: p1>p2 (p1:>p2)

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Input:

,

Calculated results:

,

Drawn results:

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ZInterval

ZInterval (one-sample z confidence interval; item 7) computes a confidence interval for an unknown population mean m when the population standard deviation s is known. The computed confidence interval depends on the user-specified confidence level.

In the example:

L1={299.4 297.7 301 298.9 300.2 297}

Data Stats

Input:

, ,

Calculated results:

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TInterval

TInterval (one-sample t confidence interval; item 8) computes a confidence interval for an unknown population mean m when the population standard deviation s is unknown. The computed confidence interval depends on the user-specified confidence level.

In the example:

L6={1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9}

Data Stats

Input:

, ,

Calculated results:

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2.SampZInt

2.SampZInt (two-sample z confidence interval; item 9) computes a confidence interval for the difference between two population means (m1Nm2) when both population standard deviations (s1 and s2) are known. The computed confidence interval depends on the user-specified confidence level.

In the example:

LISTC={154 109 137 115 140}

LISTD={108 115 126 92 146}

Data Stats

Input:

, ,

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TI-83 Plus Inferential Statistics and Distributions 408

Calculated results:

2.SampTInt

2.SampTInt (two-sample t confidence interval; item 0) computes a confidence interval for the difference between two population means (m1Nm2) when both population standard deviations (s1 and s2) are unknown. The computed confidence interval depends on the user- specified confidence level.

In the example:

SAMP1={12.207 16.869 25.05 22.429 8.456 10.589}

SAMP2={11.074 9.686 12.064 9.351 8.182 6.642}

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Data Stats

Input:

, ,

Calculated results:

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1.PropZInt

1.PropZInt (one-proportion z confidence interval; item A) computes a confidence interval for an unknown proportion of successes. It takes as input the count of successes in the sample x and the count of observations in the sample n. The computed confidence interval depends on the user-specified confidence level.

Input:

,

Calculated results:

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2.PropZInt

2.PropZInt (two-proportion z confidence interval; item B) computes a confidence interval for the difference between the proportion of successes in two populations (p1Np2). It takes as input the count of successes in each sample (x1 and x2) and the count of observations in each sample (n1 and n2). The computed confidence interval depends on the user-specified confidence level.

Input:

,

Calculated results:

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c2.Test

c2.Test (chi-square test; item C) computes a chi-square test for association on the two-way table of counts in the specified Observed matrix. The null hypothesis H0 for a two-way table is: no association exists between row variables and column variables. The alternative hypothesis is: the variables are related.

Before computing a c2.Test, enter the observed counts in a matrix. Enter that matrix variable name at the Observed: prompt in the c2.Test editor; default=[A]. At the Expected: prompt, enter the matrix variable name to which you want the computed expected counts to be stored; default=[B].

Matrix editor:

Note: Press y ~ ~ 1 to select 1:[A] from the MATRX EDIT menu.

Input:

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, Note: Press y [B] to display matrix [B].

Calculated results:

,

Drawn results:

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2.SampTest

2.SampTest (two-sample -test; item D) computes an -test to compare two normal population standard deviations (s1 and s2). The population means and standard deviations are all unknown. 2.SampTest, which uses the ratio of sample variances Sx12/Sx22, tests the null hypothesis H0: s1=s2 against one of the alternatives below.

Ha: s1s2 (s1:s2)

Ha: s1 s1: )

Ha: s1>s2 (s1:>s2)

In the example:

SAMP4={ 7 L4 18 17 L3 L5 1 10 11L2} SAMP5={ L1 12 L1 L3 3 L5 5 2L11 L1L3}

Data Stats

Input:

, ,

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TI-83 Plus Inferential Statistics and Distributions 415

Calculated results:

, ,

Drawn results:

LinRegTTest

LinRegTTest (linear regression t test; item E) computes a linear regression on the given data and a t test on the value of slope b and the correlation coefficient r for the equation y=a+bx. It tests the null hypothesis H0: b=0 (equivalently, r=0) against one of the alternatives below.

Ha: b0 and r0 (b & r:0)

Ha: b<0 and r<0 (b & r:<0)

Ha: b>0 and r>0 (b & r:>0)

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The regression equation is automatically stored to RegEQ (VARS Statistics

EQ secondary menu). If you enter a Y= variable name at the RegEQ: prompt, the calculated regression equation is automatically stored to the specified Y= equation. In the example below, the regression equation is stored to Y1, which is then selected (turned on).

In the example:

L3={ 38 56 59 6474} L4={ 41 63 70 7284}

Input:

,

Calculated results:

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TI-83 Plus Inferential Statistics and Distributions 417

When LinRegTTest is executed, the list of residuals is created and stored to the list name RESID automatically. RESID is placed on the LIST NAMES

menu.

Note: For the regression equation, you can use the fix-decimal mode setting to control the number of digits stored after the decimal point (Chapter 1). However, limiting the number of digits to a small number could affect the accuracy of the fit.

ANOVA(

ANOVA( (one-way analysis of variance; item F) computes a one-way analysis of variance for comparing the means of two to 20 populations. The ANOVA procedure for comparing these means involves analysis of the variation in the sample data. The null hypothesis H0: m1=m2=...=mk is tested against the alternative Ha: not all m1...mk are equal.

ANOVA(list1,list2[,...,list20])

In the example:

L1={7 4 6 6 5} L2={6 5 5 8 7} L3={4 7 6 7 6}

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Input:

,

Calculated results:

Note: SS is sum of squares and MS is mean square.

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Inferential Statistics Input Descriptions

The tables in this section describe the inferential statistics inputs discussed in this chapter. You enter values for these inputs in the inferential stat editors. The tables present the inputs in the same order that they appear in this chapter.

Input Description

m0 Hypothesized value of the population mean that you are testing.

s The known population standard deviation; must be a real number > 0.

List The name of the list containing the data you are testing.

Freq The name of the list containing the frequency values for the data in List. Default=1. All elements must be integers | 0.

Calculate/Draw Determines the type of output to generate for tests and intervals. Calculate displays the output on the home screen. In tests, Draw draws a graph of the results.

v, Sx, n Summary statistics (mean, standard deviation, and sample size) for the one-sample tests and intervals.

s1 The known population standard deviation from the first population for the two-sample tests and intervals. Must be a real number > 0.

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Input Description

s2 The known population standard deviation from the second population for the two-sample tests and intervals. Must be a real number > 0.

List1, List2 The names of the lists containing the data you are testing for the two-sample tests and intervals. Defaults are L1 and L2, respectively.

Freq1, Freq2 The names of the lists containing the frequencies for the data in List1 and List2 for the two-sample tests and intervals. Defaults=1. All elements must be integers | 0.

v1, Sx1, n1, v2, Sx2, n2

Summary statistics (mean, standard deviation, and sample size) for sample one and sample two in the two- sample tests and intervals.

Pooled Specifies whether variances are to be pooled for 2.SampTTest and 2.SampTInt. No instructs the TI.83 not to pool the variances. Yes instructs the TI.83 to pool the variances.

p0 The expected sample proportion for 1.PropZTest. Must be a real number, such that 0 < p0 < 1.

x The count of successes in the sample for the 1.PropZTest and 1.PropZInt. Must be an integer 0.

n The count of observations in the sample for the 1.PropZTest and 1.PropZInt. Must be an integer > 0.

x1 The count of successes from sample one for the 2.PropZTest and 2.PropZInt. Must be an integer 0.

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Input Description

x2 The count of successes from sample two for the 2.PropZTest and 2.PropZInt. Must be an integer 0.

n1 The count of observations in sample one for the 2.PropZTest and 2.PropZInt. Must be an integer > 0.

n2 The count of observations in sample two for the 2.PropZTest and 2.PropZInt. Must be an integer > 0.

C.Level The confidence level for the interval instructions. Must be 0 and <100. If it is 1, it is assumed to be given as a percent and is divided by 100. Default=0.95.

Observed (Matrix) The matrix name that represents the columns and rows for the observed values of a two-way table of counts for the c2.Test. Observed must contain all integers 0. Matrix dimensions must be at least 22.

Expected (Matrix) The matrix name that specifies where the expected values should be stored. Expected is created upon successful completion of the c2.Test.

Xlist, Ylist The names of the lists containing the data for LinRegTTest. Defaults are L1 and L2, respectively. The dimensions of Xlist and Ylist must be the same.

RegEQ The prompt for the name of the Y= variable where the calculated regression equation is to be stored. If a Y= variable is specified, that equation is automatically selected (turned on). The default is to store the regression equation to the RegEQ variable only.

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Test and Interval Output Variables

The inferential statistics variables are calculated as indicated below. To access these variables for use in expressions, press , 5 (5:Statistics), and then select the VARS menu listed in the last column below.

Variables Tests Intervals LinRegTTest

ANOVA VARS Menu

p-value p p TEST

test statistics z, t, c2, t, TEST

degrees of freedom df df df TEST

sample mean of x values for sample 1 and sample 2

v1, v2 v1, v2 TEST

sample standard deviation of x for sample 1 and sample 2

Sx1, Sx2

Sx1, Sx2

TEST

number of data points for sample 1 and sample 2

n1, n2 n1, n2 TEST

pooled standard deviation SxP SxP SxP TEST

estimated sample proportion TEST

estimated sample proportion for population 1

1 1 TEST

estimated sample proportion for population 2

2 2 TEST

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Variables Tests Intervals LinRegTTest

ANOVA VARS Menu

confidence interval pair lower, upper

TEST

mean of x values v v XY

sample standard deviation of x Sx Sx XY

number of data points n n XY

standard error about the line s TEST

regression/fit coefficients a, b EQ

correlation coefficient r EQ

coefficient of determination r2 EQ

regression equation RegEQ EQ

Note: The variables listed above cannot be archived.

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Distribution Functions

DISTR menu

To display the DISTR menu, press y =.

DISTR DRAW 1:normalpdf( Normal probability density 2:normalcdf( Normal distribution probability 3:invNorm( Inverse cumulative normal distribution 4:tpdf( Student-t probability density 5:tcdf( Student-t distribution probability 6:c2pdf( Chi-square probability density 7:c2cdf Chi-square distribution probability 8:pdf( probability density 9:cdf( distribution probability 0:binompdf( Binomial probability A:binomcdf( Binomial cumulative density B:poissonpdf( Poisson probability C:poissoncdf( Poisson cumulative density D:geometpdf( Geometric probability E:geometcdf( Geometric cumulative density

Note: L199 and 199 specify infinity. If you want to view the area left of upperbound, for example, specify lowerbound= L199.

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normalpdf(

normalpdf( computes the probability density function (pdf) for the normal distribution at a specified x value. The defaults are mean m=0 and standard deviation s=1. To plot the normal distribution, paste normalpdf( to the Y= editor. The probability density function (pdf) is:

0, 2

1 )( 2

2

2 )(

>=

x

exf

normalpdf(x[,m,s]) Note: For this example, Xmin = 28 Xmax = 42 Ymin = 0 Ymax = .25

Tip: For plotting the normal distribution, you can set window variables Xmin and Xmax so that the mean m falls between them, and then select 0:ZoomFit from the ZOOM menu.

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normalcdf(

normalcdf( computes the normal distribution probability between lowerbound and upperbound for the specified mean m and standard deviation s. The defaults are m=0 and s=1.

normalcdf(lowerbound,upperbound[,m,s])

invNorm(

invNorm( computes the inverse cumulative normal distribution function for a given area under the normal distribution curve specified by mean m and standard deviation s. It calculates the x value associated with an area to the left of the x value. 0 area 1 must be true. The defaults are m=0 and s=1.

invNorm(area[,m,s])

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tpdf(

tpdf( computes the probability density function (pdf) for the Student-t distribution at a specified x value. df (degrees of freedom) must be >0. To plot the Student-t distribution, paste tpdf( to the Y= editor. The probability density function (pdf)is:

df

dfx

df

df xf

df

2/)1(2 )/1(

)2/(

]2/)1[( )(

++

+=

tpdf(x,df)

Note: For this example, Xmin = L4.5 Xmax = 4.5 Ymin = 0 Ymax = .4

tcdf(

tcdf( computes the Student-t distribution probability between lowerbound and upperbound for the specified df (degrees of freedom), which must be > 0.

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tcdf(lowerbound,upperbound,df)

c2pdf(

c2pdf( computes the probability density function (pdf) for the c2 (chi-square) distribution at a specified x value. df (degrees of freedom) must be an integer > 0. To plot the c2 distribution, paste c2pdf( to the Y= editor. The probability density function (pdf) is:

0,2)/(1 )2/(

1 )( 2/12/2/

= xex

df xf xdfdf

c2pdf(x,df)

Note: For this example, Xmin = 0 Xmax = 30 Ymin = L.02 Ymax = .132

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c2cdf(

c2cdf( computes the c2 (chi-square) distribution probability between lowerbound and upperbound for the specified df (degrees of freedom), which must be an integer > 0.

c2cdf(lowerbound,upperbound,df)

pdf(

pdf( computes the probability density function (pdf) for the distribution at a specified x value. numerator df (degrees of freedom) and denominator df must be integers > 0. To plot the distribution, paste pdf( to the Y= editor. The probability density function (pdf) is:

0,)/1( )2/()2/(

]2/)[( )( 2/)(12/2/ +

+= + xdnxx

d

n

dn

dn xf dnnn

where n = numerator degrees of freedom d = denominator degrees of freedom

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pdf(x,numerator df,denominator df)

Note: For this example, Xmin = 0 Xmax = 5 Ymin = 0 Ymax = 1

cdf(

cdf( computes the distribution probability between lowerbound and upperbound for the specified numerator df (degrees of freedom) and denominator df. numerator df and denominator df must be integers >0.

cdf(lowerbound,upperbound,numerator df,denominator df)

binompdf

binompdf( computes a probability at x for the discrete binomial distribution with the specified numtrials and probability of success (p) on each trial. x can be an integer or a list of integers. 0p1 must be true. numtrials must be an integer > 0. If you do not specify x, a list of

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probabilities from 0 to numtrials is returned. The probability density function (pdf) is:

nxppx nxf xnx ,,1,0,)1()( K=

=

where n = numtrials

binompdf(numtrials,p[,x])

binomcdf(

binomcdf( computes a cumulative probability at x for the discrete binomial distribution with the specified numtrials and probability of success (p) on each trial. x can be a real number or a list of real numbers. 0p1 must be true. numtrials must be an integer > 0. If you do not specify x, a list of cumulative probabilities is returned.

binomcdf(numtrials,p[,x])

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poissonpdf(

poissonpdf( computes a probability at x for the discrete Poisson distribution with the specified mean m, which must be a real number > 0. x can be an integer or a list of integers. The probability density function (pdf) is:

,2,1,0,!/)( == xxexf x

poissonpdf(m,x)

poissoncdf(

poissoncdf( computes a cumulative probability at x for the discrete Poisson distribution with the specified mean m, which must be a real number > 0. x can be a real number or a list of real numbers.

poissoncdf(m,x)

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geometpdf(

geometpdf( computes a probability at x, the number of the trial on which the first success occurs, for the discrete geometric distribution with the specified probability of success p. 0p1 must be true. x can be an integer or a list of integers. The probability density function (pdf) is:

,2,1,)1()( 1 == xppxf x

geometpdf(p,x)

geometcdf(

geometcdf( computes a cumulative probability at x, the number of the trial on which the first success occurs, for the discrete geometric distribution with the specified probability of success p. 0p1 must be true. x can be a real number or a list of real numbers.

geometcdf(p,x)

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Distribution Shading

DISTR DRAW Menu

To display the DISTR DRAW menu, press y = ~. DISTR DRAW

instructions draw various types of density functions, shade the area specified by lowerbound and upperbound, and display the computed area value.

To clear the drawings, select 1:ClrDraw from the DRAW menu (Chapter 8).

Note: Before you execute a DISTR DRAW instruction, you must set the window variables so that the desired distribution fits the screen.

DISTR DRAW

1: ShadeNorm( Shades normal distribution. 2: Shade_t( Shades Student-t distribution. 3: Shadec2( Shades c2 distribution. 4: Shade( Shades distribution.

Note: L199 and 199 specify infinity. If you want to view the area left of upperbound, for example, specify lowerbound=L199.

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ShadeNorm(

ShadeNorm( draws the normal density function specified by mean m and standard deviation s and shades the area between lowerbound and upperbound. The defaults are m=0 and s=1.

ShadeNorm(lowerbound,upperbound[,m,s]) Note: For this example, Xmin = 55 Xmax = 72 Ymin = L.05 Ymax = .2

Shade_t(

Shade_t( draws the density function for the Student-t distribution specified by df (degrees of freedom) and shades the area between lowerbound and upperbound.

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Shade_t(lowerbound,upperbound,df)

Note: For this example, Xmin = L3 Xmax = 3 Ymin = L.15 Ymax = .5

Shadec2(

Shadec2( draws the density function for the c2 (chi-square) distribution specified by df (degrees of freedom) and shades the area between lowerbound and upperbound.

Shadec2(lowerbound,upperbound,df)

Note: For this example, Xmin = 0 Xmax = 35 Ymin = L.025 Ymax = .1

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Shade(

Shade( draws the density function for the distribution specified by numerator df (degrees of freedom) and denominator df and shades the area between lowerbound and upperbound.

Shade(lowerbound,upperbound,numerator df,denominator df)

Note: For this example, Xmin = 0 Xmax = 5 Ymin = L.25 Ymax = .9

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Chapter 14: Applications

The Applications Menu

The TI-83 Plus comes with Finance and CBLCBR applications already listed on the APPLICATIONS menu. Except for the Finance application, you can add and remove applications as space permits. The Finance application is built into the TI-83 Plus code and cannot be deleted.

You can buy additional TI-83 Plus software applications that allow you to customize further your calculators functionality. The calculator reserves 1.54 M of space within ROM memory specifically for applications.

Your TI-83 Plus includes Flash applications in addition to the ones mentioned above. Press to see the complete list of applications that came with your calculator.

Documentation for TI Flash applications is on the TI Resource CD. Visit education.ti.com/guides for additional Flash application guidebooks.

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Steps for Running the Finance Application

Follow these basic steps when using the Finance application.

Select the Finance application.

Press 9 b.

Select from list of functions.

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Getting Started: Financing a Car

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

You have found a car you would like to buy. The car costs 9,000. You can afford payments of 250 per month for four years. What annual percentage rate (APR) will make it possible for you to afford the car?

1. Press z ~ ~ ~ to set the fixed- decimal mode setting to 2. The TI-83 Plus will display all numbers with two decimal places).

2. Press to select 1:Finance from the APPLICATIONS menu.

3. Press to select 1:TVM Solver from the CALC VARS menu. The TVM Solver is displayed.

Press 48 to store 48 months to . Press 9000 to store 9,000 to PV. Press 250 to store L250 to PMT. (Negation indicates cash outflow.) Press 0 to store 0 to FV.

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Press 12 to store 12 payments per year to P/Y and 12 compounding periods per year to C/Y. Setting P/Y to 12 will compute an annual percentage rate (compounded monthly) for . Press to select PMT:END, which indicates that payments are due at the end of each period.

4. Press } } } } } } to move the cursor to the prompt. Press \ to solve for . What APR should you look for?

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Getting Started: Computing Compound Interest

At what annual interest rate, compounded monthly, will 1,250 accumulate to 2,000 in 7 years?

Note: Because there are no payments when you solve compound interest problems, PMT must be set to 0 and P/Y must be set to 1.

1. Press to select 1:Finance from the APPLICATIONS menu.

2. Press to select 1:TVM Solver from the CALC VARS menu. The TVM Solver is displayed. Press 7 to enter the number of periods in years. Press 1250 to enter the present value as a cash outflow (investment). Press 0 to specify no payments. Press 2000 to enter the future value as a cash inflow (return). Press 1 to enter payment periods per year. Press 12 to set compounding periods per year to 12.

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3. Press } } } } } to place the cursor on the prompt.

4. Press \ to solve for , the annual interest rate.

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Using the TVM Solver

Using the TVM Solver

The TVM Solver displays the time-value-of-money (TVM) variables. Given four variable values, the TVM Solver solves for the fifth variable.

The FINANCE VARS menu section describes the five TVM variables (, , PV, PMT, and FV) and P/Y and C/Y.

PMT: END BEGIN in the TVM Solver corresponds to the FINANCE CALC menu items Pmt_End (payment at the end of each period) and Pmt_Bgn (payment at the beginning of each period).

To solve for an unknown TVM variable, follow these steps.

1. Press to display the TVM Solver. The screen below shows the default values with the fixed-decimal mode set to two decimal places.

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2. Enter the known values for four TVM variables.

Note: Enter cash inflows as positive numbers and cash outflows as negative numbers.

3. Enter a value for P/Y, which automatically enters the same value for C/Y; if P/Y C/Y, enter a unique value for C/Y.

4. Select END or BEGIN to specify the payment method.

5. Place the cursor on the TVM variable for which you want to solve.

6. Press \. The answer is computed, displayed in the TVM Solver, and stored to the appropriate TVM variable. An indicator square in the left column designates the solution variable.

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Using the Financial Functions

Entering Cash Inflows and Cash Outflows

When using the TI-83 Plus financial functions, you must enter cash inflows (cash received) as positive numbers and cash outflows (cash paid) as negative numbers. The TI-83 Plus follows this convention when computing and displaying answers.

FINANCE CALC Menu

To display the FINANCE CALC menu, press .

CALC VARS 1: TVM Solver... Displays the TVM Solver. 2: tvm_Pmt Computes the amount of each payment. 3: tvm_ Computes the interest rate per year. 4: tvm_PV Computes the present value. 5: tvm_ Computes the number of payment periods. 6: tvm_FV Computes the future value. 7: npv( Computes the net present value. 8: irr( Computes the internal rate of return. 9: bal( Computes the amortization sched. balance. 0: GPrn( Computes the amort. sched. princ. sum. A: GInt( Computes the amort. sched. interest sum.

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CALC VARS B: 4Nom( Computes the nominal interest rate. C: 4Eff( Computes the effective interest rate. D: dbd( Calculates the days between two dates. E: Pmt_End Selects ordinary annuity (end of period). F: Pmt_Bgn Selects annuity due (beginning of period).

Use these functions to set up and perform financial calculations on the home screen.

TVM Solver

TVM Solver displays the TVM Solver.

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Calculating Time Value of Money (TVM)

Calculating Time Value of Money

Use time-value-of-money (TVM) functions (menu items 2 through 6) to analyze financial instruments such as annuities, loans, mortgages, leases, and savings.

Each TVM function takes zero to six arguments, which must be real numbers. The values that you specify as arguments for these functions are not stored to the TVM variables.

Note: To store a value to a TVM variable, use the TVM Solver or use and any TVM variable on the FINANCE VARS menu.

If you enter less than six arguments, the TI-83 Plus substitutes a previously stored TVM variable value for each unspecified argument.

If you enter any arguments with a TVM function, you must place the argument or arguments in parentheses.

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tvm_Pmt

tvm_Pmt computes the amount of each payment.

tvm_Pmt[(,,PV,FV,P/Y,C/Y)]

Note: In the example above, the values are stored to the TVM variables in the TVM Solver. Then the payment (tvm_Pmt) is computed on the home screen using the values in the TVM Solver. Next, the interest rate is changed to 9.5 to illustrate the effect on the payment amount.

tvm_

tvm_ computes the annual interest rate.

tvm_[(,PV,PMT,FV,P/Y,C/Y)]

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tvm_PV

tvm_PV computes the present value.

tvm_PV[(,,PMT,FV,P/Y,C/Y)]

tvm_

tvm_ computes the number of payment periods.

tvm_[(,PV,PMT,FV,P/Y,C/Y)]

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tvm_FV

tvm_FV computes the future value.

tvm_FV[(,,PV,PMT,P/Y,C/Y)]

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Calculating Cash Flows

Calculating a Cash Flow

Use the cash flow functions (menu items 7 and 8) to analyze the value of money over equal time periods. You can enter unequal cash flows, which can be cash inflows or outflows. The syntax descriptions for npv( and irr( use these arguments.

interest rate is the rate by which to discount the cash flows (the cost of money) over one period.

CF0 is the initial cash flow at time 0; it must be a real number.

CFList is a list of cash flow amounts after the initial cash flow CF0.

CFFreq is a list in which each element specifies the frequency of occurrence for a grouped (consecutive) cash flow amount, which is the corresponding element of CFList. The default is 1; if you enter values, they must be positive integers < 10,000.

For example, express this uneven cash flow in lists.

2000 40002000 2000

- 3000

4000

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CF0 = 2000 CFList = {2000,L3000,4000} CFFreq = {2,1,2}

npv(, irr(

npv( (net present value) is the sum of the present values for the cash inflows and outflows. A positive result for npv indicates a profitable investment.

npv(interest rate,CF0,CFList[,CFFreq])

irr( (internal rate of return) is the interest rate at which the net present value of the cash flows is equal to zero.

irr(CF0,CFList[,CFFreq])

300050001000

- 2000 - 2500

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Calculating Amortization

Calculating an Amortization Schedule

Use the amortization functions (menu items 9, 0, and A) to calculate balance, sum of principal, and sum of interest for an amortization schedule.

bal(

bal( computes the balance for an amortization schedule using stored values for , PV, and PMT. npmt is the number of the payment at which you want to calculate a balance. It must be a positive integer < 10,000. roundvalue specifies the internal precision the calculator uses to calculate the balance; if you do not specify roundvalue, then the TI-83 Plus uses the current Float/Fix decimal-mode setting.

bal(npmt[,roundvalue])

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GPrn(, GInt(

GPrn( computes the sum of the principal during a specified period for an amortization schedule using stored values for , PV, and PMT. pmt1 is the starting payment. pmt2 is the ending payment in the range. pmt1 and pmt2 must be positive integers < 10,000. roundvalue specifies the internal precision the calculator uses to calculate the principal; if you do not specify roundvalue, the TI-83 Plus uses the current Float/Fix decimal-mode setting.

Note: You must enter values for , PV, PMT, and before computing the principal.

GPrn(pmt1,pmt2[,roundvalue])

GInt( computes the sum of the interest during a specified period for an amortization schedule using stored values for , PV, and PMT. pmt1 is the starting payment. pmt2 is the ending payment in the range. pmt1 and pmt2 must be positive integers < 10,000. roundvalue specifies the internal precision the calculator uses to calculate the interest; if you do not specify roundvalue, the TI-83 Plus uses the current Float/Fix decimal-mode setting.

GInt(pmt1,pmt2[,roundvalue])

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Amortization Example: Calculating an Outstanding Loan Balance

You want to buy a home with a 30-year mortgage at 8 percent APR. Monthly payments are 800. Calculate the outstanding loan balance after each payment and display the results in a graph and in the table.

1. Press z. Press ~ ~ ~ to set the fixed-decimal mode setting to 2. Press ~ to select Par graphing mode.

2. Press to display the TVM Solver.

3. Press 360 to enter number of payments. Press 8 to enter the interest rate. Press 800 to enter the payment amount. Press 0 to enter the future value of the mortgage. Press 12 to enter the payments per year, which also sets the compounding periods per year to 12. Press to select PMT:END.

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4. Press } } } } } to place the cursor on the PV prompt. Press \ to solve for the present value.

5. Press o to display the parametric Y= editor. Turn off all stat plots. Press to define X1T

as T. Press 9 to define Y1T as bal(T).

6. Press p to display the window variables. Enter the values below. Tmin=0 Xmin=0 Ymin=0 Tmax=360 Xmax=360 Ymax=125000 Tstep=12 Xscl=50 Yscl=10000

7. Press r to draw the graph and activate the trace cursor. Press ~ and | to explore the graph of the outstanding balance over time. Press a number and then press to view the balance at a specific time T.

8. Press y - and enter the values below. TblStart=0 @Tbl=12

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9. Press y 0 to display the table of outstanding balances (Y1T).

10.Press z ~ ~ to select G.T split-screen mode, in which the graph and table are displayed simultaneously.

Press r to display X1T (time) and Y1T

(balance) in the table.

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Calculating Interest Conversion

Calculating an Interest Conversion

Use the interest conversion functions (menu items B and C) to convert interest rates from an annual effective rate to a nominal rate (4Nom( ) or from a nominal rate to an annual effective rate (4Eff( ).

4Nom(

4Nom( computes the nominal interest rate. effective rate and compounding periods must be real numbers. compounding periods must be >0.

4Nom(effective rate,compounding periods)

4Eff(

4Eff( computes the effective interest rate. nominal rate and compounding periods must be real numbers. compounding periods must be >0.

4Eff(nominal rate,compounding periods)

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Finding Days between Dates/Defining Payment Method

dbd(

Use the date function dbd( (menu item D) to calculate the number of days between two dates using the actual-day-count method. date1 and date2 can be numbers or lists of numbers within the range of the dates on the standard calendar.

Note: Dates must be between the years 1950 through 2049.

dbd(date1,date2)

You can enter date1 and date2 in either of two formats.

MM.DDYY (United States)

DDMM.YY (Europe)

The decimal placement differentiates the date formats.

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Defining the Payment Method

Pmt_End and Pmt_Bgn (menu items E and F) specify a transaction as an ordinary annuity or an annuity due. When you execute either command, the TVM Solver is updated.

Pmt_End

Pmt_End (payment end) specifies an ordinary annuity, where payments occur at the end of each payment period. Most loans are in this category. Pmt_End is the default.

Pmt_End

On the TVM Solvers PMT:END BEGIN line, select END to set PMT to ordinary annuity.

Pmt_Bgn

Pmt_Bgn (payment beginning) specifies an annuity due, where payments occur at the beginning of each payment period. Most leases are in this category.

Pmt_Bgn

On the TVM Solvers PMT:END BEGIN line, select BEGIN to set PMT to annuity due.

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Using the TVM Variables

FINANCE VARS Menu

To display the FINANCE VARS menu, press ~. You can use TVM variables in TVM functions and store values to them on the home screen.

CALC VARS

1: Total number of payment periods 2: Annual interest rate 3:PV Present value 4:PMT Payment amount 5:FV Future value 6:P/Y Number of payment periods per year 7:C/Y Number of compounding periods/year

, , PV, PMT, FV

, , PV, PMT, and FV are the five TVM variables. They represent the elements of common financial transactions, as described in the table above. is an annual interest rate that is converted to a per-period rate based on the values of P/Y and C/Y.

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P/Y and C/Y

P/Y is the number of payment periods per year in a financial transaction.

C/Y is the number of compounding periods per year in the same transaction.

When you store a value to P/Y, the value for C/Y automatically changes to the same value. To store a unique value to C/Y, you must store the value to C/Y after you have stored a value to P/Y.

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The CBL/CBR Application

The CBL/CBR application allows you to collect real world data. The TI-83 Plus comes with the CBLCBR application already listed on the APPLICATIONS menu (9 2).

Steps for Running the CBLCBR Application

Follow these basic steps when using the CBLCBR application. You may not have to do all of them each time.

Select the CBLCBR application.

Press 9 2.

Specify the data collection method.

Press 1, 2, or 3.

Press b.

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Select options, if applicable.

Collect the data. Follow directions, if

applicable. Select Go or START NOW.

Stop the data collection, if necessary. Repeat these

steps or exit the APPLICATIONS menu.

Press ^ and or .

Highlight options or enter value and press b.

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Selecting the CBL/CBR Application

To use a CBL/CBR application, you need a CBL 2/CBL or CBR (as applicable), a TI-83 Plus, and a unit-to-unit link cable.

1. Press .

2. Select 2:CBL/CBR to set up the TI-83 Plus to use either of the applications. An informational screen appears first.

3. Press any key to continue to the next menu.

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Data Collection Methods and Options

Specifying the Data Collection Method from the CBL/CBR APP Menu

With a CBL 2/CBL or CBR, you can collect data in one of three ways: GAUGE

(bar or meter), DATA LOGGER (a Temp-Time, Light-Time, Volt-Time, or Sonic-Time graph), or RANGER, which runs the RANGER program, the built-in CBR data collection program.

The CBL/CBR APP menu contains the following data collection methods:

CBL/CBR APP: 1: GAUGE Displays results as either a bar or meter. 2: DATA LOGGER Displays results as a Temp-Time, Light-Time, Volt-Time, or

Sonic-Time graph. 3: RANGER Sets up and runs the RANGER program. 4: QUIT Quits the CBLCBR application.

Note: CBL 2/CBL and CBR differ in that CBL 2/CBL allows you to collect data using one of several different probes including: Temp (Temperature), Light, Volt (Voltage), or Sonic. CBR collects data using only the built-in Sonic probe. You can find more information on CBL 2/CBL and CBR in their user manuals.

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Specifying Options for Each Data Collection Method

After you select a data collection method from the CBL/CBR APP menu, a screen showing the options for that method is displayed. The method you choose, as well as the data collection options you choose for that method, determine whether you use the CBR or the CBL 2/CBL. Refer to the charts in the following sections to find the options for the application you are using.

GAUGE

The GAUGE data collection method lets you choose one of four different probes: temp, Light, Volt, or Sonic.

1. Press 2 .

2. Select 1:GAUGE.

3. Select options.

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When you select a probe option, all other options change accordingly. Use " and ! to move between the probe options. To select a probe, highlight the one you want with the cursor keys, and then press .

GAUGE Options (Defaults)

Probe: Temp Light Volt Sonic

Type: Bar or Meter

Min: 0 0 M10 0

Max: 100 1 10 6

Units: C or F mWcm2 Volt m or Ft

Directions: On or Off

TYPE

The GAUGE data collection results are represented according to TYPE: Bar or Meter. Highlight the one you want with the cursor keys, and then press .

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Bar Meter

MIN and MAX

MIN and MAX refer to the minimum and maximum UNIT values for the specified probe. Defaults are listed in the Gauge Options table. See the CBL 2/CBL and CBR guidebook for specific MINMAX ranges. Enter values using the number keys.

UNITS

The results are displayed according to the UNITS specified. To specify a unit measurement (Temp or Sonic probes only), highlight the one you want using the cursor keys, enter a value using the number keys, and then press .

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DIRECTNS (Directions)

If DIRECTNS=On, the calculator displays step-by-step directions on the screen, which help you set up and run the data collection. To select On or Off, highlight the one you want with the cursor keys, and then press .

With the Sonic data collection probe, if DIRECTNS=On, the calculator displays a menu screen before starting the application asking you to select 1:CBL or 2:CBR. This ensures that you get the appropriate directions. Press 1 to specify CBL 2/CBL or 2 to specify CBR.

Data Collection Comments and Results

To label a specific data point, press to pause the data collection. You will see a Reference#: prompt. Enter a number using the number keys. The calculator automatically converts the reference numbers and the corresponding results into list elements using the following list names (you cannot rename these lists):

Probe Comment Labels (X) Stored to: Data Results (Y) Stored to:

Temp TREF TEMP

Light LREF LIGHT

Volt VREF VOLT

Sonic DREF DIST

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To see all elements in one of these lists, you can insert these lists into the List editor just as you would any other list. Access list names from the - 9 NAMES menu.

Note: These lists are only temporary placeholders for comment labels and data results for any particular probe. Therefore, every time you collect data and enter comments for one of the four probes, the two lists pertaining to that probe are overwritten with comment labels and data results from the most recently collected data..

If you want to save comment labels and data results from more than one data collection, copy all list elements that you want to save to a list with a different name.

Also, the DATA LOGGER data collection method stores data results to the same list names, overwriting previously-collected data results, even those collected using the GAUGE data collection method.

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DATA LOGGER

1. Press 2 .

2. Select 2:DATA LOGGER.

The DATA LOGGER data collection method lets you choose one of four different probes: Temp, Light, Volt, or Sonic. You can use the CBL 2/CBL

with all probes; you can use the CBR only with the Sonic probe.

When you select a probe option, all other options change accordingly. Use " and ! to move between the probe options. To select a probe, highlight the one you want with the cursor keys, and then press .

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DATA LOGGER Options (Defaults)

Temp Light Volt Sonic

#SAMPLES: 99 99 99 99

INTRVL (SEC): 1 1 1 1

UNITS: C or F mW/cm2 Volt Cm or Ft

PLOT: RealTme or End

DIRECTNS: On or Off

Ymin ('): 0 0 M10 0

Ymax ('): 100 1 10 6

The DATA LOGGER data collection results are represented as a Temp-Time, Light-Time, Volt-Time, or Distance-Time graph.

A Distance-Time graph in meters (Sonic probe).

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#SAMPLES

#SAMPLES refers to how many data samples are collected and then graphed. For example, if #SAMPLES=99, data collection stops after the 99th sample is collected. Enter values using the number keys.

INTRVL (SEC)

INTRVL (SEC) specifies the interval in seconds between each data sample that is collected. For example, if you want to collect 99 samples and INTRVL=1, it takes 99 seconds to finish data collection. Enter values using the number keys. See the CBL 2/CBL or CBR guidebook for more information about interval limits.

UNITS

The results are displayed according to the UNITS specified. To specify a unit measurement (Temp or Sonic only), highlight the one you want using the cursor keys, and then press .

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PLOT

You can specify whether you want the calculator to collect realtime (RealTme) samples, which means that the calculator graphs data points immediately as they are being collected, or you can wait and show the graph only after all data points have been collected (End). Highlight the option you want with the cursor keys, and then press .

Ymin and Ymax

To specify Ymin and Ymax values for the final graph, press p to view the PLOT WINDOW screen. Use $ and # to move between options. Enter Ymin and Ymax using the number keys. Press - l to return to the DATA LOGGER options screen.

DIRECTNS (Directions)

If DIRECTNS=On, the calculator displays step-by-step directions on the screen, which help you set up and run the data collection. To select On or Off, highlight the one you want with the cursor keys, and then press b.

With the Sonic data collection probe, if DIRECTNS=On, the calculator displays a menu screen before starting the application asking you to select 1:CBL or 2:CBR. This ensures that you get the appropriate directions. Press 1 to specify CBL 2/CBL or 2 to specify CBR.

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Data Collection Results

The calculator automatically converts all collected data points into list elements using the following list names (you cannot rename the lists):

Probe Time Values (X) stored to: Data Results (Y) Stored to:

Temp TTEMP TEMP

Light TLGHT LIGHT

Volt TVOLT VOLT

Sonic TDIST DIST

To see all elements in one of these lists, you can insert these lists into the List editor just as you would any other list. Access list names from the - 9 NAMES menu.

Note: These lists are only temporary placeholders for data results for any particular probe. Therefore, every time you collect data for one of the four probes, the list pertaining to that probe is overwritten with data results from the most recently collected data.

If you want to save data results from more than one data collection, copy all list elements that you want to save to a list with a different name.

Also, the GAUGE data collection method stores data results to the same list names, overwriting previously-collected data results, even those collected using the DATA LOGGER data collection method.

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RANGER

Selecting the RANGER data collection method runs the CBR RANGER

program, a customized program especially for the TI-83 Plus that makes it compatible with the CBR. When the collection process is halted, the CBR RANGER is deleted from RAM. To run the CBR RANGER program again, press and select the CBL/CBR application.

Note: The Ranger data collection method only uses the Sonic probe.

1. Press 9 2 b.

2. Select 3:RANGER.

3. Press b.

4. Select options.

For detailed information about the RANGER program as well as option explanations, see the Getting Started with CBR guidebook.

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Starting Data Collection

Collecting the Data

After you specify all of the options for your data collection method, select the Go option from the GAUGE or DATA LOGGER options screen. If you are using the RANGER data collection method, select 1:SETUPSAMPLE from the MAIN menu, and then START NOW.

If DIRECTNS=Off, GAUGE and DATA LOGGER data collection begin immediately.

If DIRECTNS=On, the calculator displays step-by-step directions.

If PROBE=Sonic, the calculator first displays a menu screen asking you to select 1:CBL or 2:CBR. This ensures that you get the appropriate directions. Press 1 to specify CBL 2/CBL or 2 to specify CBR.

If you select START NOW from the MAIN menu of the RANGER data collection method, the calculator displays one directions screen. Press b to begin data collection.

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Stopping Data Collection

To stop the GAUGE data collection method, press : on the TI-83 Plus.

The DATA LOGGER and RANGER data collection methods stop after the specified number of samples have been collected. To stop them before this happens:

1. Press ^ on the TI-83 Plus.

2. Press on the CBR, T on the CBL 2, or P on the CBL.

To exit from the GAUGE or DATA LOGGER option menus without beginning data collection, press - l.

To exit from the RANGER option menu without beginning data collection, select MAIN menu. Select 6:QUIT to return to the CBLCBR APP menu.

Press 4:QUIT from the CBLCBR APP menu to return to the TI-83 Plus Home screen.

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Chapter 15: CATALOG, Strings, Hyperbolic Functions

Browsing the TI-83 Plus CATALOG

What Is the CATALOG?

The CATALOG is an alphabetical list of all functions and instructions on the TI-83 Plus. You also can access each CATALOG item from a menu or the keyboard, except:

The six string functions

The six hyperbolic functions

The solve( instruction without the equation solver editor (Chapter 2)

The inferential stat functions without the inferential stat editors (Chapter 13)

Note: The only CATALOG programming commands you can execute from the home screen are GetCalc(, Get(, and Send(.

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Selecting an Item from the CATALOG

To select a CATALOG item, follow these steps.

1. Press y CATALOG to display the CATALOG.

The 4 in the first column is the selection cursor.

2. Press or } to scroll the CATALOG until the selection cursor points to the item you want.

To jump to the first item beginning with a particular letter, press that letter; alpha-lock is on.

Items that begin with a number are in alphabetical order according to the first letter after the number. For example, 2.PropZTest( is among the items that begin with the letter P.

Functions that appear as symbols, such as +, L1, <, and (, follow the last item that begins with Z. To jump to the first symbol, !, press [q].

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3. Press to paste the item to the current screen.

Tip: From the top of the CATALOG menu, press } to move to the bottom. From the bottom, press to move to the top.

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Entering and Using Strings

What Is a String?

A string is a sequence of characters that you enclose within quotation marks. On the TI-83 Plus, a string has two primary applications.

It defines text to be displayed in a program.

It accepts input from the keyboard in a program.

Characters are the units that you combine to form a string.

Count each number, letter, and space as one character.

Count each instruction or function name, such as sin( or cos(, as one character; the TI-83 Plus interprets each instruction or function name as one character.

Entering a String

To enter a string on a blank line on the home screen or in a program, follow these steps.

1. Press [] to indicate the beginning of the string.

2. Enter the characters that comprise the string.

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Use any combination of numbers, letters, function names, or instruction names to create the string.

To enter a blank space, press ['].

To enter several alpha characters in a row, press y 7 to activate alpha-lock.

3. Press [] to indicate the end of the string.

"string"

4. Press . On the home screen, the string is displayed on the next line without quotations. An ellipsis (...) indicates that the string continues beyond the screen. To scroll the entire string, press ~ and |.

Note: Quotation marks do not count as string characters.

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Storing Strings to String Variables

String Variables

The TI-83 Plus has 10 variables to which you can store strings. You can use string variables with string functions and instructions.

To display the VARS STRING menu, follow these steps.

1. Press to display the VARS menu. Move the cursor to 7:String.

2. Press to display the STRING secondary menu.

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Storing a String to a String Variable

To store a string to a string variable, follow these steps.

1. Press [], enter the string, and press [].

2. Press .

3. Press 7 to display the VARS STRING menu.

4. Select the string variable (from Str1 to Str9, or Str0) to which you want to store the string.

The string variable is pasted to the current cursor location, next to the store symbol (!).

5. Press to store the string to the string variable. On the home screen, the stored string is displayed on the next line without quotation marks.

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Displaying the Contents of a String Variable

To display the contents of a string variable on the home screen, select the string variable from the VARS STRING menu, and then press . The string is displayed.

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String Functions and Instructions in the CATALOG

Displaying String Functions and Instructions in the CATALOG

String functions and instructions are available only from the CATALOG. The table below lists the string functions and instructions in the order in which they appear among the other CATALOG menu items. The ellipses in the table indicate the presence of additional CATALOG items.

CATALOG

...

Equ4String( Converts an equation to a string. expr( Converts a string to an expression. ...

inString( Returns a characters place number. ...

length( Returns a strings character length. ...

String4Equ( Converts a string to an equation. sub( Returns a string subset as a string. ...

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+ (Concatenation)

To concatenate two or more strings, follow these steps.

1. Enter string1, which can be a string or string name.

2. Press .

3. Enter string2, which can be a string or string name. If necessary, press and enter string3, and so on.

string1+string2+string3. . .

4. Press to display the strings as a single string.

Selecting a String Function from the CATALOG

To select a string function or instruction and paste it to the current screen, follow the steps for selecting an item from the CATALOG.

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Equ4String(

Equ4String( converts to a string an equation that is stored to any VARS

Y.VARS variable. Yn contains the equation. Strn (from Str1 to Str9, or Str0) is the string variable to which you want the equation to be stored as a string.

Equ4String(Yn,Strn)

expr(

expr( converts the character string contained in string to an expression and executes it. string can be a string or a string variable.

expr(string)

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inString(

inString( returns the character position in string of the first character of substring. string can be a string or a string variable. start is an optional character position at which to start the search; the default is 1.

inString(string,substring[,start])

Note: If string does not contain substring, or start is greater than the length of string, inString( returns 0.

length(

length( returns the number of characters in string. string can be a string or string variable.

Note: An instruction or function name, such as sin( or cos(, counts as one character.

length(string)

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String4Equ(

String4Equ( converts string into an equation and stores the equation to Yn. string can be a string or string variable. String4Equ( is the inverse of Equ4String(.

String4Equ(string,Yn)

sub(

sub( returns a string that is a subset of an existing string. string can be a string or a string variable. begin is the position number of the first character of the subset. length is the number of characters in the subset.

sub(string,begin,length)

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Entering a Function to Graph during Program Execution

In a program, you can enter a function to graph during program execution using these commands.

Note: When you execute this program, enter a function to store to Y3 at the ENTRY= prompt.

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Hyperbolic Functions in the CATALOG

Hyperbolic Functions

The hyperbolic functions are available only from the CATALOG. The table below lists the hyperbolic functions in the order in which they appear among the other CATALOG menu items. The ellipses in the table indicate the presence of additional CATALOG items.

CATALOG ...

cosh( Hyperbolic cosine coshL1( Hyperbolic arccosine ...

sinh( Hyperbolic sine sinhL1( Hyperbolic arcsine ...

tanh( Hyperbolic tangent tanhL1( Hyperbolic arctangent ...

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sinh(, cosh(, tanh(

sinh(, cosh(, and tanh( are the hyperbolic functions. Each is valid for real numbers, expressions, and lists.

sinh(value) cosh(value) tanh(value)

sinhL1(, coshL1(, tanhL1(

sinhL1( is the hyperbolic arcsine function. coshL1( is the hyperbolic arccosine function. tanhL1( is the hyperbolic arctangent function. Each is valid for real numbers, expressions, and lists.

sinhL1(value) coshL1(value) sinhL1(value)

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Chapter 16: Programming

Getting Started: Volume of a Cylinder

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

A program is a set of commands that the TI-83 Plus executes sequentially, as if you had entered them from the keyboard. Create a program that prompts for the radius R and the height H of a cylinder and then computes its volume.

1. Press ~ ~ to display the PRGM NEW

menu.

2. Press to select 1:Create New. The Name= prompt is displayed, and alpha-lock is on. Press [C] [Y] [L] [I] [N] [D] [E] [R], and then press to name the program CYLINDER.

You are now in the program editor. The colon ( : ) in the first column of the second line indicates the beginning of a command line.

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3. Press ~ 2 to select 2:Prompt from the PRGM I/O menu. Prompt is copied to the command line. Press [R] [H] to enter the variable names for radius and height. Press .

4. Press y p [R] [H] [V] to enter the expression pR2H and store it to the variable V.

5. Press ~ 3 to select 3:Disp from the PRGM

I/O menu. Disp is pasted to the command line. Press y 7 [V] [O] [L] [U] [M] [E]['] [I] [S] [V] to set up the program to display the text VOLUME IS on one line and the calculated value of V on the next.

6. Press y 5 to display the home screen.

7. Press to display the PRGM EXEC menu. The items on this menu are the names of stored programs.

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8. Press to paste prgmCYLINDER to the current cursor location. (If CYLINDER is not item 1 on your PRGM EXEC menu, move the cursor to CYLINDER before you press .)

9. Press to execute the program. Enter 1.5 for the radius, and then press . Enter 3 for the height, and then press . The text VOLUME IS, the value of V, and Done are displayed.

Repeat steps 7 through 9 and enter different values for R and H.

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Creating and Deleting Programs

What Is a Program?

A program is a set of one or more command lines. Each line contains one or more instructions. When you execute a program, the TI-83 Plus performs each instruction on each command line in the same order in which you entered them. The number and size of programs that the TI-83 Plus can store is limited only by available memory.

Creating a New Program

To create a new program, follow these steps.

1. Press | to display the PRGM NEW menu.

2. Press to select 1:Create New. The Name= prompt is displayed, and alpha-lock is on.

3. Press a letter from A to Z or q to enter the first character of the new program name.

Note: A program name can be one to eight characters long. The first character must be a letter from A to Z or q. The second through eighth characters can be letters, numbers, or q.

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4. Enter zero to seven letters, numbers, or q to complete the new program name.

5. Press . The program editor is displayed.

6. Enter one or more program commands.

7. Press y 5 to leave the program editor and return to the home screen.

Managing Memory and Deleting a Program

To check whether adequate memory is available for a program you want to enter:

1. Press y L to display the MEMORY menu.

2. Select 2:Mem Mgmt/Del to display the MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE

menu (Chapter 18).

3. Select 7:Prgm to display the PRGM editor.

The TI-83 Plus expresses memory quantities in bytes.

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You can increase available memory in one of two ways. You can delete one or more programs or you can archive some programs.

To increase available memory by deleting a specific program:

1. Press y L and then select 2:Mem Mgmt/Del from the MEMORY

menu.

2. Select 7:Prgm to display the PRGM editor (Chapter 18).

3. Press } and to move the selection cursor (4) next to the program you want to delete, and then press {. The program is deleted from memory. Note: You will receive a message asking you to confirm this delete action. Select 2:yes to continue.

To leave the PRGM editor screen without deleting anything, press y 5, which displays the home screen.

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To increase available memory by archiving a program:

1. Press y L and then select 2:Mem Mgmt/Del from the MEMORY

menu.

2. Select 2:Mem Mgmt/Del to display the MEM MGMT/DEL menu.

3. Select 7:Prgm... to display the PRGM menu.

4. Press to archive the program. An asterisk will appear to the left

of the program to indicate it is an archived program.

To unarchive a program in this screen, put the cursor next to the archived program and press . The asterisk will disappear.

Note: Archive programs cannot be edited or executed. In order to edit or execute an archived program, you must first unarchive it.

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Entering Command Lines and Executing Programs

Entering a Program Command Line

You can enter on a command line any instruction or expression that you could execute from the home screen. In the program editor, each new command line begins with a colon. To enter more than one instruction or expression on a single command line, separate each with a colon.

Note: A command line can be longer than the screen is wide; long command lines wrap to the next screen line.

While in the program editor, you can display and select from menus. You can return to the program editor from a menu in either of two ways.

Select a menu item, which pastes the item to the current command line.

Press .

When you complete a command line, press . The cursor moves to the next command line.

Programs can access variables, lists, matrices, and strings saved in memory. If a program stores a new value to a variable, list, matrix, or string, the program changes the value in memory during execution.

You can call another program as a subroutine.

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Executing a Program

To execute a program, begin on a blank line on the home screen and follow these steps.

1. Press to display the PRGM EXEC menu.

2. Select a program name from the PRGM EXEC menu. prgmname is pasted to the home screen (for example, prgmCYLINDER).

3. Press to execute the program. While the program is executing, the busy indicator is on.

Last Answer (Ans) is updated during program execution. Last Entry is not updated as each command is executed (Chapter 1).

The TI-83 Plus checks for errors during program execution. It does not check for errors as you enter a program.

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Breaking a Program

To stop program execution, press . The ERR:BREAK menu is displayed.

To return to the home screen, select 1:Quit.

To go where the interruption occurred, select 2:Goto.

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Editing Programs

Editing a Program

To edit a stored program, follow these steps.

1. Press ~ to display the PRGM EDIT menu.

2. Select a program name from the PRGM EDIT menu. Up to the first seven lines of the program are displayed.

Note: The program editor does not display a $ to indicate that a program continues beyond the screen.

3. Edit the program command lines.

Move the cursor to the appropriate location, and then delete, overwrite, or insert.

Press to clear all program commands on the command line (the leading colon remains), and then enter a new program command.

Tip: To move the cursor to the beginning of a command line, press y |; to move to the end, press y ~. To scroll the cursor down seven command lines, press . To scroll the cursor up seven command lines, press }.

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Inserting and Deleting Command Lines

To insert a new command line anywhere in the program, place the cursor where you want the new line, press y 6, and then press . A colon indicates a new line.

To delete a command line, place the cursor on the line, press to clear all instructions and expressions on the line, and then press { to delete the command line, including the colon.

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Copying and Renaming Programs

Copying and Renaming a Program

To copy all command lines from one program into a new program, follow steps 1 through 5 for Creating a New Program, and then follow these steps.

1. Press y K. Rcl is displayed on the bottom line of the program editor in the new program (Chapter 1).

2. Press | to display the PRGM EXEC menu.

3. Select a name from the menu. prgmname is pasted to the bottom line of the program editor.

4. Press . All command lines from the selected program are copied into the new program.

Copying programs has at least two convenient applications.

You can create a template for groups of instructions that you use frequently.

You can rename a program by copying its contents into a new program.

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Note: You also can copy all the command lines from one existing program to another existing program using RCL.

Scrolling the PRGM EXEC and PRGM EDIT Menus

The TI-83 Plus sorts PRGM EXEC and PRGM EDIT menu items automatically into alphanumerical order. Each menu only labels the first 10 items using 1 through 9, then 0.

To jump to the first program name that begins with a particular alpha character or q, press [letter from A to Z or q].

Tip: From the top of either the PRGM EXEC or PRGM EDIT menu, press } to move to the bottom. From the bottom, press to move to the top. To scroll the cursor down the menu seven items, press . To scroll the cursor up the menu seven items, press }.

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PRGM CTL (Control) Instructions

PRGM CTL Menu

To display the PRGM CTL (program control) menu, press from the program editor only.

CTL I/O EXEC

1:If Creates a conditional test. 2:Then Executes commands when If is true. 3:Else Executes commands when If is false. 4:For( Creates an incrementing loop. 5:While Creates a conditional loop. 6:Repeat Creates a conditional loop. 7:End Signifies the end of a block. 8:Pause Pauses program execution. 9:Lbl Defines a label. 0:Goto Goes to a label. A:IS>( Increments and skips if greater than. B:DS<( Decrements and skips if less than. C:Menu( Defines menu items and branches. D:prgm Executes a program as a subroutine. E:Return Returns from a subroutine. F:Stop Stops execution. G:DelVar Deletes a variable from within program. H:GraphStyle( Designates the graph style to be drawn.

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These menu items direct the flow of an executing program. They make it easy to repeat or skip a group of commands during program execution. When you select an item from the menu, the name is pasted to the cursor location on a command line in the program.

To return to the program editor without selecting an item, press .

Controlling Program Flow

Program control instructions tell the TI-83 Plus which command to execute next in a program. If, While, and Repeat check a defined condition to determine which command to execute next. Conditions frequently use relational or Boolean tests (Chapter 2), as in:

If A<7:A+1!A

or

If N=1 and M=1:Goto Z

If

Use If for testing and branching. If condition is false (zero), then the command immediately following If is skipped. If condition is true (nonzero), then the next command is executed. If instructions can be nested.

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:If condition :command (if true) :command

Program Output

If.Then

Then following an If executes a group of commands if condition is true (nonzero). End identifies the end of the group of commands.

:If condition :Then :command (if true) :command (if true) :End :command

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Program Output

If.Then.Else

Else following If.Then executes a group of commands if condition is false (zero). End identifies the end of the group of commands.

:If condition :Then :command (if true) :command (if true) :Else :command (if false) :command (if false) :End :command

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Program Output

For(

For( loops and increments. It increments variable from begin to end by increment. increment is optional (default is 1) and can be negative (end<begin). end is a maximum or minimum value not to be exceeded. End identifies the end of the loop. For( loops can be nested.

:For(variable,begin,end[,increment]) :command (while end not exceeded) :command (while end not exceeded) :End :command

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Program Output

While

While performs a group of commands while condition is true. condition is frequently a relational test (Chapter 2). condition is tested when While is encountered. If condition is true (nonzero), the program executes a group of commands. End signifies the end of the group. When condition is false (zero), the program executes each command following End. While instructions can be nested.

:While condition :command (while condition is true) :command (while condition is true) :End :command

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Program Output

Repeat

Repeat repeats a group of commands until condition is true (nonzero). It is similar to While, but condition is tested when End is encountered; therefore, the group of commands is always executed at least once. Repeat instructions can be nested.

:Repeat condition :command (until condition is true) :command (until condition is true) :End :command

Program Output

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End

End identifies the end of a group of commands. You must include an End instruction at the end of each For(, While, or Repeat loop. Also, you must paste an End instruction at the end of each If.Then group and each If.Then.Else group.

Pause

Pause suspends execution of the program so that you can see answers or graphs. During the pause, the pause indicator is on in the top-right corner. Press to resume execution.

Pause without a value temporarily pauses the program. If the DispGraph or Disp instruction has been executed, the appropriate screen is displayed.

Pause with value displays value on the current home screen. value can be scrolled.

Pause [value]

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Program Output

Lbl, Goto

Lbl (label) and Goto (go to) are used together for branching.

Lbl specifies the label for a command. label can be one or two characters (A through Z, 0 through 99, or q).

Lbl label

Goto causes the program to branch to label when Goto is encountered.

Goto label

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Program Output

IS>(

IS>( (increment and skip) adds 1 to variable. If the answer is > value (which can be an expression), the next command is skipped; if the answer is { value, the next command is executed. variable cannot be a system variable.

:IS>(variable,value) :command (if answer value) :command (if answer > value)

Program Output

Note: IS>( is not a looping instruction.

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DS<(

DS<( (decrement and skip) subtracts 1 from variable. If the answer is < value (which can be an expression), the next command is skipped; if the answer is | value, the next command is executed. variable cannot be a system variable.

:DS<(variable,value) :command (if answer value) :command (if answer < value)

Program Output

Note: DS<( is not a looping instruction.

Menu(

Menu( sets up branching within a program. If Menu( is encountered during program execution, the menu screen is displayed with the specified menu items, the pause indicator is on, and execution pauses until you select a menu item.

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The menu title is enclosed in quotation marks ( " ). Up to seven pairs of menu items follow. Each pair comprises a text item (also enclosed in quotation marks) to be displayed as a menu selection, and a label item to which to branch if you select the corresponding menu selection.

Menu("title","text1",label1,"text2",label2, . . .)

Program Output

The program above pauses until you select 1 or 2. If you select 2, for example, the menu disappears and the program continues execution at Lbl B.

prgm

Use prgm to execute other programs as subroutines. When you select prgm, it is pasted to the cursor location. Enter characters to spell a program name. Using prgm is equivalent to selecting existing programs from the PRGM EXEC menu; however, it allows you to enter the name of a program that you have not yet created.

prgmname

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Note: You cannot directly enter the subroutine name when using RCL. You must paste the name from the PRGM EXEC menu.

Return

Return quits the subroutine and returns execution to the calling program, even if encountered within nested loops. Any loops are ended. An implied Return exists at the end of any program that is called as a subroutine. Within the main program, Return stops execution and returns to the home screen.

Stop

Stop stops execution of a program and returns to the home screen. Stop is optional at the end of a program.

DelVar

DelVar deletes from memory the contents of variable.

DelVar variable

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GraphStyle(

GraphStyle( designates the style of the graph to be drawn. function# is the number of the Y= function name in the current graphing mode. graphstyle is a number from 1 to 7 that corresponds to the graph style, as shown below.

1 = (line) 5 = (path) 2 = (thick) 6 = (animate) 3 = (shade above) 7 = (dot) 4 = (shade below)

GraphStyle(function#,graphstyle)

For example, GraphStyle(1,5) in Func mode sets the graph style for Y1 to (path; 5).

Not all graph styles are available in all graphing modes. For a detailed description of each graph style, see the Graph Styles table in Chapter 3.

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PRGM I/O (Input/Output) Instructions

PRGM I/O Menu

To display the PRGM I/O (program input/output) menu, press ~ from within the program editor only.

CTL I/O EXEC 1:Input Enters a value or uses the cursor. 2:Prompt Prompts for entry of variable values. 3:Disp Displays text, value, or the home screen. 4:DispGraph Displays the current graph. 5:DispTable Displays the current table. 6:Output( Displays text at a specified position. 7:getKey Checks the keyboard for a keystroke. 8:ClrHome Clears the display. 9:ClrTable Clears the current table. 0:GetCalc( Gets a variable from another TI-83 Plus. A:Get( Gets a variable from CBL 2/CBL or CBR. B:Send( Sends a variable to CBL 2/CBL or CBR.

These instructions control input to and output from a program during execution. They allow you to enter values and display answers during program execution.

To return to the program editor without selecting an item, press .

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Displaying a Graph with Input

Input without a variable displays the current graph. You can move the free-moving cursor, which updates X and Y (and R and q for PolarGC format). The pause indicator is on. Press to resume program execution.

Input

Program Output

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Storing a Variable Value with Input

Input with variable displays a ? (question mark) prompt during execution. variable may be a real number, complex number, list, matrix, string, or Y= function. During program execution, enter a value, which can be an expression, and then press . The value is evaluated and stored to variable, and the program resumes execution.

Input [variable]

You can display text or the contents of Strn (a string variable) of up to 16 characters as a prompt. During program execution, enter a value after the prompt and then press . The value is stored to variable, and the program resumes execution.

Input ["text",variable] Input [Strn,variable]

Program Output

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Note: When a program prompts for input of lists and Yn functions during execution, you must include the braces ( { } ) around the list elements and quotation marks ( " ) around the expressions.

Prompt

During program execution, Prompt displays each variable, one at a time, followed by =?. At each prompt, enter a value or expression for each variable, and then press . The values are stored, and the program resumes execution.

Prompt variableA[,variableB,...,variable n]

Program Output

Note: Y= functions are not valid with Prompt.

Displaying the Home Screen

Disp (display) without a value displays the home screen. To view the home screen during program execution, follow the Disp instruction with a Pause instruction.

Disp

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Displaying Values and Messages

Disp with one or more values displays the value of each.

Disp [valueA,valueB,valueC,...,value n]

If value is a variable, the current value is displayed.

If value is an expression, it is evaluated and the result is displayed on the right side of the next line.

If value is text within quotation marks, it is displayed on the left side of the current display line. ! is not valid as text.

Program Output

If Pause is encountered after Disp, the program halts temporarily so you can examine the screen. To resume execution, press .

Note: If a matrix or list is too large to display in its entirety, ellipses (...) are displayed in the last column, but the matrix or list cannot be scrolled. To scroll, use Pause value.

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DispGraph

DispGraph (display graph) displays the current graph. If Pause is encountered after DispGraph, the program halts temporarily so you can examine the screen. Press to resume execution.

DispTable

DispTable (display table) displays the current table. The program halts temporarily so you can examine the screen. Press to resume execution.

Output(

Output( displays text or value on the current home screen beginning at row (1 through 8) and column (1 through 16), overwriting any existing characters.

Tip: You may want to precede Output( with ClrHome.

Expressions are evaluated and values are displayed according to the current mode settings. Matrices are displayed in entry format and wrap to the next line. ! is not valid as text.

Output(row,column,"text") Output(row,column,value)

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Program Output

For Output( on a Horiz split screen, the maximum value for row is 4.

getKey

getKey returns a number corresponding to the last key pressed, according to the key code diagram below. If no key has been pressed, getKey returns 0. Use getKey inside loops to transfer control, for example, when creating video games.

Program Output

Note: , , , and were pressed during program execution.

Note: You can press at any time during execution to break the program.

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TI-83 Plus Key Code Diagram

ClrHome, ClrTable

ClrHome (clear home screen) clears the home screen during program execution.

ClrTable (clear table) clears the values in the table during program execution.

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GetCalc(

GetCalc( gets the contents of variable on another TI-83 Plus and stores it to variable on the receiving TI-83 Plus. variable can be a real or complex number, list element, list name, matrix element, matrix name, string, Y= variable, graph database, or picture.

GetCalc(variable)

Note: GetCalc( does not work between TI.82 and TI-83 Plus calculators.

Get(, Send(

Get( gets data from the CBL 2/CBL or CBR and stores it to variable on the receiving TI-83 Plus. variable can be a real number, list element, list name, matrix element, matrix name, string, Y= variable, graph database, or picture.

Get(variable)

Note: If you transfer a program that references the Get( command to the TI-83 Plus from a TI.82, the TI-83 Plus will interpret it as the Get( described above. Use GetCalc( to get data from another TI-83 Plus.

Send( sends the contents of variable to the CBL 2/CBL or CBR. You cannot use it to send to another TI-83 Plus. variable can be a real number, list element, list name, matrix element, matrix name, string, Y= variable, graph database, or picture. variable can be a list of elements.

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Send(variable)

Note: This program gets sound data and time in seconds from CBL 2/CBL.

Note: You can access Get(, Send(, and GetCalc( from the CATALOG to execute them from the home screen (Chapter 15).

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Calling Other Programs as Subroutines

Calling a Program from Another Program

On the TI-83 Plus, any stored program can be called from another program as a subroutine. Enter the name of the program to use as a subroutine on a line by itself.

You can enter a program name on a command line in either of two ways.

Press | to display the PRGM EXEC menu and select the name of the program prgmname is pasted to the current cursor location on a command line.

Select prgm from the PRGM CTL menu, and then enter the program name.

prgmname

When prgmname is encountered during execution, the next command that the program executes is the first command in the second program. It returns to the subsequent command in the first program when it encounters either Return or the implied Return at the end of the second program.

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Program Output

&

Subroutine ( '

Notes about Calling Programs

Variables are global.

label used with Goto and Lbl is local to the program where it is located. label in one program is not recognized by another program. You cannot use Goto to branch to a label in another program.

Return exits a subroutine and returns to the calling program, even if it is encountered within nested loops.

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Running an Assembly Language Program

You can run programs written for the TI-83 Plus in assembly language. Typically, assembly language programs run much faster and provide greater control than than the keystroke programs that you write with the built-in program editor.

Note: Because an assembly langauge program has greater control over the calculator, if your assembly language program has error(s), it may cause your calculator to reset and lose all data, programs, and applications stored in memory.

When you download an assembly language program, it is stored among the other programs as a PRGM menu item. You can:

Transmit it using the TI-83 Plus communication link (Chapter 19).

Delete it using the MEM MGMT DEL screen (Chapter 18).

To run an assembly Program, the syntax is: Asm(assemblyprgmname)

If you write an assembly language program, use the two instructions below from the CATALOG to identify and compile the program.

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Instructions Comments

AsmComp(prgmASM1, prgmASM2)

Compiles an assembly language program written in ASCII and stores the hex version

AsmPrgm Identifies an assembly language program; must be entered as the first line of an assembly language program

To compile an assembly program that you have written:

1. Follow the steps for writing a program (16-4) but be sure to include AsmPrgm as the first line of your program.

2. From the home screen, press y N and then select AsmComp( to paste it to the screen

3. Press to display the PRGM EXEC menu.

4. Select the program you want to compile. It will be pasted to the home screen.

5. Press and then select prgm from the CATALOG

6. Key in the name you have chosen for the output program.

Note: This name must be unique not a copy of an existing program name.

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7. Press to complete the sequence.

The sequence of the arguments should be as follows:

AsmComp(prgmASM1,prgmASM2)

8. Press to compile your program and generate the output program.

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Chapter 17: Activities

The Quadratic Formula

Entering a Calculation

Use the quadratic formula to solve the quadratic equations 3X2 + 5X + 2 = 0 and 2X2 N X + 3 = 0. Begin with the equation 3X2 + 5X + 2 = 0.

1. Press 3 [A] (above ) to store the coefficient of the X2 term.

2. Press [ : ] (above ). The colon allows you to enter more than one instruction on a line.

3. Press 5 [B] (above ) to store the coefficient of the X term. Press [ : ] to enter a new instruction on the same line. Press 2 [C] (above ) to store the constant.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 541

4. Press to store the values to the variables A, B, and C.

The last value you stored is shown on the right side of the display. The cursor moves to the next line, ready for your next entry.

5. Press [B] y C [B] 4 [A] [C] 2 [A] to enter the expression for one of the solutions for the quadratic formula,

a

acbb

2

42

6. Press to find one solution for the equation 3X2 + 5X + 2 = 0.

The answer is shown on the right side of the display. The cursor moves to the next line, ready for you to enter the next expression.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 542

The Quadratic Formula

Converting to a Fraction

You can show the solution as a fraction.

1. Press to display the MATH menu.

2. Press 1 to select 1:4Frac from the MATH menu.

When you press 1, Ans4Frac is displayed on the home screen. Ans is a variable that contains the last calculated answer.

3. Press to convert the result to a fraction.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 543

To save keystrokes, you can recall the last expression you entered, and then edit it for a new calculation.

4. Press y [ (above ) to recall the fraction conversion entry, and then press y [ again to recall the quadratic-formula expression,

a

acbb

2 42+

5. Press } to move the cursor onto the + sign in the formula. Press to edit the quadratic- formula expression to become:

a

acbb

2

42

6. Press to find the other solution for the quadratic equation 3X2 + 5X + 2 = 0.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 544

The Quadratic Formula

Displaying Complex Results

Now solve the equation 2X2 N X + 3 = 0. When you set a+bi complex number mode, the TI-83 Plus displays complex results.

1. Press z (6 times), and then press ~ to position the cursor over a+bi. Press to select a+bi complex-number mode.

2. Press y 5 (above z) to return to the home screen, and then press to clear it.

3. Press 2 [A] [ : ] 1 [B] [ : ] 3 [C] .

The coefficient of the X2 term, the coefficient of the X term, and the constant for the new equation are stored to A, B, and C, respectively.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 545

4. Press y [ to recall the store instruction, and then press y [ again to recall the quadratic-formula expression,

a

acbb

2

42

5. Press to find one solution for the equation 2X2 N X + 3 = 0.

6. Press y [ repeatedly until this quadratic- formula expression is displayed:

a

acbb

2 42+

7. Press to find the other solution for the quadratic equation: 2X2 N X + 3 = 0.

Note: An alternative for solving equations for real numbers is to use the built-in Equation Solver (Chapter 2).

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TI-83 Plus Activities 546

Box with Lid

Defining a Function

Take a 20 cm 25 cm. sheet of paper and cut X X squares from two corners. Cut X 12.5 cm rectangles from the other two corners as shown in the diagram below. Fold the paper into a box with a lid. What value of X would give your box the maximum volume V? Use the table and graphs to determine the solution.

Begin by defining a function that describes the volume of the box.

From the diagram: 2X + A = 20 2X + 2B = 25 V = A*B*X

Substituting: V = (20 N 2X) (25 2 N X) X

1. Press o to display the Y= editor, which is where you define functions for tables and graphing.

A20

X

X B X B

25

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TI-83 Plus Activities 547

2. Press 20 2 25 2 to define the volume function as Y1 in terms of X.

lets you enter X quickly, without having to press . The highlighted = sign indicates that Y1 is selected.

Box with Lid

Defining a Table of Values

The table feature of the TI-83 Plus displays numeric information about a function. You can use a table of values from the function you just defined to estimate an answer to the problem.

1. Press y - (above p) to display the TABLE SETUP menu.

2. Press to accept TblStart=0.

3. Press 1 to define the table increment @Tbl=1. Leave Indpnt: Auto and Depend: Auto so that the table will be generated automatically.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 548

4. Press y 0 (above s) to display the table.

Notice that the maximum value for Y1 (boxs volume) occurs when X is about 4, between 3 and 5.

5. Press and hold to scroll the table until a negative result for Y1 is displayed.

Notice that the maximum length of X for this problem occurs where the sign of Y1 (boxs volume) changes from positive to negative, between 10 and 11.

6. Press y -.

Notice that TblStart has changed to 6 to reflect the first line of the table as it was last displayed. (In step 5, the first value of X displayed in the table is 6.)

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TI-83 Plus Activities 549

Box with Lid

Zooming In on the Table

You can adjust the way a table is displayed to get more information about a defined function. With smaller values for @Tbl, you can zoom in on the table.

1. Press 3 to set TblStart. Press 1 to set @Tbl.

This adjusts the table setup to get a more accurate estimate of X for maximum volume Y1.

2. Press y 0.

3. Press and } to scroll the table.

Notice that the maximum value for Y1 is 410.26, which occurs at X=3.7. Therefore, the maximum occurs where 3.6<X<3.8.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 550

4. Press y -. Press 3 6 to set TblStart. Press 01 to set @Tbl.

5. Press y 0, and then press and } to scroll the table.

Four equivalent maximum values are shown, 410.26 at X=3.67, 3.68, 3.69, and 3.70.

6. Press or } to move the cursor to 3.67. Press ~ to move the cursor into the Y1 column.

The value of Y1 at X=3.67 is displayed on the bottom line in full precision as 410.261226.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 551

7. Press to display the other maximum.

The value of Y1 at X=3.68 in full precision is 410.264064, at X=3.69 is 410.262318 and at X=3.7 is 410.256.

The maximum volume of the box would occur at 3.68 if you could measure and cut the paper at .01-centimeter increments.

Box with Lid

Setting the Viewing Window

You also can use the graphing features of the TI-83 Plus to find the maximum value of a previously defined function. When the graph is activated, the viewing window defines the displayed portion of the coordinate plane. The values of the window variables determine the size of the viewing window.

1. Press p to display the window editor, where you can view and edit the values of the window variables.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 552

The standard window variables define the viewing window as shown. Xmin, Xmax, Ymin, and Ymax define the boundaries of the display. Xscl and Yscl define the distance between tick marks on the X and Y axes. Xres controls resolution.

Xmax

Ymin

Ymax

Xscl

Yscl

Xmin

2. Press 0 to define Xmin.

3. Press 20 2 to define Xmax using an expression.

4. Press . The expression is evaluated, and 10 is stored in Xmax. Press to accept Xscl as 1.

5. Press 0 500 100 1 to define the remaining window variables.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 553

Box with Lid

Displaying and Tracing the Graph

Now that you have defined the function to be graphed and the window in which to graph it, you can display and explore the graph. You can trace along a function using the TRACE feature.

1. Press to graph the selected function in the viewing window.

The graph of Y1=(20N2X)(252NX)X is displayed.

2. Press ~ to activate the free-moving graph cursor.

The X and Y coordinate values for the position of the graph cursor are displayed on the bottom line.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 554

3. Press |, ~, }, and to move the free- moving cursor to the apparent maximum of the function.

As you move the cursor, the X and Y coordinate values are updated continually.

4. Press r. The trace cursor is displayed on the Y1 function.

The function that you are tracing is displayed in the top-left corner.

5. Press | and ~ to trace along Y1, one X dot at a time, evaluating Y1 at each X.

You also can enter your estimate for the maximum value of X.

6. Press 3 8. When you press a number key while in TRACE, the X= prompt is displayed in the bottom-left corner.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 555

7. Press .

The trace cursor jumps to the point on the Y1

function evaluated at X=3.8.

8. Press | and ~ until you are on the maximum Y value.

This is the maximum of Y1(X) for the X pixel values. The actual, precise maximum may lie between pixel values.

Box with Lid

Zooming In on the Graph

To help identify maximums, minimums, roots, and intersections of functions, you can magnify the viewing window at a specific location using the ZOOM instructions.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 556

1. Press q to display the ZOOM menu.

This menu is a typical TI-83 Plus menu. To select an item, you can either press the number or letter next to the item, or you can press until the item number or letter is highlighted, and then press .

2. Press 2 to select 2:Zoom In.

The graph is displayed again. The cursor has changed to indicate that you are using a ZOOM

instruction.

3. With the cursor near the maximum value of the function, press .

The new viewing window is displayed. Both XmaxNXmin and YmaxNYmin have been adjusted by factors of 4, the default values for the zoom factors.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 557

4. Press p to display the new window settings.

Box with Lid

Finding the Calculated Maximum

You can use a CALCULATE menu operation to calculate a local maximum of a function.

1. Press y / (above r) to display the CALCULATE menu. Press 4 to select 4:maximum.

The graph is displayed again with a Left Bound? prompt.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 558

2. Press | to trace along the curve to a point to the left of the maximum, and then press .

A 4 at the top of the screen indicates the selected bound.

A Right Bound? prompt is displayed.

3. Press ~ to trace along the curve to a point to the right of the maximum, and then press .

A 3 at the top of the screen indicates the selected bound.

A Guess? prompt is displayed.

4. Press | to trace to a point near the maximum, and then press .

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TI-83 Plus Activities 559

Or, press 3 8, and then press to enter a guess for the maximum.

When you press a number key in TRACE, the X= prompt is displayed in the bottom-left corner.

Notice how the values for the calculated maximum compare with the maximums found with the free-moving cursor, the trace cursor, and the table.

Note: In steps 2 and 3 above, you can enter values directly for Left Bound and Right Bound, in the same way as described in step 4.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 560

Comparing Test Results Using Box Plots

Problem

An experiment found a significant difference between boys and girls pertaining to their ability to identify objects held in their left hands, which are controlled by the right side of their brains, versus their right hands, which are controlled by the left side of their brains. The TI Graphics team conducted a similar test for adult men and women.

The test involved 30 small objects, which participants were not allowed to see. First, they held 15 of the objects one by one in their left hands and guessed what they were. Then they held the other 15 objects one by one in their right hands and guessed what they were. Use box plots to compare visually the correct-guess data from this table.

Correct Guesses

Women Left

Women Right

Men Left

Men Right

8 4 7 12 9 1 8 6

12 8 7 12 11 12 5 12 10 11 7 7 8 11 8 11

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TI-83 Plus Activities 561

Women Left

Women Right

Men Left

Men Right

12 13 11 12 7 12 4 8 9 11 10 12

11 12 14 11 13 9 5 9

Procedure

1. Press 5 to select 5:SetUpEditor. Enter list names WLEFT, WRGHT, MLEFT, and MRGHT, separated by commas. Press . The stat list editor now contains only these four lists.

2. Press 1 to select 1:Edit.

3. Enter into WLEFT the number of correct guesses each woman made using her left hand (Women Left). Press ~ to move to WRGHT and enter the number of correct guesses each woman made using her right hand (Women Right).

4. Likewise, enter each mans correct guesses in MLEFT (Men Left) and MRGHT (Men Right).

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TI-83 Plus Activities 562

5. Press y ,. Select 1:Plot1. Turn on plot 1; define it as a modified box plot that uses WLEFT. Move the cursor to the top line and select Plot2. Turn on plot 2; define it as a modified box plot that uses WRGHT.

6. Press o. Turn off all functions.

7. Press p. Set Xscl=1 and Yscl=0. Press q 9 to select 9:ZoomStat. This adjusts the viewing window and displays the box plots for the womens results.

8. Press r.

% Womens left-hand data

% Womens right-hand data

Use | and ~ to examine minX, Q1, Med, Q3, and maxX for each plot. Notice the outlier to the womens right-hand data. What is the median for the left hand? For the right hand? With which hand were the women more accurate guessers, according to the box plots?

9. Examine the mens results. Redefine plot 1 to use MLEFT, redefine plot 2 to use MRGHT. Press r.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 563

% Mens left-hand data

% Mens right-hand data

Press | and ~ to examine minX, Q1, Med, Q3, and maxX for each plot. What difference do you see between the plots?

10.Compare the left-hand results. Redefine plot 1 to use WLEFT, redefine plot 2 to use MLEFT, and then press r to examine minX, Q1, Med, Q3, and maxX for each plot. Who were the better left-hand guessers, men or women?

11.Compare the right-hand results. Define plot 1 to use WRGHT, define plot 2 to use MRGHT, and then press r to examine minX, Q1, Med, Q3, and maxX for each plot. Who were the better right-hand guessers?

In the original experiment boys did not guess as well with right hands, while girls guessed equally well with either hand. This is not what our box plots show for adults. Do you think that this is because adults have learned to adapt or because our sample was not large enough?

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TI-83 Plus Activities 564

Graphing Piecewise Functions

Problem

The fine for speeding on a road with a speed limit of 45 kilometers per hour (kph) is 50; plus 5 for each kph from 46 to 55 kph; plus 10 for each kph from 56 to 65 kph; plus 20 for each kph from 66 kph and above. Graph the piecewise function that describes the cost of the ticket.

The fine (Y) as a function of kilometers per hour (X) is:

Y = 0 0 < X 45 Y = 50 + 5 (X N 45) 45 < X 55 Y = 50 + 5 10 + 10 (X N 55) 55 < X 65 Y = 50 + 5 10 + 10 10 + 20 (X N 65) 65 < X

Procedure

1. Press z. Select Func and the default settings.

2. Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the Y= function to describe the fine. Use the TEST menu operations to define the piecewise function. Set the graph style for Y1 to (dot).

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TI-83 Plus Activities 565

3. Press p and set Xmin=L2, Xscl=10, Ymin=L5, and Yscl=10. Ignore Xmax and Ymax; they are set by @X and @Y in step 4.

4. Press y 5 to return to the home screen. Store 1 to @X, and then store 5 to @Y. @X and @Y are on the VARS Window X/Y secondary menu. @X and @Y specify the horizontal and vertical distance between the centers of adjacent pixels. Integer values for @X and @Y produce nice values for tracing.

5. Press r to plot the function. At what speed does the ticket exceed 250?

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TI-83 Plus Activities 566

Graphing Inequalities

Problem

Graph the inequality 0.4X3 N 3X + 5 < 0.2X + 4. Use the TEST menu operations to explore the values of X where the inequality is true and where it is false.

Procedure

1. Press z. Select Dot, Simul, and the default settings. Setting Dot mode changes all graph style icons to (dot) in the Y= editor.

2. Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the left side of the inequality as Y4 and the right side as Y5.

3. Enter the statement of the inequality as Y6. This function evaluates to 1 if true or 0 if false.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 567

4. Press q 6 to graph the inequality in the standard window.

5. Press r to move to Y6. Then press | and ~ to trace the inequality, observing the value of Y.

6. Press o. Turn off Y4, Y5, and Y6. Enter equations to graph only the inequality.

7. Press r. Notice that the values of Y7 and Y8 are zero where the inequality is false.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 568

Solving a System of Nonlinear Equations

Problem

Using a graph, solve the equation X3 N 2X = 2cos(X). Stated another way, solve the system of two equations and two unknowns: Y = X3N2X and Y = 2cos(X). Use ZOOM factors to control the decimal places displayed on the graph.

Procedure

1. Press z. Select the default mode settings. Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the functions.

2. Press q 4 to select 4:ZDecimal. The display shows that two solutions may exist (points where the two functions appear to intersect).

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3. Press q ~ 4 to select 4:SetFactors from the ZOOM MEMORY menu. Set XFact=10 and YFact=10.

4. Press q 2 to select 2:Zoom In. Use |, ~, }, and to move the free-moving cursor onto the apparent intersection of the functions on the right side of the display. As you move the cursor, notice that the X and Y values have one decimal place.

5. Press to zoom in. Move the cursor over the intersection. As you move the cursor, notice that now the X and Y values have two decimal places.

6. Press to zoom in again. Move the free-moving cursor onto a point exactly on the intersection. Notice the number of decimal places.

7. Press y / 5 to select 5:intersect. Press to select the first curve and to select the second curve. To guess, move the trace cursor near the intersection. Press . What are the coordinates of the intersection point?

8. Press q 4 to select 4:ZDecimal to redisplay the original graph.

9. Press q. Select 2:Zoom In and repeat steps 4 through 8 to explore the apparent function intersection on the left side of the display.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 570

Using a Program to Create the Sierpinski Triangle

Setting up the Program

This program creates a drawing of a famous fractal, the Sierpinski Triangle, and stores the drawing to a picture. To begin, press ~ ~ 1. Name the program SIERPINS, and then press . The program editor is displayed.

Program

PROGRAM:SIERPINS :FnOff :ClrDraw :PlotsOff :AxesOff :0!Xmin:1!Xmax :0!Ymin:1!Ymax

Set viewing window.

:rand!X:rand!Y

:For(K,1,3000) :rand!N

Beginning of For group.

:If N13 :Then :.5X!X :.5Y!Y :End

If/Then group

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TI-83 Plus Activities 571

:If 13 :Then :.5(.5+X)!X :.5(1+Y)!Y :End

If/Then group.

:If 23 :Then :.5(1+X)!X :.5Y!Y :End

If/Then group.

:Pt-On(X,Y) Draw point. :End End of For group. :StorePic 6 Store picture.

After you execute the program above, you can recall and display the picture with the instruction RecallPic 6.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 572

Graphing Cobweb Attractors

Problem

Using Web format, you can identify points with attracting and repelling behavior in sequence graphing.

Procedure

1. Press z. Select Seq and the default mode settings. Press y .. Select Web format and the default format settings.

2. Press o. Clear all functions and turn off all stat plots. Enter the sequence that corresponds to the expression Y = K X(1NX).

u(n)=Ku(nN1)(1Nu(nN1)) u(nMin)=.01

3. Press y 5 to return to the home screen, and then store 2.9 to K.

4. Press p. Set the window variables. nMin=0 Xmin=0 Ymin=M.26 nMax=10 Xmax=1 Ymax=1.1 PlotStart=1 Xscl=1 Yscl=1 PlotStep=1

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5. Press r to display the graph, and then press ~ to trace the cobweb. This is a cobweb with one attractor.

6. Change K to 3.44 and trace the graph to show a cobweb with two attractors.

7. Change K to 3.54 and trace the graph to show a cobweb with four attractors.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 574

Using a Program to Guess the Coefficients

Setting Up the Program

This program graphs the function A sin(BX) with random integer coefficients between 1 and 10. Try to guess the coefficients and graph your guess as C sin(DX). The program continues until your guess is correct.

Program

PROGRAM:GUESS :PlotsOff :Func :FnOff :Radian :ClrHome :"Asin(BX)"!Y1 :"Csin(DX)"!Y2 Define equations.

:GraphStyle(1,1) :GraphStyle(2,5) Set line and path graph styles.

:FnOff 2

:randInt(1,10)!A :randInt(1,10)!B :0!C:0!D

Initialize coefficients.

:L2p!Xmin :2p!Xmax :p2!Xscl :L10!Ymin :10!Ymax

Set viewing window.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 575

:1!Yscl :DispGraph :Pause

Display graph.

:FnOn 2 :Lbl Z :Prompt C,D Prompt for guess. :DispGraph :Pause

Display graph.

:If C=A :Text(1,1,"C IS OK") :If CA :Text(1,1,"C IS WRONG") :If D=B :Text(1,50,"D IS OK") :If DB :Text(1,50,"D IS WRONG")

Display results.

:DispGraph :Pause Display graph.

:If C=A and D=B :Stop :Goto Z

Quit if guesses are correct.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 576

Graphing the Unit Circle and Trigonometric Curves

Problem

Using parametric graphing mode, graph the unit circle and the sine curve to show the relationship between them.

Any function that can be plotted in Func mode can be plotted in Par mode by defining the X component as T and the Y component as F(T).

Procedure

1. Press z. Select Par, Simul, and the default settings.

2. Press p. Set the viewing window. Tmin=0 Xmin=L2 Ymin=L3 Tmax=2p Xmax=7.4 Ymax=3 Tstep=.1 Xscl=p2 Yscl=1

3. Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the expressions to define the unit circle centered on (0,0).

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4. Enter the expressions to define the sine curve.

5. Press r. As the graph is plotting, you may press to pause and again to resume graphing as you watch the sine function unwrap from the unit circle.

Note: You can generalize the unwrapping. Replace sin(T) in Y2T with any other trig function to unwrap that function.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 578

Finding the Area between Curves

Problem

Find the area of the region bounded by

f(x) = 300x / (x2 + 625) g(x) = 3cos(.1x) x = 75

Procedure

1. Press z. Select the default mode settings.

2. Press p. Set the viewing window. Xmin=0 Ymin=L5 Xmax=100 Ymax=10 Xscl=10 Yscl=1

Xres=1

3. Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the upper and lower functions. Y1=300X(X2+625) Y2=3cos(.1X)

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TI-83 Plus Activities 579

4. Press y / 5 to select 5:Intersect. The graph is displayed. Select a first curve, second curve, and guess for the intersection toward the left side of the display. The solution is displayed, and the value of X at the intersection, which is the lower limit of the integral, is stored in Ans and X.

5. Press y 5 to go to the home screen. Press y < 7 and use Shade( to see the area graphically.

Shade(Y2,Y1,Ans,75)

6. Press y 5 to return to the home screen. Enter the expression to evaluate the integral for the shaded region.

fnInt(Y1Y2,X,Ans,75)

The area is 325.839962.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 580

Using Parametric Equations: Ferris Wheel Problem

Problem

Using two pairs of parametric equations, determine when two objects in motion are closest to each other in the same plane.

A ferris wheel has a diameter (d) of 20 meters and is rotating counterclockwise at a rate (s) of one revolution every 12 seconds. The parametric equations below describe the location of a ferris wheel passenger at time T, where a is the angle of rotation, (0,0) is the bottom center of the ferris wheel, and (10,10) is the passengers location at the rightmost point, when T=0.

X(T) = r cos a where a = 2pTs and r = d2 Y(T) = r + r sin a

A person standing on the ground throws a ball to the ferris wheel passenger. The throwers arm is at the same height as the bottom of the ferris wheel, but 25 meters (b) to the right of the ferris wheels lowest point (25,0). The person throws the ball with velocity (v0) of 22 meters per second at an angle (q) of 66 from the horizontal. The parametric equations below describe the location of the ball at time T.

X(T) = b N Tv0 cosq Y(T) = Tv0 sinq N (g2) T2 where g = 9.8 m/sec2

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TI-83 Plus Activities 581

Procedure

1. Press z. Select Par, Simul, and the default settings. Simul (simultaneous) mode simulates the two objects in motion over time.

2. Press p. Set the viewing window. Tmin=0 Xmin=L13 Ymin=0 Tmax=12 Xmax=34 Ymax=31 Tstep=.1 Xscl=10 Yscl=10

3. Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the expressions to define the path of the ferris wheel and the path of the ball. Set the graph style for X2T to (path).

Tip: Try setting the graph styles to X1T and X2T, which simulates a chair on the ferris wheel and the ball flying through the air when you press .

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4. Press to graph the equations. Watch closely as they are plotted. Notice that the ball and the ferris wheel passenger appear to be closest where the paths cross in the top-right quadrant of the ferris wheel.

5. Press p. Change the viewing window to concentrate on this portion of the graph. Tmin=1 Xmin=0 Ymin=10 Tmax=3 Xmax=23.5 Ymax=25.5 Tstep=.03 Xscl=10 Yscl=10

6. Press r. After the graph is plotted, press ~ to move near the point on the ferris wheel where the paths cross. Notice the values of X, Y, and T.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 583

7. Press to move to the path of the ball. Notice the values of X and Y (T is unchanged). Notice where the cursor is located. This is the position of the ball when the ferris wheel passenger passes the intersection. Did the ball or the passenger reach the intersection first?

You can use r to, in effect, take snapshots in time and explore the relative behavior of two objects in motion.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 584

Demonstrating the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

Problem 1

Using the functions fnInt( and nDeriv( from the MATH menu to graph functions defined by integrals and derivatives demonstrates graphically that:

>== x

xxdtxF 1

0),(ln)( and that

x dt

t Dx

x 1

1

1 =

Procedure 1

1. Press z. Select the default settings.

2. Press p. Set the viewing window. Xmin=.01 Ymin=M1.5 Xres=3 Xmax=10 Ymax=2.5 Xscl=1 Yscl=1

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3. Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the numerical integral of 1T from 1 to X and the function ln(X). Set the graph style for Y1 to (line) and Y2 to (path).

4. Press r. Press |, }, ~, and to compare the values of Y1

and Y2.

5. Press o. Turn off Y1 and Y2, and then enter the numerical derivative of the integral of 1X and the function 1X. Set the graph style for Y3

to (line) and Y4 to (thick).

6. Press r. Again, use the cursor keys to compare the values of the two graphed functions, Y3 and Y4.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 586

Problem 2

Explore the functions defined by

= xxx

dttdttdtty 2

2 0

2 2

2 ,and,,

Procedure 2

1. Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Use a list to define these three functions simultaneously. Store the function in Y5.

2. Press q 6 to select 6:ZStandard.

3. Press r. Notice that the functions appear identical, only shifted vertically by a constant.

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4. Press o. Enter the numerical derivative of Y5 in Y6.

5. Press r. Notice that although the three graphs defined by Y5 are different, they share the same derivative.

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TI-83 Plus Activities 588

Computing Areas of Regular N-Sided Polygons

Problem

Use the equation solver to store a formula for the area of a regular N-sided polygon, and then solve for each variable, given the other variables. Explore the fact that the limiting case is the area of a circle, pr2.

Consider the formula A = NB2 sin(pN) cos(pN) for the area of a regular polygon with N sides of equal length and B distance from the center to a vertex.

N = 4 sides N = 8 sides N = 12 sides

Procedure

1. Press 0 to select 0:Solver from the MATH menu. Either the equation editor or the interactive solver editor is displayed. If the

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interactive solver editor is displayed, press } to display the equation editor.

2. Enter the formula as 0=ANNB2sin(p / N)cos(p / N), and then press . The interactive solver editor is displayed.

3. Enter N=4 and B=6 to find the area (A) of a square with a distance (B) from center to vertex of 6 centimeters.

4. Press } } to move the cursor onto A, and then press \. The solution for A is displayed on the interactive solver editor.

5. Now solve for B for a given area with various number of sides. Enter A=200 and N=6. To find the distance B, move the cursor onto B, and then press \.

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6. Enter N=8. To find the distance B, move the cursor onto B, and then press \. Find B for N=9, and then for N=10.

Find the area given B=6, and N=10, 100, 150, 1000, and 10000. Compare your results with p62 (the area of a circle with radius 6), which is approximately 113.097.

7. Enter B=6. To find the area A, move the cursor onto A, and then press \. Find A for N=10, then N=100, then N=150, then N=1000, and finally N=10000. Notice that as N gets large, the area A approaches pB2.

Now graph the equation to see visually how the area changes as the number of sides gets large.

8. Press z. Select the default mode settings.

9. Press p. Set the viewing window. Xmin=0 Ymin=0 Xres=1 Xmax=200 Ymax=150 Xscl=10 Yscl=10

10.Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the equation for the area. Use X in place of N. Set the graph styles as shown.

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11.Press r. After the graph is plotted, press 100 to trace to X=100. Press 150 . Press 188 . Notice that as X increases, the value of Y converges to p62, which is approximately 113.097. Y2=pB2 (the area of the circle) is a horizontal asymptote to Y1. The area of an N-sided regular polygon, with r as the distance from the center to a vertex, approaches the area of a circle with radius r (pr2) as N gets large.

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Computing and Graphing Mortgage Payments

Problem

You are a loan officer at a mortgage company, and you recently closed on a 30-year home mortgage at 8 percent interest with monthly payments of 800. The new home owners want to know how much will be applied to the interest and how much will be applied to the principal when they make the 240th payment 20 years from now.

Procedure

1. Press z and set the fixed-decimal mode to 2 decimal places. Set the other mode settings to the defaults.

2. Press to display the TVM Solver. Enter these values.

Note: Enter a positive number (800) to show PMT as a cash inflow. Payment values will be displayed as positive numbers on the graph. Enter 0 for FV,

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since the future value of a loan is 0 once it is paid in full. Enter PMT: END, since payment is due at the end of a period.

3. Move the cursor onto the PV= prompt, and then press \. The present value, or mortgage amount, of the house is displayed at the PV= prompt.

Now compare the graph of the amount of interest with the graph of the amount of principal for each payment.

4. Press z. Set Par and Simul.

5. Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter these equations and set the graph styles as shown.

Note: GPrn( and GInt( are located on the FINANCE menu (APPS 1:FINANCE).

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6. Press p. Set these window variables. Tmin=1 Xmin=0 Ymin=0 Tmax=360 Xmax=360 Ymax=1000 Tstep=12 Xscl=10 Yscl=100

Tip: To increase the graph speed, change Tstep to 24.

7. Press r. After the graph is drawn, press 240 to move the trace cursor to T=240, which is equivalent to 20 years of payments.

The graph shows that for the 240th payment (X=240), 358.03 of the 800 payment is applied to principal (Y=358.03).

Note: The sum of the payments (Y3T=Y1T+Y2T) is always 800.

8. Press to move the cursor onto the function for interest defined by X2T and Y2T. Enter 240.

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The graph shows that for the 240th payment (X=240), 441.97 of the 800 payment is interest (Y=441.97).

9. Press y 5 9 to paste 9:bal( to the home screen. Check the figures from the graph.

At which monthly payment will the principal allocation surpass the interest allocation?

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Chapter 18: Memory and Variable Management

Checking Available Memory

MEMORY Menu

At any time you can check available memory or manage existing memory by selecting items from the MEMORY menu. To access this menu, press y L.

MEMORY 1:About... Displays information about the calculator. 2:Mem Mgmt/Del... Reports memory availability and variable usage. 3:Clear Entries Clears ENTRY (last-entry storage). 4:ClrAllLists Clears all lists in memory. 5:Archive... Archives a selected variable. 6:UnArchive... UnArchives a selected variable. 7:Reset... Displays the RAM, ARCHIVE, and ALL menus 8:Group... Displays GROUP and UNGROUP menus.

To check memory usage, first press y L and then press 2:Mem Mgmt/Del.

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Displaying the MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE Menu

Mem Mgmt/Del displays the MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE menu. The two lines at the top report the total amount of available RAM and ARCHIVE

memory. By selecting menu items on this screen, you can see the amount of memory each variable type is using. This information can help you determine if some variables need to be deleted from memory to make room for new data, such as programs or applications.

To check memory usage, follow these steps.

1. Press y L to display the MEMORY menu.

Note: The # and $ in the top or bottom of the left column indicate that you can scroll up or down to view more variable types.

2. Select 2:Mem Mgmt/Del to display the MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE

menu. The TI-83 Plus expresses memory quantities in bytes.

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3. Select variable types from the list to display memory usage.

Note: Real, List, Y.Vars, and Prgm variable types never reset to zero, even after memory is cleared.

Apps are independent applications which are stored in Flash ROM. AppVars is a variable holder used to store variables created by independent applications. You cannot edit or change variables in AppVars unless you do so through the application which created them.

To leave the MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE menu, press either y 5 or . Both options display the home screen.

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Deleting Items from Memory

Deleting an Item

To increase available memory by deleting the contents of any variable (real or complex number, list, matrix, Y= variable, program, Apps, AppVars, picture, graph database, or string), follow these steps.

1. Press y L to display the MEMORY menu.

2. Select 2:Mem Mgmt/Del to display the MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE

menu.

3. Select the type of data you want to delete, or select 1:All for a list of all variables of all types. A screen is displayed listing each variable of the type you selected and the number of bytes each variable is using.

For example, if you select 4:List, the LIST editor screen is displayed.

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4. Press } and to move the selection cursor (4) next to the item you want to delete, and then press {. The variable is deleted from memory. You can delete individual variables one by one from this screen.

Note: If you are deleting programs or Apps, you will receive a message asking you to confirm this delete action. Select 2:Yes to continue.

To leave any variable screen without deleting anything, press y 5, which displays the home screen.

Note: You cannot delete some system variables, such as the last-answer variable Ans and the statistical variable RegEQ.

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Clearing Entries and List Elements

Clear Entries

Clear Entries clears the contents of the ENTRY (last entry) storage area (Chapter 1). To clear the ENTRY storage area, follow these steps.

1. Press y L to display the MEMORY menu.

2. Select 3:Clear Entries to paste the instruction to the home screen.

3. Press to clear the ENTRY storage area.

To cancel Clear Entries, press .

Note: If you select 3:Clear Entries from within a program, the Clear Entries instruction is pasted to the program editor, and the Entry (last entry) is cleared when the program is executed.

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ClrAllLists

ClrAllLists sets the dimension of each list in RAM only to 0.

To clear all elements from all lists, follow these steps.

1. Press y L to display the MEMORY menu.

2. Select 4:ClrAllLists to paste the instruction to the home screen.

3. Press to set to 0 the dimension of each list in memory.

To cancel ClrAllLists, press .

ClrAllLists does not delete list names from memory, from the LIST NAMES

menu, or from the stat list editor.

Note: If you select 4:ClrAllLists from within a program, the ClrAllLists instruction is pasted to the program editor. The lists are cleared when the program is executed.

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Resetting the TI-83 Plus

RAM ARCHIVE ALL Menu

The RAM ARCHIVE ALL menu gives you the option of resetting all memory (including default settings) or resetting selected portions of memory while preserving other data stored in memory, such as programs and Y= functions. For instance, you can choose to reset all of RAM or just restore the default settings. Be aware that if you choose to reset RAM, all data and programs in RAM will be erased. For archive memory, you can reset variables (Vars), applications (Apps), or both of these. Be aware that if you choose to reset Vars, all data and programs in archive memory will be erased. If you choose to reset Apps, all applications in archive memory will be erased.

When you reset defaults on the TI-83 Plus, all defaults in RAM are restored to the factory settings. Stored data and programs are not changed.

These are some examples of TI-83 Plus defaults that are restored by resetting the defaults.

Mode settings such as Normal (notation); Func (graphing); Real (numbers); and Full (screen)

Y= functions off

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Window variable values such as Xmin=L10; Xmax=10; Xscl=1; Yscl=1; and Xres=1

Stat plots off

Format settings such as CoordOn (graphing coordinates on); AxesOn; and ExprOn (expression on)

rand seed value to 0

Displaying the RAM ARCHIVE ALL Menu

To display the RAM ARCHIVE ALL menu on the TI-83 Plus, follow these steps.

1. Press y L to display the MEMORY menu.

2. Select 7:Reset to display the RAM ARCHIVE ALL menu.

Resetting RAM Memory

Resetting RAM restores RAM system variables to factory settings and deletes all nonsystem variables and all programs. Resetting defaults restores all system variables to default settings without deleting variables

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and programs in RAM. Resetting RAM or resetting defaults does not affect variables and applications in user data archive.

Tip: Before you reset all RAM memory, consider restoring sufficient available memory by deleting only selected data.

To reset all RAM memory or RAM defaults on the TI-83 Plus, follow these steps.

1. From the RAM ARCHIVE ALL menu, select 1:ALL RAM to display the RESET RAM menu or 2:Defaults to display the RESET DEFAULTS menu.

2. If you are resetting RAM, read the message below the RESET RAM

menu.

To cancel the reset and return to the home screen, press .

To erase RAM memory or reset defaults, select 2:Reset. Depending on your choice, the message RAM cleared or Defaults set is displayed on the home screen.

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Resetting Archive Memory

When resetting archive memory on the TI-83 Plus, you can choose to delete from user data archive all variables, all applications, or both variables and applications.

To reset all or part of user data archive memory, follow these steps.

1. From the RAM ARCHIVE ALL menu, press ~ to display the ARCHIVE

menu.

2. Select one of the following:

1:Vars to display the RESET ARC VAR menu

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2:Apps to display the RESET ARC APPS menu.

3:Both to display the RESET ARC BOTH menu.

3. Read the message below the menu.

To cancel the reset and return to the home screen, press .

To continue with the reset, select 2:Reset. A message indicating the type of archive memory cleared will be displayed on the home screen.

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Resetting All Memory

When resetting all memory on the TI-83 Plus, RAM and user data archive memory is restored to factory settings. All nonsystem variables, applications, and programs are deleted. All system variables are reset to default settings.

Tip: Before you reset all memory, consider restoring sufficient available memory by deleting only selected data.

To reset all memory on the TI-83 Plus, follow these steps.

1. From the RAM ARCHIVE ALL menu, press ~ ~ to display the ALL menu.

2. Select 1:All Memory to display the RESET MEMORY menu.

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3. Read the message below the RESET MEMORY menu.

To cancel the reset and return to the home screen, press .

To continue with the reset, select 2:Reset. The message MEM cleared is displayed on the home screen.

Note: When you clear memory, the contrast sometimes changes. If the screen is faded or blank, adjust the contrast by pressing y } or .

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Archiving and UnArchiving Variables

Archiving and UnArchiving Variables

Archiving allows you to store data, programs, or other variables to the user data archive where they cannot be edited or deleted inadvertently. Archiving also allows you to free up RAM for variables that may require additional memory.

Archived variables cannot be edited or executed. They can only be seen and unarchived. For example, if you archive list L1, you will see that L1 exists in memory but if you select it and paste the name L1 to the home screen, you wont be able to see its contents or edit it.

Note: Not all variables may be archived. Not all archived variables may be unarchived. For example, system variables including r, t, x, y, and q cannot be archived. Apps and Groups always exist in Flash ROM so there is no need to archive them. Groups cannot be unarchived. However, you can ungroup or delete them.

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Variable Type Names Archive? (yes/no)

UnArchive? (yes/no)

Real numbers A, B, ... , Z yes yes

Complex numbers A, B, ... , Z yes yes

Matrices A, B, C, ... , J yes yes

Lists L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, L6, and user-defined names

yes yes

Programs yes yes

Functions Y1, Y2, . . . , Y9, Y0 no not applicable

Parametric equations X1T and Y1T, ... , X6T and Y6T

no not applicable

Polar functions r1, r2, r3, r4, r5, r6 no not applicable

Sequence functions u, v, w no not applicable

Stat plots Plot1, Plot2, Plot3 no not applicable

Graph databases GDB1, GDB2,... yes yes

Graph pictures Pic1, Pic2, ... , Pic9, Pic0

yes yes

Strings Str1, Str2, . . . Str9, Str0 yes yes

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Variable Type Names Archive? (yes/no)

UnArchive? (yes/no)

Tables TblStart, Tb1, TblInput

no not applicable

Apps Applications see Note above

no

AppVars Application variables yes yes

Groups see Note above

no

Variables with reserved names

minX, maxX, RegEQ, and others

no not applicable

System variables Xmin, Xmax, and others

no not applicable

Archiving and unarchiving can be done in two ways:

Use the 5:Archive or 6:UnArchive commands from the MEMORY menu or CATALOG.

Use a Memory Management editor screen.

Before archiving or unarchiving variables, particularly those with a large byte size (such as large programs) use the MEMORY menu to:

Find the size of the variable.

See if there is enough free space.

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For: Sizes must be such that:

Archive Archive free size > variable size

UnArchive RAM free size > variable size

Note: If there is not enough space, unarchive or delete variables as necessary. Be aware that when you unarchive a variable, not all the memory associated with that variable in user data archive will be released since the system keeps track of where the variable has been and where it is now in RAM.

Even if there appears to be enough free space, you may see a Garbage Collection message when you attempt to archive a variable. Depending on the usability of empty blocks in the user data archive, you may need to unarchive existing variables to create more free space.

To archive or unarchive a list variable (L1) using the Archive/UnArchive options from the MEMORY menu:

1. Press y L to display the MEMORY menu.

2. Select 5:Archive or 6:UnArchive to place the command in the edit screen.

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3. Press y d to place the L1 variable in the edit screen.

4. Press to complete the archive process.

Note: An asterisk will be displayed to the left of the Archived variable name to indicate it is archived.

To archive or unarchive a list variable (L1) using a Memory Management editor:

1. Press y L to display the MEMORY menu.

2. Select 2:Mem Mgmt/Del... to display the MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE

menu.

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3. Select 4:List... to display the LIST menu.

4. Press to archive L1. An asterisk will appear to the left of L1 to indicate it is an archived variable. To unarchive a variable in this screen, put the cursor next to the archived variable and press . The asterisk will disappear.

5. Press y 5 to leave the LIST menu.

Note: You can access an archived variable for the purpose of linking, deleting, or unarchiving it, but you cannot edit it.

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Grouping and Ungrouping Variables

Grouping Variables

Grouping allows you to make a copy of two or more variables residing in RAM and then store them as a group in user data archive. The variables in RAM are not erased. The variables must exist in RAM before they can be grouped. In other words, archived data cannot be included in a group.

To create a group of variables:

1. Press y L to display the MEMORY menu.

2. Select 8:Group... to display GROUP UNGROUP menu.

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3. Press to display the GROUP menu.

4. Enter a name for the new group and press .

Note: A group name can be one to eight characters long. The first character must be a letter from A to Z or q. The second through eighth characters can be letters, numbers, or q.

5. Select the type of data you want to group. You can select 1:All+ which shows all variables of all types available and selected. You can also select 1:All- which shows all variables of all types available but not selected. A screen is displayed listing each variable of the type you selected.

For example, suppose some variables have been created in RAM, and selecting 1:All- displays the following screen.

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6. Press } and to move the selection cursor (4) next to the first item you want to copy into a group, and then press . A small square will remain to the left of all variables selected for grouping.

Repeat the selection process until all variables for the new group are selected and then press ~ to display the DONE menu.

7. Press to complete the grouping process.

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Note: You can only group variables in RAM. You cannot group some system variables, such as the last-answer variable Ans and the statistical variable RegEQ.

Ungrouping Variables

Ungrouping allows you to make a copy of variables in a group stored in user data archive and place them ungrouped in RAM.

DuplicateName Menu

During the ungrouping action, if a duplicate variable name is detected in RAM, the DUPLICATE NAME menu is displayed.

DuplicateName

1:Rename Prompts to rename receiving variable. 2:Overwrite Overwrites data in receiving duplicate variable. 3:Overwrite All Overwrites data in all receiving duplicate variables. 4:Omit Skips transmission of sending variable. 5:Quit Stops transmission at duplicate variable.

Notes about Menu Items:

When you select 1:Rename, the Name= prompt is displayed, and alpha-lock is on. Enter a new variable name, and then press . Ungrouping resumes.

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When you select 2:Overwrite, the unit overwrites the data of the duplicate variable name found in RAM. Ungrouping resumes.

When you select 3: Overwrite All, the unit overwrites the data of all duplicate variable names found in RAM. Ungrouping resumes.

When you select 4:Omit, the unit does not ungroup the variable in conflict with the duplicated variable name found in RAM. Ungrouping resumes with the next item.

When you select 5:Quit, ungrouping stops, and no further changes are made.

To ungroup a group of variables:

1. Press y L to display the MEMORY menu.

2. Select 8:Group... to display the GROUP UNGROUP menu.

3. Press ~ to display the UNGROUP menu.

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4. Press } and to move the selection cursor (4) next to the group variable you want to ungroup, and then press .

The ungroup action is completed.

Note: Ungrouping does not remove the group from user data archive. You must delete the group in user data archive to remove it.

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Garbage Collection

Garbage Collection Message

If you use the user data archive extensively, you may see a Garbage Collect? message. This occurs if you try to archive a variable when there is not enough free contiguous archive memory. The TI-83 Plus will attempt to rearrange the archived variables to make additional room.

Responding to the Garbage Collection Message

To cancel, select 1:No.

If you choose 1:No, the message ERR:ARCHIVE FULL will be displayed.

To continue archiving, select 2:Yes.

If you select 2:Yes, the process message Garbage Collecting... or Defragmenting... will be displayed.

Note: The process message Defragmenting... is displayed whenever an application marked for deletion is encountered.

Garbage collection may take up to 20 minutes, depending on how much of archive memory has been used to store variables.

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After garbage collection, depending on how much additional space is freed, the variable may or may not be archived. If not, you can unarchive some variables and try again.

Why Not Perform Garbage Collection Automatically Without a Message?

The message:

Lets you know an archive will take longer than usual. It also alerts you that the archive will fail if there is not enough memory.

Can alert you when a program is caught in a loop that repetitively fills the user data archive. Cancel the archive and determine the reason.

Why Is Garbage Collection Necessary?

The user data archive is divided into sectors. When you first begin archiving, variables are stored consecutively in sector 1. This continues to the end of the sector.

An archived variable is stored in a continuous block within a single sector. Unlike an application stored in user data archive, an archived variable cannot cross a sector boundary. If there is not enough space left in the sector, the next variable is stored at the beginning of the next sector. Typically, this leaves an empty block at the end of the previous sector.

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Each variable that you archive is stored in the first empty block large enough to hold it.

This process continues to the end of the last sector. Depending on the size of individual variables, the empty blocks may account for a significant amount of space. Garbage collection occurs when the variable you are archiving is larger than any empty block.

Sector 1

Sector 2

Sector 3

variable A

variable B

variable C

Empty block

variable D

Depending on its size, variable D is stored in one of these locations.

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How Unarchiving a Variable Affects the Process

When you unarchive a variable, it is copied to RAM but it is not actually deleted from user data archive memory.

Unarchived variables are marked for deletion, meaning they will be deleted during the next garbage collection.

Sector 1

Sector 2

Sector 3

variable A

variable D

After you unarchive variables B and C, they continue to take up space.

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If the MEMORY Screen Shows Enough Free Space

Even if the MEMORY screen shows enough free space to archive a variable or store an application, you may still get a Garbage Collect? message or an ERR: ARCHIVE FULL message.

When you unarchive a variable, the Archive free amount increases immediately, but the space is not actually available until after the next garbage collection.

If the Archive free amount shows enough available space for your variable, there probably will be enough space to archive it after garbage collection (depending on the usability of any empty blocks).

The Garbage Collection Process

The garbage collection process:

Deletes unarchived variables from the user data archive.

Rearranges the remaining variables into consecutive blocks.

Note: Power loss during garbage collection may cause all memory (RAM and Archive) to be deleted.

Sector 1

Sector 2

variable A

variable D

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Using the GarbageCollect Command

You can reduce the number of automatic garbage collections by periodically optimizing memory. This is done by using the GarbageCollect command.

To use the GarbageCollect command, follow these steps.

1. Press y CATALOG to display the CATALOG.

2. Press or } to scroll the CATALOG until the selection cursor points to the GarbageCollect command.

3. Press to paste the command to the current screen.

4. Press to display the Garbage Collect? message.

5. Select 2:Yes to begin garbage collection.

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ERR:ARCHIVE FULL Message

Even if the MEMORY screen shows enough free space to archive a variable or store an application, you may still get an ERR: ARCHIVE FULL message.

An ERR:ARCHIVE FULL message may be displayed:

When there is insufficient space to archive a variable within a continuous block and within a single sector.

When there is insufficient space to store an application within a continuous block of memory.

When the message is displayed, it will indicate the largest single space of memory available for storing a variable and an application.

To resolve the problem, use the GarbageCollect command to optimize memory. If memory is still insufficient, you must delete variables or applications to increase space.

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Chapter 19: Communication Link

Getting Started: Sending Variables

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

Create and store a variable and a matrix, and then transfer them to another TI-83 Plus.

1. On the home screen of the sending unit, press 5 5 Q. Press to store 5.5 to Q.

2. Press y H y H 1 2 y I y H 3 4 y I y I y > 1. Press to store the matrix to [A].

3. On the sending unit, press y L to display the MEMORY menu.

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4. On the sending unit, press 2 to select 2:Mem Mgmt/Del. The MEMORY MANAGEMENT menu is displayed.

5. On the sending unit, press 5 to select 5:Matrix. The MATRIX editor screen is displayed.

6. On the sending unit, press to archive [A]. An asterisk (*) will appear, signifying that [A] is now archived.

7. Connect the calculators with the link cable. Push both ends in firmly.

8. On the receiving unit, press y 8 ~ to display the RECEIVE menu. Press 1 to select 1:Receive. The message Waiting... is displayed and the busy indicator is on.

9. On the sending unit, press y 8 to display the SEND menu.

10.Press 2 to select 2:AllN. The AllN SELECT screen is displayed.

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11.Press until the selection cursor ( 4 ) is next to [A] MATRX. Press .

12.Press until the selection cursor is next to Q REAL. Press . A square dot next to [A] and Q indicates that each is selected to send.

13.On the sending unit, press ~ to display the TRANSMIT menu.

14.On the sending unit, press 1 to select 1:Transmit and begin transmission. The receiving unit displays the message Receiving....When the items are transmitted, both units display the name and type of each transmitted variable.

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TI-83 Plus Silver Edition LINK

This chapter describes how to communicate with compatible TI units. A unit-to-unit link cable is included with the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition for this purpose.

The TI-83 Plus Silver Edition has a port to connect and communicate with:

Another TI-83 Plus Silver Edition

A TI-83 Plus

A TI-83

A TI-82

A TI-73

A CBL 2/CBL, or a CBR

With the TI Connect or TI-GRAPH LINK software and a TI-GRAPH LINK cable, you can link the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition to a personal computer.

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Connecting Two Calculators with a Unit-to-Unit Cable

The TI-83 Plus link port is located at the center of the bottom edge of the calculator.

1. Firmly insert either end of the unit-to-unit cable into the port.

2. Insert the other end of the cable into the other calculators port.

Linking to the CBL/CBR System

The CBL 2/CBL and the CBR are optional accessories that also connect to a TI-83 Plus with the unit-to-unit link cable. With a CBL 2/CBL or CBR and a TI-83 Plus, you can collect and analyze real-world data. The software that enables this communication is built into the TI-83 Plus. (Chapter 14).

Linking to a Computer

TI-GRAPH LINK is an accessory that links a TI-83 Plus to enable communication with a computer. A Macintosh-compatible TI-GRAPH LINK is available separately.

You can access TI-GRAPH LINK guidebooks through education.ti.com/guides.

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Selecting Items to Send

LINK SEND Menu

To display the LINK SEND menu, press y 8.

SEND RECEIVE

1:All+... Displays all items as selected, including RAM and Flash applications.

2:AllN... Displays all items as deselected. 3:Prgm... Displays all program names. 4:List... Displays all list names. 5:Lists to TI82... Displays list names L1 through L6. 6:GDB... Displays all graph databases. 7:Pic... Displays all picture data types. 8:Matrix... Displays all matrix data types. 9:Real... Displays all real variables. 0:Complex... Displays all complex variables. A:Y-Vars... Displays all Y= variables. B:String... Displays all string variables. C:Apps... Displays all software applications. D:AppVars... Displays all software application variables. E:Group... Displays all grouped variables. F:SendId Sends the Calculator ID number immediately. (You do not

need to select SEND.)

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TI-83 Plus Communication Link 635

SEND RECEIVE

G:SendOS Sends operating system updates to another TI-83 Plus Silver Edition or TI-83 Plus.

H:Back Up... Selects all RAM and mode settings (no Flash applications or archived items) for backup to another TI-83 Plus Silver Edition or to a TI-83 Plus.

When you select an item on the LINK SEND menu, the corresponding SELECT screen is displayed. Note: Each SELECT screen, except All+, is initially displayed with nothing pre- selected. All+ is displayed with everything pre-selected.

To select items to send:

1. Press y 8 on the sending unit to display the LINK SEND menu.

2. Select the menu item that describes the data type to send. The corresponding SELECT screen is displayed.

3. Press } and to move the selection cursor ( 4 ) to an item you want to select or deselect.

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TI-83 Plus Communication Link 636

4. Press to select or deselect the item. Selected names are marked with a 0.

Note: An asterisk (*) to the left of an item indicates the item is archived (Chapter 18).

5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 to select or deselect additional items.

Sending the Selected Items

After you have selected items to send on the sending unit and set the receiving unit to receive, follow these steps to transmit the items. To set the receiving unit, see Receiving Items.

1. Press ~ on the sending unit to display the TRANSMIT menu.

2. Confirm that Waiting... is displayed on the receiving unit, which indicates it is set to receive.

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TI-83 Plus Communication Link 637

3. Press to select 1:Transmit. The name and type of each item are displayed line-by-line on the sending unit as the item is queued for transmission, and then on the receiving unit as each item is accepted.

Note: Items sent from the RAM of the sending unit are transmitted to the RAM of the receiving unit. Items sent from user data archive of the sending unit are transmitted to user data archive of the receiving unit.

After all selected items have been transmitted, the message Done is displayed on both calculators. Press } and to scroll through the names.

Stopping a Transmission

To stop a link transmission, press . The Error in Xmit menu is displayed on both units. To leave the error menu, select 1:Quit.

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TI-83 Plus Communication Link 638

Sending to a TI-83 Plus Silver Edition or TI-83 Plus

You can transfer variables (all types), programs, and Flash applications to another TI-83 Plus Silver Edition or TI-83 Plus. You can also backup the RAM memory of one unit to another.

Note: Keep in mind that the TI.83 Plus has less Flash memory than the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition.

Variables stored in RAM on the sending TI-83 Plus Silver Edition will be sent to the RAM of the receiving TI-83 Plus Silver Edition or TI-83 Plus.

Variables and applications stored in the user data archive of the sending TI-83 Plus Silver Edition will be sent to the user data archive of the receiving TI-83 Plus Silver Edition or TI-83 Plus.

After sending or receiving data, you can repeat the same transmission to additional TI-83 Plus Silver Edition or TI-83 Plus unitsfrom either the sending unit or the receiving unitwithout having to reselect data to send. The current items remain selected. However, you cannot repeat transmission if you selected All+ or All..

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TI-83 Plus Communication Link 639

To send data to an additional TI-83 Plus Silver Edition or a TI-83 Plus:

1. Use a unit-to-unit cable to link two units together.

2. On the sending unit press y 8 and select a data type and items to SEND.

3. Press ~ on the sending unit to display the TRANSMIT menu.

4. On the other unit, press y 8 ~ to display the RECEIVE menu.

5. Press on the receiving unit.

6. Press on the sending unit. A copy of the selected item(s) is sent to the receiving unit.

7. Disconnect the link cable only from the receiving unit and connect it to another unit.

8. Press y 8 on the sending unit.

9. Select only the data type. For example, if the unit just sent a list, select 4:LIST.

Note: The item(s) you want to send are pre-selected from the last transmission. Do not select or deselect any items. If you select or deselect

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TI-83 Plus Communication Link 640

an item, all selections or deselections from the last transmission are cleared.

10.Press ~ on the sending unit to display the TRANSMIT menu.

11.On the new receiving unit, press y 8 ~ to display the RECEIVE

menu.

12.Press on the receiving unit.

13.Press on the sending unit. A copy of the selected item(s) is sent to the receiving unit.

14.Repeat steps 7 through 13 until the items are sent to all additional units.

Sending to a TI-83

You can send all variables from a TI-83 Plus to a TI-83 except Flash applications, application variables, grouped variables, new variable types, or programs with new features in them (such as Archive, UnArchive, Asm(, AsmComp, and AsmPrgm).

If archived variables on the TI-83 Plus are variable types recognized and used on the TI-83, you can send these variables to the TI-83. They will be automatically sent to the RAM of the TI-83 during the transfer process.

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TI-83 Plus Communication Link 641

Note: You cannot perform a RAM memory backup from a TI-83 Plus to a TI-83 or from a TI-83 to a TI-83 Plus.

To send data to a TI-83:

1. Use a unit-to-unit cable to link the two units together.

2. Set the TI-83 to receive.

3. Press y 8 on the sending TI-83 Plus to display the LINK SEND

menu.

4. Select the menu of the items you want to transmit.

5. Press ~ on the sending TI-83 Plus to display the LINK TRANSMIT menu.

6. Confirm that the receiving unit is set to receive.

7. Press on the sending TI-83 Plus to select 1:Transmit and begin transmitting.

Sending Lists to a TI-82

The only data type you can transmit from a TI-83 Plus to a TI-82 is real list data stored in L1 through L6 (with up to 99 elements for each list). If dimension is greater than 99 for a TI-83 Plus list that is selected to be sent, the receiving TI-82 will truncate the list at the ninety-ninth element during transmission.

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TI-83 Plus Communication Link 642

Note: You cannot perform a memory backup from a TI-83 Plus to a TI-82 or from a TI-82 to a TI-83 Plus.

To send lists to a TI-82:

1. Use a unit-to-unit cable to link the two units together.

2. Set the TI-82 to receive.

3. Press y 8 5 on the sending TI-83 Plus to select 5:Lists to TI82. The SELECT screen is displayed.

4. Select each list to transmit.

5. Press ~ to display the LINK TRANSMIT menu.

6. Confirm that the receiving unit is set to receive.

7. Press to select 1:Transmit and begin transmitting.

Sending to a TI-73

You can send real numbers, pics, real lists L1 through L6, and named lists from a TI-73 to a TI-83 Plus or from a TI-83 Plus to a TI-73.

Since the Theta symbol (q) is not recognized by the TI-73, you cannot include this symbol in any list names sent to the TI-73.

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TI-83 Plus Communication Link 643

Note: You cannot perform a RAM memory backup from a TI-83 Plus to a TI-73 or from a to a TI-73 to a TI-83 Plus.

To transmit data to a TI-73:

1. Use a unit-to-unit cable to link two units together.

2. Set the TI-73 to receive.

3. Press y 8 2 on the sending TI-83 Plus to select 2:All-.... The SELECT screen is displayed.

4. Select items you want to send.

5. Press ~ on the sending TI-83 Plus to display the LINK TRANSMIT menu.

6. Confirm that the receiving unit is set to receive.

7. Press on the sending TI-83 Plus to select 1:Transmit and begin transmitting.

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TI-83 Plus Communication Link 644

Receiving Items

LINK RECEIVE Menu

To display the LINK RECEIVE menu, press y 8 ~.

SEND RECEIVE

1:Receive Sets unit to receive data transmission.

Receiving Unit

When you select 1:Receive from the LINK RECEIVE menu on the receiving unit, the message Waiting... and the busy indicator are displayed. The receiving unit is ready to receive transmitted items. To exit the receive mode without receiving items, press , and then select 1:Quit from the Error in Xmit menu.

When transmission is complete, the unit exits the receive mode. You can select 1:Receive again to receive more items. The receiving unit then displays a list of items received. Press y 5 to exit the receive mode.

DuplicateName Menu

During transmission, if a variable name is duplicated, the DuplicateName

menu is displayed on the receiving unit.

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TI-83 Plus Communication Link 645

DuplicateName

1:Rename Prompts to rename receiving variable. 2:Overwrite Overwrites data in receiving variable. 3:Omit Skips transmission of sending variable. 4:Quit Stops transmission at duplicate variable.

When you select 1:Rename, the Name= prompt is displayed, and alpha- lock is on. Enter a new variable name, and then press . Transmission resumes.

When you select 2:Overwrite, the sending units data overwrites the existing data stored on the receiving unit. Transmission resumes.

When you select 3:Omit, the sending unit does not send the data in the duplicated variable name. Transmission resumes with the next item.

When you select 4:Quit, transmission stops, and the receiving unit exits receive mode.

Receiving from a TI-83 Plus Silver Edition or TI-83 Plus

The TI-83 Plus Silver Edition and the TI-83 Plus are totally compatible. Keep in mind, however, that the TI-83 Plus has less Flash memory than a TI-83 Plus Silver Edition.

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TI-83 Plus Communication Link 646

Receiving from a TI-83

You can transfer all variables and programs from a TI-83 to a TI-83 Plus if they fit in the RAM of the TI-83 Plus. The RAM of the TI-83 Plus is slightly less than the RAM of the TI-83.

Receiving from a TI-82 Resolved Differences

Generally, you can transmit items to a TI-83 Plus from a TI-82, but differences between the two products may affect some transmitted data. This table shows differences for which the software built into the TI-83 Plus automatically adjusts when a TI-83 Plus receives TI-82 data.

TI.82 TI-83 Plus

nMin PlotStart nStart nMin Un u Vn v UnStart u(nMin) VnStart v(nMin) TblMin TblStart

For example, if you transmit a program that contains nStart on a command line from a TI-82 to a TI-83 Plus, you will see that nMin has automatically replaced nStart on the command line of the TI-83 Plus.

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TI-83 Plus Communication Link 647

Note: You can transfer all real variables, pics, and programs from a TI-82 to a TI-83 Plus if they fit in the RAM of the TI-83 Plus. The RAM of the TI-83 Plus is slightly less than the RAM of the TI-82.

Receiving from a TI-82 Unresolved Differences

The software built into the TI-83 Plus cannot resolve some differences between the TI-82 and TI-83 Plus. These differences are described below.

You must edit the transmitted data on the receiving TI-83 Plus to account for these differences. If you do not edit these differences, the TI-83 Plus will misinterpret the data.

The TI-83 Plus reinterprets TI-82 prefix functions to include open parentheses, which may add extraneous parentheses to transmitted expressions.

For example, if you transmit sin X+5 from a TI-82 to a TI-83 Plus, the TI-83 Plus reinterprets it as sin(X+5. Without a closing parenthesis after X, the TI-83 Plus interprets this as sin(X+5), not the sum of 5 and sin(X).

If a TI-82 transmits an instruction that the TI-83 Plus cannot translate, the ERR:INVALID menu displays when the TI-83 Plus attempts to execute the instruction.

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TI-83 Plus Communication Link 648

For example, on the TI-82, the character group Un-1 is pasted to the cursor location when you press y [UnN1]. The TI-83 Plus cannot directly translate Un-1 to the TI-83 Plus syntax u(nN1), so the ERR:INVALID menu is displayed.

Note: TI-83 Plus implied multiplication rules differ from those of the TI-82. For example, the TI-83 Plus evaluates 12X as (12)X, while the TI-82 evaluates 12X as 1(2X) (Chapter 2).

Receiving from a TI-73

The TI-83 Plus can receive real numbers, pics, real lists L1 through L6, and named lists from a TI-73.

Categorical lists (lists containing alpha characters as list elements) cannot be sent from a TI-73 to a TI-83 Plus.

To transmit data to a TI-83 Plus from a TI-73:

1. Set the TI-83 Plus to receive.

2. Press on the sending TI-73 to display the APPLICATIONS menu.

3. Press on the sending TI-73 to select 1:Link and display the LINK

SEND menu.

4. Choose 0:Vars to TI83. and then select the items you want to send.

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TI-83 Plus Communication Link 649

5. Press ~ on the sending TI-73 to display the LINK TRANSMIT menu.

6. Confirm that the receiving unit is set to receive.

7. Press on the sending TI-73 to select 1:Transmit and begin transmitting.

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TI-83 Plus Communication Link 650

Backing Up RAM Memory

Warning: H:Back Up overwrites the RAM memory and mode settings in the receiving unit. All information in the RAM memory of the receiving unit is lost.

Note: Archived items on the receiving unit are not overwritten.

You can backup the contents of RAM memory and mode settings (no Flash applications or archived items) to another TI-83 Plus Silver Edition. You can also backup RAM memory and mode settings to a TI-83 Plus.

To perform a RAM memory backup:

1. Use a unit-to-unit cable to link two TI-83 Plus Silver Edition units, or a TI-83 Plus Silver Edition and a TI-83 Plus together.

2. On the sending unit press y 8 and select H:Back Up. The MEMORYBACKUP screen displays.

3. On the receiving unit, press y 8 ~ to display the RECEIVE menu.

4. Press on the receiving unit.

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TI-83 Plus Communication Link 651

5. Press on the sending unit. A WARNING Backup message displays on the receiving unit.

6. Press on the receiving unit to continue the backup. or Press 2:Quit on the receiving unit to cancel the backup and return to the LINK SEND menu

Note: If a transmission error is returned during a backup, the receiving unit is reset.

Memory Backup Complete

When the backup is complete, both the sending calculator and receiving calculator display a confirmation screen.

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TI-83 Plus Communication Link 652

Error Conditions A transmission error occurs after one or two seconds if:

A cable is not attached to the sending unit.

A cable is not attached to the receiving unit. Note: If the cable is attached, push it in firmly and try again.

The receiving unit is not set to receive transmission.

You attempt a backup between a TI-73, a TI-82, or a TI-83 and a TI-83 Plus.

You attempt a data transfer from a TI-83 Plus to a TI-83, TI-82, or TI-73 with variables or features not recognized by the TI-83, TI-82, or TI-73.

New variable types and features not recognized by the TI-83, TI-82, or TI-73 include applications, application variables, grouped variables, new variable types, or programs with new features in them such as Archive, UnArchive, SendID, SendOS, Asm(, AsmComp(, and AsmPrgm.

You attempt a data transfer from a TI-83 Plus to a TI-82 with data other than real lists L1 through L6 or without using menu item 5:Lists to TI82.

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TI-83 Plus Communication Link 653

You attempt a data transfer from a TI-83 Plus to a TI-73 with data other than real numbers, pics, real lists L1 through L6 or named lists with q as part of the name.

Although a transmission error does not occur, these two conditions may prevent successful transmission.

You try to use Get( with a calculator instead of a CBL 2/CBL or CBR.

You try to use GetCalc( with a TI-83 instead of a TI-83 Plus Silver Edition or TI-83 Plus.

Insufficient Memory in Receiving Unit

During transmission, if the receiving unit does not have sufficient memory to receive an item, the Memory Full menu is displayed on the receiving unit.

To skip this item for the current transmission, select 1:Omit. Transmission resumes with the next item.

To cancel the transmission and exit receive mode, select 2:Quit.

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TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 654

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

Table of Functions and Instructions

Functions return a value, list, or matrix. You can use functions in an expression. Instructions initiate an action. Some functions and instructions have arguments. Optional arguments and accompanying commas are enclosed in brackets ( [ ] ). For details about an item, including argument descriptions and restrictions, turn to the page listed on the right side of the table.

From the CATALOG, you can paste any function or instruction to the home screen or to a command line in the program editor. However, some functions and instructions are not valid on the home screen. The items in this table appear in the same order as they appear in the CATALOG.

indicates either keystrokes that are valid in the program editor only or ones that paste certain instructions when you are in the program editor. Some keystrokes display menus that are available only in the program editor. Others paste mode, format, or table-set instructions only when you are in the program editor.

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TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 655

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

abs(value) Returns the absolute value of a real number, expression, list, or matrix.

NUM 1:abs(

abs(complex value) Returns the magnitude of a complex number or list.

CPX 5:abs(

valueA and valueB Returns 1 if both valueA and valueB are 0. valueA and valueB can be real numbers, expressions, or lists.

y : LOGIC 1:and

angle(value) Returns the polar angle of a complex number or list of complex numbers.

CPX 4:angle(

ANOVA(list1,list2 [,list3,...,list20])

Performs a one-way analysis of variance for comparing the means of two to 20 populations.

TESTS F:ANOVA(

Ans Returns the last answer. y Z Archive Moves the specified variables from

RAM to the user data archive memory.

y L 5:Archive

Asm(assemblyprgmname) Executes an assembly language program.

y N Asm(

AsmComp(prgmASM1, prgmASM2)

Compiles an assembly language program written in ASCII and stores the hex version.

y N AsmComp(

AsmPrgm Must be used as the first line of an assembly language program.

y N AsmPrgm

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TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 656

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

augment(matrixA, matrixB)

Returns a matrix, which is matrixB appended to matrixA as new columns.

y > MATH 7:augment(

augment(listA,listB) Returns a list, which is listB concatenated to the end of listA.

y 9 OPS 9:augment(

AxesOff Turns off the graph axes. y . AxesOff

AxesOn Turns on the graph axes. y . AxesOn

a+bi Sets the mode to rectangular complex number mode (a+bi).

z a+bi

bal(npmt[,roundvalue]) Computes the balance at npmt for an amortization schedule using stored values for PV, , and PMT and rounds the computation to roundvalue.

1:Finance CALC 9:bal(

binomcdf(numtria) Computes a cumulative probability at x for the discrete binomial distribution with the specified numtrials and probability p of success on each trial.

y = DISTR A:binomcdf(

binompdf(numtrials,p[,x]) Computes a probability at x for the discrete binomial distribution with the specified numtrials and probability p of success on each trial.

y = DISTR 0:binompdf(

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TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 657

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

c2cdf(lowerbound, upperbound,df)

Computes the c2 distribution probability between lowerbound and upperbound for the specified degrees of freedom df.

y = DISTR 7:c2cdf(

c2pdf(x,df) Computes the probability density function (pdf) for the c2 distribution at a specified x value for the specified degrees of freedom df.

y = DISTR 6:c2pdf(

c2.Test(observedmatrix, expectedmatrix [,drawflag])

Performs a chi-square test. drawflag=1 draws results; drawflag=0 calculates results.

TESTS C:c2-Test(

Circle(X,Y,radius) Draws a circle with center (X,Y) and radius.

y < DRAW 9:Circle(

Clear Entries Clears the contents of the Last Entry storage area.

y L MEMORY 3:Clear Entries

ClrAllLists Sets to 0 the dimension of all lists in memory.

y L MEMORY 4:ClrAllLists

ClrDraw Clears all drawn elements from a graph or drawing.

y < DRAW 1:ClrDraw

ClrHome Clears the home screen. I/O 8:ClrHome

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TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 658

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

ClrList listname1 [,listname2, ..., listname n]

Sets to 0 the dimension of one or more listnames.

EDIT 4:ClrList

ClrTable Clears all values from the table. I/O 9:ClrTable

conj(value) Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number or list of complex numbers.

CPX 1:conj(

Connected Sets connected plotting mode; resets all Y= editor graph-style settings to .

z Connected

CoordOff Turns off cursor coordinate value display.

y . CoordOff

CoordOn Turns on cursor coordinate value display.

y . CoordOn

cos(value) Returns cosine of a real number, expression, or list.

cosL1(value) Returns arccosine of a real number, expression, or list.

y @

cosh(value) Returns hyperbolic cosine of a real number, expression, or list.

y N cosh(

coshL1(value) Returns hyperbolic arccosine of a real number, expression, or list.

y N coshL1(

CubicReg [Xlistname, Ylistname,freqlist, regequ]

Fits a cubic regression model to Xlistname and Ylistname with frequency freqlist, and stores the regression equation to regequ.

CALC 6:CubicReg

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TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 659

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

c*msum(list) Returns a list of the cumulative sums of the elements in list, starting with the first element.

y 9 OPS 6:c*msum(

c*msum(matrix) Returns a matrix of the cumulative sums of matrix elements. Each element in the returned matrix is a cumulative sum of a matrix column from top to bottom.

y > MATH 0:c*msum(

dbd(date1,date2) Calculates the number of days between date1 and date2 using the actual-day-count method.

1:Finance CALC D:dbd(

value4Dec Displays a real or complex number, expression, list, or matrix in decimal format.

MATH 2:4Dec

Degree Sets degree angle mode. z Degree

DelVar variable Deletes from memory the contents of variable.

CTL G:DelVar

DependAsk Sets table to ask for dependent- variable values.

y - Depend: Ask

DependAuto Sets table to generate dependent- variable values automatically.

y - Depend: Auto

det(matrix) Returns determinant of matrix. y > MATH 1:det(

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TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 660

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

DiagnosticOff Sets diagnostics-off mode; r, r2, and R2 are not displayed as regression model results.

y N DiagnosticOff

DiagnosticOn Sets diagnostics-on mode; r, r2, and R2 are displayed as regression model results.

y N DiagnosticOn

dim(listname) Returns the dimension of listname. y 9 OPS 3:dim(

dim(matrixname) Returns the dimension of matrixname as a list.

y > MATH 3:dim(

length!dim(listname) Assigns a new dimension (length) to a new or existing listname.

y 9 OPS 3:dim(

{rows,columns}! dim(matrixname)

Assigns new dimensions to a new or existing matrixname.

y > MATH 3:dim(

Disp Displays the home screen. I/O 3:Disp

Disp [valueA,valueB, valueC,...,value n]

Displays each value. I/O 3:Disp

DispGraph Displays the graph. I/O 4:DispGraph

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TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 661

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

DispTable Displays the table. I/O 5:DispTable

value4DMS Displays value in DMS format. y ; ANGLE 4:4DMS

Dot Sets dot plotting mode; resets all Y= editor graph-style settings to .

z Dot

DrawF expression Draws expression (in terms of X) on the graph.

y < DRAW 6:DrawF

DrawInv expression Draws the inverse of expression by plotting X values on the y-axis and Y values on the x-axis.

y < DRAW 8:DrawInv

:DS<(variable,value) :commandA :commands

Decrements variable by 1; skips commandA if variable < value.

CTL B:DS<(

e^(power) Returns e raised to power. y J e^(list) Returns a list of e raised to a list of

powers. y J

Exponent: valueEexponent

Returns value times 10 to the exponent.

y D

Exponent: listEexponent

Returns list elements times 10 to the exponent.

y D

Exponent: matrixEexponent

Returns matrix elements times 10 to the exponent.

y D

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TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 662

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

4Eff(nominal rate, compounding periods)

Computes the effective interest rate. 1:Finance CALC C:4Eff(

Else See If:Then:Else End Identifies end of For(, If-Then-Else,

Repeat, or While loop. CTL 7:End

Eng Sets engineering display mode. z Eng

Equ4String(Y= var,Strn) Converts the contents of a Y= var to a string and stores it in Strn.

y N Equ4String(

expr(string) Converts string to an expression and executes it.

y N expr(

ExpReg [Xlistname, Ylistname,freqlist,regequ]

Fits an exponential regression model to Xlistname and Ylistname with frequency freqlist, and stores the regression equation to regequ.

CALC 0:ExpReg

ExprOff Turns off the expression display during TRACE.

y . ExprOff

ExprOn Turns on the expression display during TRACE.

y . ExprOn

cdf(lowerbound, upperbound, numerator df, denominator df)

Computes the distribution probability between lowerbound and upperbound for the specified numerator df (degrees of freedom) and denominator df.

y = DISTR 9:cdf(

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TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 663

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

Fill(value,matrixname) Stores value to each element in matrixname.

y > MATH 4:Fill(

Fill(value,listname) Stores value to each element in listname.

y 9 OPS 4:Fill(

Fix # Sets fixed-decimal mode for # of decimal places.

z 0123456789 (select one)

Float Sets floating decimal mode. z Float

fMax(expression,variable, lower,upper[,tolerance])

Returns the value of variable where the local maximum of expression occurs, between lower and upper, with specified tolerance.

MATH 7:fMax(

fMin(expression,variable, lower,upper[,tolerance])

Returns the value of variable where the local minimum of expression occurs, between lower and upper, with specified tolerance.

MATH 6:fMin(

fnInt(expression,variable, lower,upper[,tolerance])

Returns the function integral of expression with respect to variable, between lower and upper, with specified tolerance.

MATH 9:fnInt(

FnOff [function#, function#,...,function n]

Deselects all Y= functions or specified Y= functions.

Y-VARS On/Off 2:FnOff

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TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 664

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

FnOn [function#, function#,...,function n]

Selects all Y= functions or specified Y= functions.

Y-VARS On/Off 1:FnOn

:For(variable,begin,end [,increment]) :commands :End :commands

Executes commands through End, incrementing variable from begin by increment until variable>end.

CTL 4:For(

fPart(value) Returns the fractional part or parts of a real or complex number, expression, list, or matrix.

NUM 4:fPart(

pdf(x,numerator df, denominator df)

Computes the distribution probability between lowerbound and upperbound for the specified numerator df (degrees of freedom) and denominator df.

y = DISTR 8:pdf(

value4Frac Displays a real or complex number, expression, list, or matrix as a fraction simplified to its simplest terms.

MATH 1:4Frac

Full Sets full screen mode. z Full

Func Sets function graphing mode. z Func

GarbageCollect Displays the garbage collection menu to allow cleanup of unused archive memory.

y N GarbageCollect

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TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 665

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

gcd(valueA,valueB) Returns the greatest common divisor of valueA and valueB, which can be real numbers or lists.

NUM 9:gcd(

geometcdf(p,x) Computes a cumulative probability at x, the number of the trial on which the first success occurs, for the discrete geometric distribution with the specified probability of success p.

y = DISTR E:geometcdf(

geometpdf(p,x) Computes a probability at x, the number of the trial on which the first success occurs, for the discrete geometric distribution with the specified probability of success p.

y = DISTR D:geometpdf(

Get(variable) Gets data from the CBL 2/CBL or CBR System and stores it in variable.

I/O A:Get(

GetCalc(variable) Gets contents of variable on another TI-83 Plus and stores it to variable on the receiving TI-83 Plus.

I/O 0:GetCalc(

getKey Returns the key code for the current keystroke, or 0, if no key is pressed.

I/O 7:getKey

Goto label Transfers control to label. CTL 0:Goto

GraphStyle(function#, graphstyle#)

Sets a graphstyle for function#. CTL H:GraphStyle(

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TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 666

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

GridOff Turns off grid format. y . GridOff

GridOn Turns on grid format. y . GridOn

G-T Sets graph-table vertical split-screen mode.

z G-T

Horiz Sets horizontal split-screen mode. z Horiz

Horizontal y Draws a horizontal line at y. y < DRAW 3:Horizontal

identity(dimension) Returns the identity matrix of dimension rows dimension columns.

y > MATH 5:identity(

:If condition :commandA :commands

If condition = 0 (false), skips commandA.

CTL 1:If

:If condition :Then :commands :End :commands

Executes commands from Then to End if condition = 1 (true).

CTL 2:Then

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TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 667

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

:If condition :Then :commands :Else :commands :End :commands

Executes commands from Then to Else if condition = 1 (true); from Else to End if condition = 0 (false).

CTL 3:Else

imag(value) Returns the imaginary (nonreal) part of a complex number or list of complex numbers.

CPX 3:imag(

IndpntAsk Sets table to ask for independent- variable values.

y - Indpnt: Ask

IndpntAuto Sets table to generate independent- variable values automatically.

y - Indpnt: Auto

Input Displays graph. I/O 1:Input

Input [variable] Input ["text",variable]

Prompts for value to store to variable.

I/O 1:Input

Input [Strn,variable] Displays Strn and stores entered value to variable.

I/O 1:Input

inString(string,substring [,start])

Returns the character position in string of the first character of substring beginning at start.

y N inString(

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TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 668

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

int(value) Returns the largest integer a real or complex number, expression, list, or matrix.

NUM 5:int(

GInt(pmt1,pmt2 [,roundvalue])

Computes the sum, rounded to roundvalue, of the interest amount between pmt1 and pmt2 for an amortization schedule.

1:Finance CALC A:GInt(

invNorm(area[,m,s]) Computes the inverse cumulative normal distribution function for a given area under the normal distribution curve specified by m and s.

y = DISTR 3:invNorm(

iPart(value) Returns the integer part of a real or complex number, expression, list, or matrix.

NUM 3:iPart(

irr(CF0,CFList[,CFFreq]) Returns the interest rate at which the net present value of the cash flow is equal to zero.

1:Finance CALC 8:irr(

:IS>(variable,value) :commandA :commands

Increments variable by 1; skips commandA if variable>value.

CTL A:IS>(

listname Identifies the next one to five characters as a user-created list name.

y 9 OPS B:(

LabelOff Turns off axes labels. y . LabelOff

LabelOn Turns on axes labels. y . LabelOn

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TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 669

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

Lbl label Creates a label of one or two characters.

CTL 9:Lbl

lcm(valueA,valueB) Returns the least common multiple of valueA and valueB, which can be real numbers or lists.

NUM 8:lcm(

length(string) Returns the number of characters in string.

y N length(

Line(X1,Y1,X2,Y2) Draws a line from (X1,Y1) to (X2,Y2). y < DRAW 2:Line(

Line(X1,Y1,X2,Y2,0) Erases a line from (X1,Y1) to (X2,Y2).

y < DRAW 2:Line(

LinReg(a+bx) [Xlistname, Ylistname,freqlist, regequ]

Fits a linear regression model to Xlistname and Ylistname with frequency freqlist, and stores the regression equation to regequ.

CALC 8:LinReg(a+bx)

LinReg(ax+b) [Xlistname, Ylistname,freqlist, regequ]

Fits a linear regression model to Xlistname and Ylistname with frequency freqlist, and stores the regression equation to regequ.

CALC 4:LinReg(ax+b)

LinRegTTest [Xlistname, Ylistname,freqlist, alternative,regequ]

Performs a linear regression and a t-test. alternative=L1 is <; alternative=0 is ; alternative=1 is >.

TESTS E:LinRegTTest

@List(list) Returns a list containing the differences between consecutive elements in list.

y 9 OPS 7:@List(

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TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 670

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

List 4 matr(listname1,..., listname n,matrixname)

Fills matrixname column by column with the elements from each specified listname.

y 9 OPS 0:List 4 matr(

ln(value) Returns the natural logarithm of a real or complex number, expression, or list.

LnReg [Xlistname, Ylistname,freqlist, regequ]

Fits a logarithmic regression model to Xlistname and Ylistname with frequency freqlist, and stores the regression equation to regequ.

CALC 9:LnReg

log(value) Returns logarithm of a real or complex number, expression, or list.

Logistic [Xlistname, Ylistname,freqlist, regequ]

Fits a logistic regression model to Xlistname and Ylistname with frequency freqlist, and stores the regression equation to regequ.

CALC B:Logistic

Matr 4 list(matrix, listnameA,...,listname n)

Fills each listname with elements from each column in matrix.

y 9 OPSA:Matr 4 list(

Matr 4 list(matrix, column#,listname)

Fills a listname with elements from a specified column# in matrix.

y 9 OPSA:Matr 4 list(

max(valueA,valueB) Returns the larger of valueA and valueB.

NUM 7:max(

max(list) Returns largest real or complex element in list.

y 9 MATH 2:max(

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TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 671

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

max(listA,listB) Returns a real or complex list of the larger of each pair of elements in listA and listB.

y 9 MATH 2:max(

max(value,list) Returns a real or complex list of the larger of value or each list element.

y 9 MATH 2:max(

mean(list[,freqlist]) Returns the mean of list with frequency freqlist.

y 9 MATH 3:mean(

median(list[,freqlist]) Returns the median of list with frequency freqlist.

y 9 MATH 4:median(

Med-Med [Xlistname, Ylistname,freqlist, regequ]

Fits a median-median model to Xlistname and Ylistname with frequency freqlist, and stores the regression equation to regequ.

CALC 3:Med-Med

Menu("title","text1",label1 [,...,"text7",label7])

Generates a menu of up to seven items during program execution.

CTL C:Menu(

min(valueA,valueB) Returns smaller of valueA and valueB.

NUM 6:min(

min(list) Returns smallest real or complex element in list.

y 9 MATH 1:min(

min(listA,listB) Returns real or complex list of the smaller of each pair of elements in listA and listB.

y 9 MATH 1:min(

Page 675

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 672

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

min(value,list) Returns a real or complex list of the smaller of value or each list element.

y 9 MATH 1:min(

valueA nCr valueB Returns the number of combinations of valueA taken valueB at a time.

PRB 3:nCr

value nCr list Returns a list of the combinations of value taken each element in list at a time.

PRB 3:nCr

list nCr value Returns a list of the combinations of each element in list taken value at a time.

PRB 3:nCr

listA nCr listB Returns a list of the combinations of each element in listA taken each element in listB at a time.

PRB 3:nCr

nDeriv(expression,variable, value[,H])

Returns approximate numerical derivative of expression with respect to variable at value, with specified H.

MATH 8:nDeriv(

4Nom(effective rate, compounding periods)

Computes the nominal interest rate. 1:Finance CALC B:4Nom(

Normal Sets normal display mode. z Normal

normalcdf(lowerbound, upperbound[,m,s])

Computes the normal distribution probability between lowerbound and upperbound for the specified m and s.

y = DISTR 2:normalcdf(

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TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 673

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

normalpdf(x[,m,s]) Computes the probability density function for the normal distribution at a specified x value for the specified m and s.

y = DISTR 1:normalpdf(

not(value) Returns 0 if value is 0. value can be a real number, expression, or list.

y : LOGIC 4:not(

valueA nPr valueB Returns the number of permutations of valueA taken valueB at a time.

PRB 2:nPr

value nPr list Returns a list of the permutations of value taken each element in list at a time.

PRB 2:nPr

list nPr value Returns a list of the permutations of each element in list taken value at a time.

PRB 2:nPr

listA nPr listB Returns a list of the permutations of each element in listA taken each element in listB at a time.

PRB 2:nPr

npv(interest rate,CF0, CFList[,CFFreq])

Computes the sum of the present values for cash inflows and outflows.

1:Finance CALC 7:npv(

valueA or valueB Returns 1 if valueA or valueB is 0. valueA and valueB can be real numbers, expressions, or lists.

y : LOGIC 2:or

Output(row,column, "text")

Displays text beginning at specified row and column.

I/O 6:Output(

Page 677

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 674

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

Output(row,column, value)

Displays value beginning at specified row and column.

I/O 6:Output(

Param Sets parametric graphing mode. z Par

Pause Suspends program execution until you press .

CTL 8:Pause

Pause [value] Displays value; suspends program execution until you press .

CTL 8:Pause

Plot#(type,Xlistname, Ylistname,mark)

Defines Plot# (1, 2, or 3) of type Scatter or xyLine for Xlistname and Ylistname using mark.

y , PLOTS 1:Plot1- 2:Plot2- 3:Plot3-

Plot#(type,Xlistname, freqlist)

Defines Plot# (1, 2, or 3) of type Histogram or Boxplot for Xlistname with frequency freqlist.

y , PLOTS 1:Plot1- 2:Plot2- 3:Plot3-

Plot#(type,Xlistname, freqlist,mark)

Defines Plot# (1, 2, or 3) of type ModBoxplot for Xlistname with frequency freqlist using mark.

y , PLOTS 1:Plot1- 2:Plot2- 3:Plot3-

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TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 675

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

Plot#(type,datalistname, data axis,mark)

Defines Plot# (1, 2, or 3) of type NormProbPlot for datalistname on data axis using mark. data axis can be X or Y.

y , PLOTS 1:Plot1- 2:Plot2- 3:Plot3-

PlotsOff [1,2,3] Deselects all stat plots or one or more specified stat plots (1, 2, or 3).

y , STAT PLOTS 4:PlotsOff

PlotsOn [1,2,3] Selects all stat plots or one or more specified stat plots (1, 2, or 3).

y , STAT PLOTS 5:PlotsOn

Pmt_Bgn Specifies an annuity due, where payments occur at the beginning of each payment period.

1:Finance CALC F:Pmt_Bgn

Pmt_End Specifies an ordinary annuity, where payments occur at the end of each payment period.

1:Finance CALC E:Pmt_End

poissoncdf(m,x) Computes a cumulative probability at x for the discrete Poisson distribution with specified mean m.

y = DISTR C:poissoncdf(

poissonpdf(m,x) Computes a probability at x for the discrete Poisson distribution with the specified mean m.

y = DISTR B:poissonpdf(

Polar Sets polar graphing mode. z Pol

complex value 4Polar Displays complex value in polar format.

CPX 7:4Polar

Page 679

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 676

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

PolarGC Sets polar graphing coordinates format.

y . PolarGC

prgmname Executes the program name. CTRL D:prgm

GPrn(pmt1,pmt2 [,roundvalue])

Computes the sum, rounded to roundvalue, of the principal amount between pmt1 and pmt2 for an amortization schedule.

1:Finance CALC 0:GPrn(

prod(list[,start,end]) Returns product of list elements between start and end.

y 9 MATH 6:prod(

Prompt variableA [,variableB,...,variable n]

Prompts for value for variableA, then variableB, and so on.

I/O 2:Prompt

1.PropZInt(x,n [,confidence level])

Computes a one-proportion z confidence interval.

TESTS A:1-PropZInt(

2.PropZInt(x1,n1,x2,n2 [,confidence level])

Computes a two-proportion z confidence interval.

TESTS B:2-PropZInt(

1.PropZTest(p0,x,n [,alternative,drawflag])

Computes a one-proportion z test. alternative=L1 is <; alternative=0 is ; alternative=1 is >. drawflag=1 draws results; drawflag=0 calculates results.

TESTS 5:1-PropZTest(

Page 680

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 677

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

2.PropZTest(x1,n1,x2,n2 [,alternative,drawflag])

Computes a two-proportion z test. alternative=L1 is <; alternative=0 is ; alternative=1 is >. drawflag=1 draws results; drawflag=0 calculates results.

TESTS 6:2-PropZTest(

Pt.Change(x,y) Reverses a point at (x,y). y < POINTS 3:Pt.Change(

Pt.Off(x,y[,mark]) Erases a point at (x,y) using mark. y < POINTS 2:Pt.Off(

Pt.On(x,y[,mark]) Draws a point at (x,y) using mark. y < POINTS 1:Pt.On(

PwrReg [Xlistname, Ylistname,freqlist, regequ]

Fits a power regression model to Xlistname and Ylistname with frequency freqlist, and stores the regression equation to regequ.

CALC A:PwrReg

Pxl.Change(row,column) Reverses pixel at (row,column); 0 row 62 and 0 column 94.

y < POINTS 6:Pxl.Change(

Pxl.Off(row,column) Erases pixel at (row,column); 0 row 62 and 0 column 94.

y < POINTS 5:Pxl.Off(

Pxl.On(row,column) Draws pixel at (row,column); 0 row 62 and 0 column 94.

y < POINTS 4:Pxl.On(

Page 681

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 678

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

pxl.Test(row,column) Returns 1 if pixel (row, column) is on, 0 if it is off; 0 row 62 and 0 column 94.

y < POINTS 7:pxl.Test(

P4Rx(r,q) Returns X, given polar coordinates r and q or a list of polar coordinates.

y ; ANGLE 7:P4Rx(

P4Ry(r,q) Returns Y, given polar coordinates r and q or a list of polar coordinates.

y ; ANGLE 8:P4Ry(

QuadReg [Xlistname, Ylistname,freqlist, regequ]

Fits a quadratic regression model to Xlistname and Ylistname with frequency freqlist, and stores the regression equation to regequ.

CALC 5:QuadReg

QuartReg [Xlistname, Ylistname,freqlist, regequ]

Fits a quartic regression model to Xlistname and Ylistname with frequency freqlist, and stores the regression equation to regequ.

CALC 7:QuartReg

Radian Sets radian angle mode. z Radian

rand[(numtrials)] Returns a random number between 0 and 1 for a specified number of trials numtrials.

PRB 1:rand

randBin(numtrials,prob [,numsimulations])

Generates and displays a random real number from a specified Binomial distribution.

PRB 7:randBin(

Page 682

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 679

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

randInt( lower,upper [,numtrials])

Generates and displays a random integer within a range specified by lower and upper integer bounds for a specified number of trials numtrials.

PRB 5:randInt(

randM(rows,columns) Returns a random matrix of rows (1 99) columns (199).

y > MATH 6:randM(

randNorm(m,s[,numtrials]) Generates and displays a random real number from a specified Normal distribution specified by m and s for a specified number of trials numtrials.

PRB 6:randNorm(

re^qi Sets the mode to polar complex number mode (re^qi).

z re^qi

Real Sets mode to display complex results only when you enter complex numbers.

z Real

real(value) Returns the real part of a complex number or list of complex numbers.

CPX 2:real(

RecallGDB n Restores all settings stored in the graph database variable GDBn.

y < STO 4:RecallGDB

RecallPic n Displays the graph and adds the picture stored in Picn.

y < STO 2:RecallPic

complex value 4Rect Displays complex value or list in rectangular format.

CPX 6:4Rect

Page 683

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 680

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

RectGC Sets rectangular graphing coordinates format.

y . RectGC

ref(matrix) Returns the row-echelon form of a matrix.

y > MATH A:ref(

:Repeat condition :commands :End :commands

Executes commands until condition is true.

CTL 6:Repeat

Return Returns to the calling program. CTL E:Return

round(value[,#decimals]) Returns a number, expression, list, or matrix rounded to #decimals ( 9).

NUM 2:round(

row(value,matrix,row) Returns a matrix with row of matrix multiplied by value and stored in row.

y > MATH E:row(

row+(matrix,rowA,rowB) Returns a matrix with rowA of matrix added to rowB and stored in rowB.

y > MATH D:row+(

row+(value,matrix, rowA,rowB)

Returns a matrix with rowA of matrix multiplied by value, added to rowB, and stored in rowB.

y > MATH F:row+(

rowSwap(matrix,rowA, rowB)

Returns a matrix with rowA of matrix swapped with rowB.

y > MATH C:rowSwap(

Page 684

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 681

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

rref(matrix) Returns the reduced row-echelon form of a matrix.

y > MATH B:rref(

R4Pr(x,y) Returns R, given rectangular coordinates x and y or a list of rectangular coordinates.

y ; ANGLE 5:R4Pr(

R4Pq(x,y) Returns q, given rectangular coordinates x and y or a list of rectangular coordinates.

y ; ANGLE 6:R4Pq(

2.SampTest [listname1, listname2,freqlist1, freqlist2,alternative, drawflag] (Data list input)

Performs a two-sample test. alternative=L1 is <; alternative=0 is ; alternative=1 is >. drawflag=1 draws results; drawflag=0 calculates results.

TESTS D:2-SampTest

2.SampTest Sx1,n1, Sx2,n2[,alternative, drawflag] (Summary stats input)

Performs a two-sample test. alternative=L1 is <; alternative=0 is ; alternative=1 is >. drawflag=1 draws results; drawflag=0 calculates results.

TESTS D:2-SampTest

2.SampTInt [listname1, listname2, freqlist1,freqlist2, confidence level,pooled] (Data list input)

Computes a two-sample t confidence interval. pooled=1 pools variances; pooled=0 does not pool variances.

TESTS 0:2-SampTInt

2.SampTInt v1,Sx1,n1, v2,Sx2,n2 [,confidence level,pooled] (Summary stats input)

Computes a two-sample t confidence interval. pooled=1 pools variances; pooled=0 does not pool variances.

TESTS 0:2-SampTInt

Page 685

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 682

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

2.SampTTest [listname1, listname2,freqlist1, freqlist2,alternative, pooled,drawflag] (Data list input)

Computes a two-sample t test. alternative=L1 is <; alternative=0 is ; alternative=1 is >. pooled=1 pools variances; pooled=0 does not pool variances. drawflag=1 draws results; drawflag=0 calculates results.

TESTS 4:2-SampTTest

2.SampTTest v1,Sx1,n1, v2,Sx2,n2[,alternative, pooled,drawflag] (Summary stats input)

Computes a two-sample t test. alternative=L1 is <; alternative=0 is ; alternative=1 is >. pooled=1 pools variances; pooled=0 does not pool variances. drawflag=1 draws results; drawflag=0 calculates results.

TESTS 4:2-SampTTest

2.SampZInt(s1,s2 [,listname1,listname2, freqlist1,freqlist2, confidence level]) (Data list input)

Computes a two-sample z confidence interval.

TESTS 9:2-SampZInt(

2.SampZInt(s1,s2, v1,n1,v2,n2 [,confidence level]) (Summary stats input)

Computes a two-sample z confidence interval.

TESTS 9:2-SampZInt(

2.SampZTest(s1,s2 [,listname1,listname2, freqlist1,freqlist2, alternative,drawflag]) (Data list input)

Computes a two-sample z test. alternative=L1 is <; alternative=0 is ; alternative=1 is >. drawflag=1 draws results; drawflag=0 calculates results.

TESTS

3:2-SampZTest(

Page 686

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 683

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

2.SampZTest(s1,s2, v1,n1,v2,n2 [,alternative,drawflag]) (Summary stats input)

Computes a two-sample z test. alternative=L1 is <; alternative=0 is ; alternative=1 is >. drawflag=1 draws results; drawflag=0 calculates results.

TESTS

3:2-SampZTest(

Sci Sets scientific notation display mode. z Sci

Select(Xlistname, Ylistname)

Selects one or more specific data points from a scatter plot or xyLine plot (only), and then stores the selected data points to two new lists, Xlistname and Ylistname.

y 9 OPS 8:Select(

Send(variable) Sends contents of variable to the CBL 2/CBL or CBR System.

I/O B:Send(

seq(expression,variable, begin,end[,increment])

Returns list created by evaluating expression with regard to variable, from begin to end by increment.

y 9 OPS 5:seq(

Seq Sets sequence graphing mode. z Seq

Sequential Sets mode to graph functions sequentially.

z Sequential

SetUpEditor Removes all list names from the stat list editor, and then restores list names L1 through L6 to columns 1 through 6.

EDIT 5:SetUpEditor

Page 687

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 684

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

SetUpEditor listname1 [,listname2,..., listname20]

Removes all list names from the stat list editor, then sets it up to display one or more listnames in the specified order, starting with column 1.

EDIT 5:SetUpEditor

Shade(lowerfunc, upperfunc[,Xleft,Xright, pattern,patres])

Draws lowerfunc and upperfunc in terms of X on the current graph and uses pattern and patres to shade the area bounded by lowerfunc, upperfunc, Xleft, and Xright.

y < DRAW 7:Shade(

Shadec2(lowerbound, upperbound,df)

Draws the density function for the c2

distribution specified by degrees of freedom df and shades the area between lowerbound and upperbound.

y = DRAW 3:Shadec2(

Shade(lowerbound, upperbound, numerator df, denominator df)

Draws the density function for the distribution specified by numerator df and denominator df and shades the area between lowerbound and upperbound.

y = DRAW 4:Shade(

ShadeNorm(lowerbound, upperbound[,m,s])

Draws the normal density function specified by m and s and shades the area between lowerbound and upperbound.

y = DRAW 1:ShadeNorm(

Shade_t(lowerbound, upperbound,df)

Draws the density function for the Student-t distribution specified by degrees of freedom df, and shades the area between lowerbound and upperbound.

y = DRAW 2:Shade_t(

Page 688

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 685

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

Simul Sets mode to graph functions simultaneously.

z Simul

sin(value) Returns the sine of a real number, expression, or list.

sinL1(value) Returns the arcsine of a real number, expression, or list.

y ?

sinh(value) Returns the hyperbolic sine of a real number, expression, or list.

y N sinh(

sinhL1(value) Returns the hyperbolic arcsine of a real number, expression, or list.

y N sinhL1(

SinReg [iterations, Xlistname,Ylistname, period,regequ]

Attempts iterations times to fit a sinusoidal regression model to Xlistname and Ylistname using a period guess, and stores the regression equation to regequ.

CALC C:SinReg

solve(expression,variable, guess,{lower,upper})

Solves expression for variable, given an initial guess and lower and upper bounds within which the solution is sought.

MATH 0:solve(

SortA(listname) Sorts elements of listname in ascending order.

y 9 OPS1:SortA(

SortA(keylistname, dependlist1[,dependlist2, ...,dependlist n])

Sorts elements of keylistname in ascending order, then sorts each dependlist as a dependent list.

y 9 OPS 1:SortA(

SortD(listname) Sorts elements of listname in descending order.

y 9 OPS2:SortD(

Page 689

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 686

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

SortD(keylistname, dependlist1[,dependlist2, ..., dependlist n])

Sorts elements of keylistname in descending order, then sorts each dependlist as a dependent list.

y 9 OPS 2:SortD(

stdDev(list[,freqlist]) Returns the standard deviation of the elements in list with frequency freqlist.

y 9 MATH 7:stdDev(

Stop Ends program execution; returns to home screen.

CTL F:Stop

Store: value!variable Stores value in variable.

StoreGDB n Stores current graph in database GDBn.

y < STO 3:StoreGDB

StorePic n Stores current picture in picture Picn. y < STO 1:StorePic

String4Equ(string,Y= var) Converts string into an equation and stores it in Y= var.

y N String4Equ(

sub(string,begin,length) Returns a string that is a subset of another string, from begin to length.

y N sub(

sum(list[,start,end]) Returns the sum of elements of list from start to end.

y 9 MATH 5:sum(

tan(value) Returns the tangent of a real number, expression, or list.

tanL1(value) Returns the arctangent of a real number, expression, or list.

y A

Page 690

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 687

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

Tangent(expression,value) Draws a line tangent to expression at X=value.

y < DRAW 5:Tangent(

tanh(value) Returns hyperbolic tangent of a real number, expression, or list.

y N tanh(

tanhL1(value) Returns the hyperbolic arctangent of a real number, expression, or list.

y N tanhL1(

tcdf(lowerbound, upperbound,df)

Computes the Student-t distribution probability between lowerbound and upperbound for the specified degrees of freedom df.

y = DISTR 5:tcdf(

Text(row,column,text1, text2,...,text n)

Writes text on graph beginning at pixel (row,column), where 0 row 57 and 0 column 94.

y < DRAW 0:Text(

Then See If:Then Time Sets sequence graphs to plot with

respect to time. y . Time

TInterval [listname, freqlist,confidence level] (Data list input)

Computes a t confidence interval. TESTS 8:TInterval

TInterval v,Sx,n [,confidence level] (Summary stats input)

Computes a t confidence interval. TESTS 8:TInterval

tpdf(x,df) Computes the probability density function (pdf) for the Student-t distribution at a specified x value with specified degrees of freedom df.

y = DISTR 4:tpdf(

Page 691

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 688

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

Trace Displays the graph and enters TRACE mode.

r

T-Test m0[,listname, freqlist,alternative, drawflag] (Data list input)

Performs a t test with frequency freqlist. alternative=L1 is <; alternative=0 is ; alternative=1 is >. drawflag=1 draws results; drawflag=0 calculates results.

TESTS 2:T-Test

T-Test m0, v,Sx,n [,alternative,drawflag] (Summary stats input)

Performs a t test with frequency freqlist. alternative=L1 is < ; alternative=0 is ; alternative=1 is >. drawflag=1 draws results; drawflag=0 calculates results.

TESTS 2:T-Test

tvm_FV[(,,PV,PMT, P/Y,C/Y)]

Computes the future value. 1:Finance CALC 6:tvm_FV

tvm_[(,PV,PMT,FV, P/Y,C/Y)]

Computes the annual interest rate. 1:Finance CALC 3:tvm_(

tvm_[(,PV,PMT,FV, P/Y,C/Y)]

Computes the number of payment periods.

1:Finance CALC 5:tvm_(

tvm_Pmt[(,,PV,FV, P/Y,C/Y)]

Computes the amount of each payment.

1:Finance CALC 2:tvm_Pmt

tvm_PV[(,,PMT,FV, P/Y,C/Y)]

Computes the present value. 1:Finance CALC 4:tvm_PV

Page 692

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 689

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

UnArchive Moves the specified variables from the user data archive memory to RAM. To archive variables, use Archive.

y L 6:UnArchive

uvAxes Sets sequence graphs to plot u(n) on the x-axis and v(n) on the y-axis.

y . uv

uwAxes Sets sequence graphs to plot u(n) on the x-axis and w(n) on the y-axis.

y . uw

1-Var Stats [Xlistname, freqlist]

Performs one-variable analysis on the data in Xlistname with frequency freqlist.

CALC 1:1-Var Stats

2-Var Stats [Xlistname, Ylistname,freqlist]

Performs two-variable analysis on the data in Xlistname and Ylistname with frequency freqlist.

CALC 2:2-Var Stats

variance(list[,freqlist]) Returns the variance of the elements in list with frequency freqlist.

y 9 MATH 8:variance(

Vertical x Draws a vertical line at x. y < DRAW 4:Vertical

vwAxes Sets sequence graphs to plot v(n) on the x-axis and w(n) on the y-axis.

y . vw

Web Sets sequence graphs to trace as webs.

y . Web

:While condition :commands :End :command

Executes commands while condition is true.

CTL 5:While

Page 693

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 690

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

valueA xor valueB Returns 1 if only valueA or valueB = 0. valueA and valueB can be real numbers, expressions, or lists.

y : LOGIC 3:xor

ZBox Displays a graph, lets you draw a box that defines a new viewing window, and updates the window.

q ZOOM 1:ZBox

ZDecimal Adjusts the viewing window so that @X=0.1 and @Y=0.1, and displays the graph screen with the origin centered on the screen.

q ZOOM 4:ZDecimal

ZInteger Redefines the viewing window using these dimensions: @X=1 Xscl=10 @Y=1 Yscl=10

q ZOOM 8:ZInteger

ZInterval s[,listname, freqlist,confidence level] (Data list input)

Computes a z confidence interval. TESTS 7:ZInterval

ZInterval s,v,n [,confidence level] (Summary stats input)

Computes a z confidence interval. TESTS 7:ZInterval

Zoom In Magnifies the part of the graph that surrounds the cursor location.

q ZOOM 2:Zoom In

Zoom Out Displays a greater portion of the graph, centered on the cursor location.

q ZOOM 3:Zoom Out

Page 694

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 691

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

ZoomFit Recalculates Ymin and Ymax to include the minimum and maximum Y values, between Xmin and Xmax, of the selected functions and replots the functions.

q ZOOM 0:ZoomFit

ZoomRcl Graphs the selected functions in a user-defined viewing window.

q MEMORY 3:ZoomRcl

ZoomStat Redefines the viewing window so that all statistical data points are displayed.

q ZOOM 9:ZoomStat

ZoomSto Immediately stores the current viewing window.

q MEMORY 2:ZoomSto

ZPrevious Replots the graph using the window variables of the graph that was displayed before you executed the last ZOOM instruction.

q MEMORY 1:ZPrevious

ZSquare Adjusts the X or Y window settings so that each pixel represents an equal width and height in the coordinate system, and updates the viewing window.

q ZOOM 5:ZSquare

ZStandard Replots the functions immediately, updating the window variables to the default values.

q ZOOM 6:ZStandard

Page 695

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 692

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

ZNTest(m0,s[,listname, freqlist,alternative, drawflag]) (Data list input)

Performs a z test with frequency freqlist. alternative=L1 is <; alternative=0 is ; alternative=1 is >. drawflag=1 draws results; drawflag=0 calculates results.

TESTS 1:Z.Test(

ZNTest(m0,s,v,n [,alternative,drawflag]) (Summary stats input)

Performs a z test. alternative=L1 is <; alternative=0 is ; alternative=1 is >. drawflag=1 draws results; drawflag=0 calculates results.

TESTS 1:Z.Test(

ZTrig Replots the functions immediately, updating the window variables to preset values for plotting trig functions.

q ZOOM 7:ZTrig

Factorial: value! Returns factorial of value. PRB 4:!

Factorial: list! Returns factorial of list elements. PRB 4:!

Degrees notation: value Interprets value as degrees; designates degrees in DMS format.

y ; ANGLE 1:(

Radian: angler Interprets angle as radians. y ; ANGLE 3:r

Page 696

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 693

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

Transpose: matrixT Returns a matrix in which each element (row, column) is swapped with the corresponding element (column, row) of matrix.

y > MATH 2:T

xthrootxvalue Returns xthroot of value. MATH 5:x(

xthrootxlist Returns xthroot of list elements. MATH 5:x(

listxvalue Returns list roots of value. MATH 5:x(

listAxlistB Returns listA roots of listB. MATH 5:x(

Cube: value3 Returns the cube of a real or complex number, expression, list, or square matrix.

MATH 3:3

Cube root: 3(value) Returns the cube root of a real or complex number, expression, or list.

MATH 4:3(

Equal: valueA=valueB Returns 1 if valueA = valueB. Returns 0 if valueA valueB. valueA and valueB can be real or complex numbers, expressions, lists, or matrices.

y : TEST 1:=

Page 697

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 694

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

Not equal: valueAvalueB Returns 1 if valueA valueB. Returns 0 if valueA = valueB. valueA and valueB can be real or complex numbers, expressions, lists, or matrices.

y : TEST 2:

Less than: valueA<valueB Returns 1 if valueA < valueB. Returns 0 if valueA valueB. valueA and valueB can be real or complex numbers, expressions, or lists.

y : TEST 5:<

Greater than: valueA>valueB

Returns 1 if valueA > valueB. Returns 0 if valueA valueB. valueA and valueB can be real or complex numbers, expressions, or lists.

y : TEST 3:>

Less than or equal: valueAvalueB

Returns 1 if valueA valueB. Returns 0 if valueA > valueB. valueA and valueB can be real or complex numbers, expressions, or lists.

y : TEST 6:

Greater than or equal: valueAvalueB

Returns 1 if valueA valueB. Returns 0 if valueA < valueB. valueA and valueB can be real or complex numbers, expressions, or lists.

y : TEST 4:

Inverse: valueL1 Returns 1 divided by a real or complex number or expression.

Inverse: listL1 Returns 1 divided by list elements.

Inverse: matrixL1 Returns matrix inverted.

Square: value2 Returns value multiplied by itself. value can be a real or complex number or expression.

Page 698

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 695

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

Square: list2 Returns list elements squared.

Square: matrix2 Returns matrix multiplied by itself.

Powers: value^power Returns value raised to power. value can be a real or complex number or expression.

Powers: list^power Returns list elements raised to power.

Powers: value^list Returns value raised to list elements.

Powers: matrix^power Returns matrix elements raised to power.

Negation: Lvalue Returns the negative of a real or complex number, expression, list, or matrix.

Power of ten: 10^(value) Returns 10 raised to the value power. value can be a real or complex number or expression.

y G

Power of ten: 10^(list) Returns a list of 10 raised to the list power.

y G

Square root: (value) Returns square root of a real or complex number, expression, or list.

y C

Multiplication: valueAvalueB

Returns valueA times valueB.

Multiplication: valuelist

Returns value times each list element.

Multiplication: listvalue

Returns each list element times value.

Page 699

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 696

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

Multiplication: listAlistB

Returns listA elements times listB elements.

Multiplication: valuematrix

Returns value times matrix elements.

Multiplication: matrixAmatrixB

Returns matrixA times matrixB.

Division: valueAvalueB Returns valueA divided by valueB.

Division: listvalue Returns list elements divided by value.

Division: valuelist Returns value divided by list elements.

Division: listAlistB Returns listA elements divided by listB elements.

Addition: valueA+valueB Returns valueA plus valueB.

Addition: list+value Returns list in which value is added to each list element.

Addition: listA+listB Returns listA elements plus listB elements.

Addition: matrixA+matrixB

Returns matrixA elements plus matrixB elements.

Concatenation: string1+string2

Concatenates two or more strings.

Subtraction: valueANvalueB

Subtracts valueB from valueA.

Subtraction: valueNlist

Subtracts list elements from value.

Page 700

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 697

Function or Instruction/ Arguments Result

Key or Keys/ Menu or Screen/Item

Subtraction: listNvalue

Subtracts value from list elements.

Subtraction: listANlistB

Subtracts listB elements from listA elements.

Subtraction: matrixANmatrixB

Subtracts matrixB elements from matrixA elements.

Minutes notation: degreesminutes'seconds"

Interprets minutes angle measurement as minutes.

y ; ANGLE 2:'

Seconds notation: degreesminutes'seconds"

Interprets seconds angle measurement as seconds.

[]

Page 701

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 698

TI-83 Plus Menu Map

The TI-83 Plus Menu Map begins at the top-left corner of the keyboard and follows the keyboard layout from left to right. Default values and settings are shown. o

(Func mode) Plot1 Plot2 Plot3 Y1= Y2= Y3= Y4= ... Y9= Y0=

(Par mode) Plot1 Plot2 Plot3 X1T= Y1T= X2T= Y2T= ... X6T= Y6T=

(Pol mode) Plot1 Plot2 Plot3 r1= r2= r3= r4= r5= r6=

(Seq mode) Plot1 Plot2 Plot3 nMin=1 u(n)= u(nMin)= v(n)= v(nMin)= w(n)= w(nMin)=

y ,

y ,

STAT PLOTS 1:Plot1Off " L1 L2

2:Plot2Off " L1 L2

3:Plot3Off " L1 L2

4:PlotsOff 5:PlotsOn

(PRGM editor) PLOTS 1:Plot1( 2:Plot2( 3:Plot3( 4:PlotsOff 5:PlotsOn

(PRGM editor) TYPE 1:Scatter 2:xyLine 3:Histogram 4:ModBoxplot 5:Boxplot 6:NormProbPlot

(PRGM editor) MARK 1:

2:+ 3:

Page 702

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 699

p

(Func mode) WINDOW Xmin=-10 Xmax=10 Xscl=1 Ymin=-10 Ymax=10 Yscl=1 Xres=1

(Par mode) WINDOW Tmin=0 Tmax=p2 Tstep=p24 Xmin=-10 Xmax=10 Xscl=1 Ymin=-10 Ymax=10 Yscl=1

(Pol mode) WINDOW qmin=0 qmax=p2 qstep=p24 Xmin=-10 Xmax=10 Xscl=1 Ymin=-10 Ymax=10 Yscl=1

(Seq mode) WINDOW nMin=1 nMax=10 PlotStart=1 PlotStep=1 Xmin=-10 Xmax=10 Xscl=1 Ymin=-10 Ymax=10 Yscl=1

y -

y -

TABLE SETUP TblStart=0 @Tbl=1 Indpnt:Auto Ask Depend:Auto Ask

(PRGM editor) TABLE SETUP Indpnt:Auto Ask Depend:Auto Ask

Page 703

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 700

q

ZOOM 1:ZBox 2:Zoom In 3:Zoom Out 4:ZDecimal 5:ZSquare 6:ZStandard 7:ZTrig 8:ZInteger 9:ZoomStat 0:ZoomFit

MEMORY 1:ZPrevious 2:ZoomSto 3:ZoomRcl 4:SetFactors

MEMORY (Set Factors...) ZOOM FACTORS XFact=4 YFact=4

y .

(Func/Par/Pol modes) RectGC PolarGC CoordOn CoordOff GridOff GridOn AxesOn AxesOff LabelOff LabelOn ExprOn ExprOff

(Seq mode) Time Web uv vw uw RectGC PolarGC CoordOn CoordOff GridOff GridOn AxesOn AxesOff LabelOff LabelOn ExprOn ExprOff

Page 704

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 701

y /

(Func mode) CALCULATE 1:value 2:zero 3:minimum 4:maximum 5:intersect 6:dy/dx 7:f(x)dx

(Par mode) CALCULATE 1:value 2:dy/dx 3:dy/dt 4:dx/dt

(Pol mode) CALCULATE 1:value 2:dy/dx 3:dr/dq

(Seq mode) CALCULATE 1:value

z

Normal Sci Eng Float 0123456789 Radian Degree Func Par Pol Seq Connected Dot Sequential Simul Real a+b re^q Full Horiz G-T

Page 705

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 702

y 8

SEND 1:All+ 2:AllN 3:Prgm 4:List 5:Lists to TI82 6:GDB 7:Pic 8:Matrix 9:Real 0:Complex A:Y-Vars B:String C:Apps D:AppVars E:Group F:SendId G:SendOS H:Back Up

RECEIVE 1:Receive

Page 706

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 703

EDIT 1:Edit 2:SortA( 3:SortD( 4:ClrList 5:SetUpEditor

CALC 1:1-Var Stats 2:2-Var Stats 3:Med-Med 4:LinReg(ax+b) 5:QuadReg 6:CubicReg 7:QuartReg 8:LinReg(a+bx) 9:LnReg 0:ExpReg A:PwrReg B:Logistic C:SinReg

TESTS 1:Z-Test 2:T-Test 3:2-SampZTest 4:2-SampTTest 5:1-PropZTest 6:2-PropZTest 7:ZInterval 8:TInterval 9:2-SampZInt 0:2-SampTInt A:1-PropZInt B:2-PropZInt C:c2-Test D:2-SampTest E:LinRegTTest F:ANOVA(

Page 707

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 704

y 9

NAMES 1:listname 2:listname 3:listname ...

OPS 1:SortA( 2:SortD( 3:dim( 4:Fill( 5:seq( 6:c*msum( 7:@List( 8:Select( 9:augment( 0:List4matr( A:Matr4list( B:

MATH 1:min( 2:max( 3:mean( 4:median( 5:sum( 6:prod( 7:stdDev( 8:variance(

MATH 1:4Frac 2:4Dec 3:3

4:3( 5:x

6:fMin( 7:fMax( 8:nDeriv( 9:fnInt( 0:Solver

NUM 1:abs( 2:round( 3:iPart( 4:fPart( 5:int( 6:min( 7:max( 8:lcm( 9:gcd(

CPX 1:conj( 2:real( 3:imag( 4:angle( 5:abs( 6:4Rect 7:4Polar

PRB 1:rand 2:nPr 3:nCr 4:! 5:randInt( 6:randNorm( 7:randBin(

Page 708

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 705

y :

TEST 1:= 2: 3:> 4: 5:< 6:

LOGIC 1:and 2:or 3:xor 4:not(

y >

y ;

NAMES 1:[A] 2:[B] 3:[C] 4:[D] 5:[E] 6:[F] 7:[G] 8:[H] 9:[I] 0:[J]

MATH 1:det( 2:T 3:dim( 4:Fill( 5:identity( 6:randM( 7:augment( 8:Matr4list( 9:List4matr( 0:c*msum( A:ref( B:rref( C:rowSwap( D:row+( E:row( F:row+(

EDIT 1:[A] 2:[B] 3:[C] 4:[D] 5:[E] 6:[F] 7:[G] 8:[H] 9:[I] 0:[J]

ANGLE 1: 2:' 3:r 4:4DMS 5:R4Pr( 6:R4Pq( 7:P4Rx( 8:P4Ry(

Page 709

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 706

EXEC 1:name 2:name ...

EDIT 1:name 2:name ...

NEW 1:Create New

(PRGM editor) CTL 1:If 2:Then 3:Else 4:For( 5:While 6:Repeat 7:End 8:Pause 9:Lbl 0:Goto A:IS>( B:DS<( C:Menu( D:prgm E:Return F:Stop G:DelVar H:GraphStyle(

(PRGM editor) I/O 1:Input 2:Prompt 3:Disp 4:DispGraph 5:DispTable 6:Output( 7:getKey 8:ClrHome 9:ClrTable 0:GetCalc( A:Get( B:Send(

(PRGM editor) EXEC 1:name 2:name ...

Page 710

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 707

y <

DRAW 1:ClrDraw 2:Line( 3:Horizontal 4:Vertical 5:Tangent( 6:DrawF 7:Shade( 8:DrawInv 9:Circle( 0:Text( A:Pen

POINTS 1:Pt-On( 2:Pt-Off( 3:Pt-Change( 4:Pxl-On( 5:Pxl-Off( 6:Pxl-Change( 7:pxl-Test(

STO 1:StorePic 2:RecallPic 3:StoreGDB 4:RecallGDB

VARS 1:Window 2:Zoom 3:GDB 4:Picture 5:Statistics 6:Table 7:String

Y-VARS 1:Function 2:Parametric 3:Polar 4:On/Off

Page 711

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 708

VARS

(Window) X/Y 1:Xmin 2:Xmax 3:Xscl 4:Ymin 5:Ymax 6:Yscl 7:Xres 8:@X 9:@Y 0:XFact A:YFact

(Window) T/q 1:Tmin 2:Tmax 3:Tstep 4:qmin 5:qmax 6:qstep

(Window) U/V/W 1:u(nMin) 2:v(nMin) 3:w(nMin) 4:nMin 5:nMax 6:PlotStart 7:PlotStep

VARS

(Zoom) ZX/ZY 1:ZXmin 2:ZXmax 3:ZXscl 4:ZYmin 5:ZYmax 6:ZYscl 7:ZXres

(Zoom) ZT/Zq 1:ZTmin 2:ZTmax 3:ZTstep 4:Zqmin 5:Zqmax 6:Zqstep

(Zoom) ZU 1:Zu(nMin) 2:Zv(nMin) 3:Zw(nMin) 4:ZnMin 5:ZnMax 6:ZPlotStart 7:ZPlotStep

Page 712

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 709

VARS

(GDB) GRAPH DATABASE 1:GDB1 2:GDB2 ... 9:GDB9 0:GDB0

(Picture ) PICTURE 1:Pic1 2:Pic2 ... 9:Pic9 0:Pic0

Page 713

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 710

VARS

(Statistics) XY 1:n 2:v 3:Sx 4:sx 5:w 6:Sy 7:sy 8:minX 9:maxX 0:minY A:maxY

(Statistics) G 1:Gx 2:Gx2 3:Gy 4:Gy2 5:Gxy

(Statistics) EQ 1:RegEQ 2:a 3:b 4:c 5:d 6:e 7:r 8:r2

9:R2

(Statistics) TEST 1:p 2:z 3:t 4:c2

5: 6:df 7: 8:1 9:2 0:s A:1 B:2 C:Sx1 D:Sx2 E:Sxp F:n1 G:n2 H:lower I:upper

(Statistics) PTS 1:x1 2:y1 3:x2 4:y2 5:x3 6:y3 7:Q1 8:Med 9:Q3

Page 714

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 711

VARS (Table) TABLE 1:TblStart 2:@Tbl 3:TblInput

(String) STRING 1:Str1 2:Str2 3:Str3 4:Str4 ... 9:Str9 0:Str0

Y-VARS

(Function) FUNCTION 1:Y1 2:Y2 3:Y3 4:Y4 ... 9:Y9 0:Y0

(Parametric) PARAMETRIC 1:X1T 2:Y1T 3:X2T 4:Y2T ... A:X6T B:Y6T

(Polar) POLAR 1:r1 2:r2 3:r3 4:r4 5:r5 6:r6

(On/Off) ON/OFF 1:FnOn 2:FnOff

Page 715

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 712

y =

DISTR 1:normalpdf( 2:normalcdf( 3:invNorm( 4:tpdf( 5:tcdf( 6:c2pdf( 7:c2cdf( 8:pdf( 9:cdf( 0:binompdf( A:binomcdf( B:poissonpdf( C:poissoncdf( D:geometpdf( E:geometcdf(

DRAW 1:ShadeNorm( 2:Shade_t( 3:Shadec2( 4:Shade(

Page 716

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 713

1:Finance 2:CBL/CBR

Finance

CBL/CBR

CALC 1:TVM Solver 2:tvm_Pmt 3:tvm_ 4:tvm_PV 5:tvm_ 6:tvm_FV 7:npv( 8:irr( 9:bal( 0:GPrn( A:GInt( B:4Nom( C:4Eff( D:dbd( E:Pmt_End F:Pmt_Bgn

VARS 1: 2: 3:PV 4:PMT 5:FV 6:P/Y 7:C/Y

1:GAUGE 2:DATA LOGGER 3:CBR 4:QUIT

Page 717

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 714

y L

MEMORY

MEMORY 1:About 2:Mem Mgmt/Del 3:Clear Entries 4:ClrAllLists 5:Archive 6:UnArchive 7:Reset 8:Group

(Mem Mgmt/Del) RAM FREE 25631 ARC FREE 131069 1:All 2:Real 3:Complex 4:List 5:Matrix 6:Y-Vars 7:Prgm 8:Pic 9:GDB 0:String A:Apps B:AppVars C:Group

Page 718

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 715

MEMORY (Reset)

RAM 1:All RAM 2:Defaults

ARCHIVE 1:Vars 2:Apps B:Both

ALL 1:All Memory

Resetting RAM erases all data and programs from RAM.

Resetting Both erases all data, programs and Apps from Archive.

Resetting ALL erases all data, programs and Apps from RAM and Archive.

RAM

RESET RAM 1:No 2:Reset

RESET DEFAULTS 1:No 2:Reset

Resetting RAM erases all data and programs from RAM.

Page 719

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 716

ARCHIVE

RESET ARC VARS 1:No 2:Reset

RESET ARC APPS 1:No 2:Reset

RESET ARC BOTH 1:No 2:Reset

Resetting Vars erases all data and programs from Archive.

Resetting Apps erases all Apps from Archive.

Resetting Both erases all data, programs and Apps from Archive.

ALL

RESET MEMORY 1:No 2:Reset Resetting ALL will delete all data, programs & Apps from RAM & Archive.

MEMORY (GROUP...)

GROUP UNGROUP 1:Create New

Page 720

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 717

MEMORY

(UNGROUP...)

1:name 2:name ...

y N

CATALOG cosh( coshL1( ... Equ4String( expr( ... inString( ... length( ... sinh( sinhL1( ... String4Equ( sub( ... tanh( tanhL1(

Page 721

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 718

Variables

User Variables

The TI-83 Plus uses the variables listed below in various ways. Some variables are restricted to specific data types.

The variables A through Z and q are defined as real or complex numbers. You may store to them. The TI-83 Plus can update X, Y, R, q, and T during graphing, so you may want to avoid using these variables to store nongraphing data.

The variables (list names) L1 through L6 are restricted to lists; you cannot store another type of data to them.

The variables (matrix names) [A] through [J] are restricted to matrices; you cannot store another type of data to them.

The variables Pic1 through Pic9 and Pic0 are restricted to pictures; you cannot store another type of data to them.

The variables GDB1 through GDB9 and GDB0 are restricted to graph databases; you cannot store another type of data to them.

The variables Str1 through Str9 and Str0 are restricted to strings; you cannot store another type of data to them.

Page 722

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 719

Except for system variables, you can store any string of characters, functions, instructions, or variables to the functions Yn, (1 through 9, and 0), XnT/YnT (1 through 6), rn (1 through 6), u(n), v(n), and w(n) directly or through the Y= editor. The validity of the string is determined when the function is evaluated.

Archive Variables

You can store data, programs or any variable from RAM to user data archive memory where they cannot be edited or deleted inadvertantly. Archiving also allows you to free up RAM for variables that may require additional memory. The names of archived variables are preceded by an asterisk * indicating they are in user data archive.

System Variables

The variables below must be real numbers. You may store to them. Since the TI-83 Plus can update some of them, as the result of a ZOOM, for example, you may want to avoid using these variables to store nongraphing data.

Xmin, Xmax, Xscl, @X, XFact, Tstep, PlotStart, nMin, and other window variables.

ZXmin, ZXmax, ZXscl, ZTstep, ZPlotStart, Zu(nMin), and other ZOOM variables.

Page 723

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 720

The variables below are reserved for use by the TI-83 Plus. You cannot store to them.

n, v, Sx, sx, minX, maxX, Gy, Gy2, Gxy, a, b, c, RegEQ, x1, x2, y1, z, t, F, c2, , v1, Sx1, n1, lower, upper, r2, R2 and other statistical variables.

Page 724

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 721

Statistics Formulas

This section contains statistics formulas for the Logistic and SinReg regressions, ANOVA, 2.SampTest, and 2.SampTTest.

Logistic

The logistic regression algorithm applies nonlinear recursive least- squares techniques to optimize the following cost function:

2

1 1 =

+ =

N

i i

ibx y

ae

c J

which is the sum of the squares of the residual errors,

where: x = the independent variable list y = the dependent variable list N = the dimension of the lists

This technique attempts to estimate the constants a, b, and c recursively to make J as small as possible.

Page 725

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 722

SinReg

The sine regression algorithm applies nonlinear recursive least-squares techniques to optimize the following cost function:

( )[ ]2

1

sin =

++= N

i ii ydcbxaJ

which is the sum of the squares of the residual errors,

where: x = the independent variable list y = the dependent variable list N = the dimension of the lists

This technique attempts to recursively estimate the constants a, b, c, and d to make J as small as possible.

ANOVA(

The ANOVA statistic is:

MSError

MSFactor=

Page 726

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 723

The mean squares (MS) that make up are:

dfFactor

SSFactor MSFactor =

dfError

SSError MSError =

The sum of squares (SS) that make up the mean squares are:

=

= I

i ii xxnSSFactor

1

2)(

=

= I

i ii xSnSSError

1

2)1(

The degrees of freedom df that make up the mean squares are:

fornumerator1 dfIdfFactor ==

forrdenominato)1( 1

dfndfError I

i i ==

=

Page 727

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 724

where: I = number of populations xi = the mean of each list

Sxi = the standard deviation of each list ni = the length of each list x = the mean of all lists

2.SampTest

Below is the definition for the 2.SampTest.

Sx1, Sx2 = Sample standard deviations having n1-1 and n2-1 degrees of freedom df, respectively.

= -statistic = 2

2

1

Sx

Sx

df(x, n1-1, n2-1) = pdf( ) with degrees of freedom df, n1-1, and n2-1

p = reported p value

Page 728

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 725

2.SampTest for the alternative hypothesis s1 > s2.

= F

dxnnxfp )1,1,( 21

2.SampTest for the alternative hypothesis s1 < s2.

= F

dxnnxfp 0

21 )1,1,(

2.SampTest for the alternative hypothesis s1 s2. Limits must satisfy

the following:

== bnd

bnd

U

L

dxnnxfdxnnxf p

)1,1,()1,1,( 2

21 0

21

where: [Lbnd,Ubnd] = lower and upper limits

The -statistic is used as the bound producing the smallest integral. The remaining bound is selected to achieve the preceding integrals equality relationship.

Page 729

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 726

2.SampTTest

The following is the definition for the 2.SampTTest. The two-sample t statistic with degrees of freedom df is:

S

xx t 21 =

where the computation of S and df are dependent on whether the variances are pooled. If the variances are not pooled:

2

22

1

21

n

Sx

n

Sx S +=

2

2

22

2

2

1

21

1

2

2

22

1

21

1

1

1

1

+

+

=

n

Sx

nn

Sx

n

n

Sx

n

Sx

df

Page 730

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 727

otherwise:

df

SxnSxn Sxp

222211 )1()1( +=

pSx nn

S 21

11 +=

221 += nndf

and Sxp is the pooled variance.

Page 731

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 728

Financial Formulas

This section contains financial formulas for computing time value of money, amortization, cash flow, interest-rate conversions, and days between dates.

Time Value of Money

[ ] 1))1(ln( = + xyei

where: PMT 0 y = C/Y P/Y x = (.01 I%) C/Y

C/Y = compounding periods per year P/Y = payment periods per year I% = interest rate per year

1)( )1( = NPVFVi

where: PMT = 0

The iteration used to compute i:

N N

i iFV i

i GPMTPV

++

++= )1(

)1(1 0

Page 732

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 729

[ ]1/ 100% ))1ln(( = + xyeYCI

where: x = i y = P/Y C/Y

kiGi += 1

where: k = 0 for end-of-period payments k = 1 for beginning-of-period payments

)1(ln

ln

i

iPVGPMT

iFVGPMT

N i

i

+

= +

where: i 0

PMTFVPVN += )(

where: i = 0

+

++=

1)1( Ni i

FVPV PV

G

i PMT

Page 733

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 730

where: i 0

NFVPVPMT += )(

where: i = 0

i

GPMT

i FV

i

GPMT PV i

N i

+

=

)1(

1

where: i 0

)( NPMTFVPV +=

where: i = 0

++=

i

GPMT PVi

i

GPMT FV iNi )1(

where: i 0

)( NPMTPVFV +=

where: i = 0

Page 734

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 731

Amortization

If computing bal(), pmt2 = npmt

Let bal(0) = RND(PV)

Iterate from m = 1 to pmt2

+= =

)(I)1()(

))]1((12[I

m

m

PMTRNDmbalmbal

mbaliRNDRND

then:

)2()( pmtbalbal =

)1()2()(Pr pmtbalpmtbaln =

)(Pr)()112()( nPMTRNDpmtpmtInt +=

Page 735

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 732

where: RND = round the display to the number of decimal places

selected

RND12 = round to 12 decimal places

Balance, principal, and interest are dependent on the values of PMT, PV, , and pmt1 and pmt2.

Cash Flow

=

+++=

N

j

n S

j i

i iCFCFnpv

j j

1 0

))1(1( )1()( 1

where:

=

= =

00

1 1

j

jn S

j

i i

j

Net present value is dependent on the values of the initial cash flow (CF0), subsequent cash flows (CFj), frequency of each cash flow (nj), and the specified interest rate (i).

irr() = 100 i, where i satisfies npv() = 0

Page 736

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 733

Internal rate of return is dependent on the values of the initial cash flow (CF0) and subsequent cash flows (CFj).

i = I% 100

Interest Rate Conversions

4Eff = )1(100 )1(ln + xCPe

where: x = .01 Nom CP

4Nom = [ ]1100 )1(ln1 + xCPeCP

where: x = .01 Eff Eff = effective rate CP = compounding periods

Nom = nominal rate

Days between Dates

With the dbd( function, you can enter or compute a date within the range Jan. 1, 1950, through Dec. 31, 2049.

Page 737

TI-83 Plus Tables and Reference Information 734

Actual/actual day-count method (assumes actual number of days per month and actual number of days per year):

dbd( (days between dates) = Number of Days II - Number of Days I

Number of Days I = (Y1-YB) 365 + (number of days MB to M1) + DT1

+ 4

)1( YBY

Number of Days II = (Y2-YB) 365 + (number of days MB to M2) + DT2

+ 4

)2( YBY

where: M1 = month of first date DT1 = day of first date

Y1 = year of first date M2 = month of second date

DT2 = day of second date Y2 = year of second date

MB = base month (January) DB = base day (1) YB = base year (first year after leap year)

Page 738

TI-83 Plus General Information 735

Appendix B: General Information

Battery Information

When to Replace the Batteries

The TI-83 Plus uses five batteries: four AAA alkaline batteries and one lithium battery. The lithium battery provides auxiliary power to retain memory while you replace the AAA batteries.

When the battery voltage level drops below a usable level, the TI-83 Plus:

Displays this message when you turn on the unit.

Displays this message when you attempt to download an application.

Message A Message B

Page 739

TI-83 Plus General Information 736

After Message A is first displayed, you can expect the batteries to function for about one or two weeks, depending on usage. (This one- week to two-week period is based on tests with alkaline batteries; the performance of other kinds of batteries may vary.)

The low-battery message continues to be displayed each time you turn on the unit until you replace the batteries. If you do not replace the batteries within about two weeks, the calculator may turn off by itself or fail to turn on until you install new batteries.

If Message B is displayed, you must to replace the batteries immediately to successfully download an application.

Replace the lithium battery every three or four years.

Effects of Replacing the Batteries

Do not remove both types of batteries (AAA and lithium auxiliary) at the same time. Do not allow the batteries to lose power completely. If you follow these guidelines and the steps for replacing batteries, you can replace either type of battery without losing any information in memory.

Page 740

TI-83 Plus General Information 737

Battery Precautions

Take these precautions when replacing batteries.

Do not leave batteries within reach of children

Do not mix new and used batteries. Do not mix brands (or types within brands) of batteries.

Do not mix rechargeable and nonrechargeable batteries.

Install batteries according to polarity (+ and N) diagrams.

Do not place nonrechargeable batteries in a battery recharger.

Properly dispose of used batteries immediately. Do not leave them within the reach of children.

Do not incinerate or dismantle batteries.

Replacing the Batteries

To replace the batteries, follow these steps.

1. Turn off the calculator. Replace the slide cover over the keyboard to avoid inadvertently turning on the calculator. Turn the back of the calculator toward you.

2. Hold the calculator upright, push downward on the latch on the top of the battery cover with your finger, and then pull the cover toward you.

Page 741

TI-83 Plus General Information 738

Note: To avoid loss of information stored in memory, you must turn off the calculator. Do not remove the AAA batteries and the lithium battery simultaneously.

3. Replace all four AAA alkaline batteries simultaneously. Or, replace the lithium battery.

To replace the AAA alkaline batteries, remove all four discharged AAA batteries and install new ones according to the polarity (+ and N) diagram in the battery compartment.

To replace the lithium battery, remove the screw from the lithium- battery cover, and then remove the cover. Install the new battery, + side up. Replace the cover and secure it with the screw. Use a CR1616 or CR1620 (or equivalent) lithium battery.

4. Replace the battery compartment cover. Turn the calculator on and adjust the display contrast, if necessary.

Page 742

TI-83 Plus General Information 739

In Case of Difficulty

Handling a Difficulty

To handle a difficulty, follow these steps.

1. If you cannot see anything on the screen, the contrast may need to be adjusted.

To darken the screen, press and release y, and then press and hold } until the display is sufficiently dark.

To lighten the screen, press and release y, and then press and hold until the display is sufficiently light.

2. If an error menu is displayed, follow the steps in Chapter 1. Refer to the Error Conditions table for details about specific errors, if necessary.

3. If the busy indicator (dotted line) is displayed, a graph or program has been paused; the TI-83 Plus is waiting for input. Press to continue or press to break.

4. If a checkerboard cursor ( # ) is displayed, then either you have entered the maximum number of characters in a prompt, or memory is full. If memory is full:

Page 743

TI-83 Plus General Information 740

Press y L 2 to display the MEMORY MANAGEMENT DELETE menu.

Select the type of data you want to delete, or select 1:All for a list of all variables of all types. A screen is displayed listing each variable of the type you selected and the number of bytes each variable is using.

Press } and to move the selection cursor (4) next to the item you want to delete, and then press {. (Chapter 18).

5. If the calculator does not seem to work at all, be sure the batteries are fresh and that they are installed properly. Refer to battery information on pages 736 and 737.

6. If the calculator still doesnt work even though you are sure the batteries are sufficiently charged, you can try the two solutions in the order they are presented.

Download calculator system software as follows:

a. Remove one battery from the calculator and then press and hold the { key while re-installing the battery. This will force the calculator to accept a download of system software.

b. Connect your calculator to a personal computer with the TI.GRAPH LINK accessory to download current or new software code to your calculator.

Page 744

TI-83 Plus General Information 741

II. If the above solution does not work, reset all memory as follows:

a. Remove one battery from the calculator and then press and hold down the key while re-installing the battery. While continuing to hold down the key, press and hold down the key. When the home screen is displayed, release the keys.

b. Press y L to display the MEMORY menu.

c. Select 7:Reset to display the RAM ARCHIVE ALL menu.

d. Press ~ ~ to display the ALL menu.

e. Select 1:All Memory to display the RESET MEMORY menu.

f. To continue with the reset, select 2:Reset. The message MEM cleared is displayed on the home screen.

Page 745

TI-83 Plus General Information 742

Error Conditions

When the TI-83 Plus detects an error, it displays ERR:message and an error menu. Chapter 1 describes the general steps for correcting errors. This table contains each error type, possible causes, and suggestions for correction.

Error Type Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

ARCHIVED You have attempted to use, edit, or delete an archived variable. For example, dim(L1) is an error if L1 is archived.

ARCHIVE FULL You have attempted to archive a variable and there is not enough space in archive to receive it.

ARGUMENT A function or instruction does not have the correct number of arguments. See Appendix A and the appropriate chapter.

BAD ADDRESS You have attempted to send or receive an application and an error (e.g. electrical interference) has occurred in the transmission.

Page 746

TI-83 Plus General Information 743

Error Type Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

BAD GUESS In a CALC operation, you specified a Guess that is not between Left Bound and Right Bound.

For the solve( function or the equation solver, you specified a guess that is not between lower and upper.

Your guess and several points around it are undefined.

Examine a graph of the function. If the equation has a solution, change the bounds and/or the initial guess.

BOUND In a CALC operation or with Select(, you defined Left Bound > Right Bound.

In fMin(, fMax(, solve(, or the equation solver, you entered lower upper.

BREAK You pressed the key to break execution of a program, to halt a DRAW instruction, or to stop evaluation of an expression.

Page 747

TI-83 Plus General Information 744

Error Type Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

DATA TYPE You entered a value or variable that is the wrong data type. For a function (including implied multiplication) or an

instruction, you entered an argument that is an invalid data type, such as a complex number where a real number is required. See Appendix A and the appropriate chapter.

In an editor, you entered a type that is not allowed, such as a matrix entered as an element in the stat list editor. See the appropriate chapter.

You attempted to store an incorrect data type, such as a matrix, to a list.

DIM MISMATCH You attempted to perform an operation that references more than one list or matrix, but the dimensions do not match.

DIVIDE BY 0 You attempted to divide by zero. This error is not returned during graphing. The TI-83 Plus allows for undefined values on a graph.

You attempted a linear regression with a vertical line.

Page 748

TI-83 Plus General Information 745

Error Type Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

DOMAIN You specified an argument to a function or instruction outside the valid range. This error is not returned during graphing. The TI-83 Plus allows for undefined values on a graph. See Appendix A and the appropriate chapter.

You attempted a logarithmic or power regression with a LX or an exponential or power regression with a LY.

You attempted to compute GPrn( or GInt( with pmt2 < pmt1.

DUPLICATE You attempted to create a duplicate group name.

Duplicate Name A variable you attempted to transmit cannot be transmitted because a variable with that name already exists in the receiving unit.

EXPIRED You have attempted to run an application with a limited trial period which has expired.

Page 749

TI-83 Plus General Information 746

Error Type Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

Error in Xmit The TI-83 Plus was unable to transmit an item. Check to see that the cable is firmly connected to both units and that the receiving unit is in receive mode.

You pressed to break during transmission.

You attempted to perform a backup from a TI.82 to a TI-83 Plus.

You attempted to transfer data (other than L1 through L6) from a TI-83 Plus to a TI.82.

You attempted to transfer L1 through L6 from a TI-83 Plus to a TI.82 without using 5:Lists to TI82 on the LINK SEND menu.

ID NOT FOUND This error occurs when the SendID command is executed but the proper calculator ID cannot be found.

ILLEGAL NEST You attempted to use an invalid function in an argument to a function, such as seq( within expression for seq(.

INCREMENT The increment in seq( is 0 or has the wrong sign. This error is not returned during graphing. The TI-83 Plus allows for undefined values on a graph.

The increment in a For( loop is 0.

Page 750

TI-83 Plus General Information 747

Error Type Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

INVALID You attempted to reference a variable or use a function where it is not valid. For example, Yn cannot reference Y, Xmin, @X, or TblStart.

You attempted to reference a variable or function that was transferred from the TI.82 and is not valid for the TI-83 Plus. For example, you may have transferred UnN1 to the TI-83 Plus from the TI.82 and then tried to reference it.

In Seq mode, you attempted to graph a phase plot without defining both equations of the phase plot.

In Seq mode, you attempted to graph a recursive sequence without having input the correct number of initial conditions.

In Seq mode, you attempted to reference terms other than (nN1) or (nN2).

You attempted to designate a graph style that is invalid within the current graph mode.

You attempted to use Select( without having selected (turned on) at least one xyLine or scatter plot.

Page 751

TI-83 Plus General Information 748

Error Type Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

INVALID DIM You specified dimensions for an argument that are not appropriate for the operation.

You specified a list dimension as something other than an integer between 1 and 999.

You specified a matrix dimension as something other than an integer between 1 and 99.

You attempted to invert a matrix that is not square.

ITERATIONS The solve( function or the equation solver has exceeded the maximum number of permitted iterations. Examine a graph of the function. If the equation has a solution, change the bounds, or the initial guess, or both.

irr( has exceeded the maximum number of permitted iterations.

When computing , the maximum number of iterations was exceeded.

LABEL The label in the Goto instruction is not defined with a Lbl instruction in the program.

Page 752

TI-83 Plus General Information 749

Error Type Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

MEMORY Memory is insufficient to perform the instruction or function. You must delete items from memory (Chapter 18) before executing the instruction or function.

Recursive problems return this error; for example, graphing the equation Y1=Y1.

Branching out of an If/Then, For(, While, or Repeat loop with a Goto also can return this error because the End statement that terminates the loop is never reached.

MemoryFull You are unable to transmit an item because the receiving units available memory is insufficient. You may skip the item or exit receive mode.

During a memory backup, the receiving units available memory is insufficient to receive all items in the sending units memory. A message indicates the number of bytes the sending unit must delete to do the memory backup. Delete items and try again.

MODE You attempted to store to a window variable in another graphing mode or to perform an instruction while in the wrong mode; for example, DrawInv in a graphing mode other than Func.

Page 753

TI-83 Plus General Information 750

Error Type Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

NO SIGN CHNG The solve( function or the equation solver did not detect a sign change.

You attempted to compute when FV, (PMT), and PV are all 0, or when FV, (PMT), and PV are all 0.

You attempted to compute irr( when neither CFList nor CFO is > 0, or when neither CFList nor CFO is < 0.

NONREAL ANS In Real mode, the result of a calculation yielded a complex result. This error is not returned during graphing. The TI-83 Plus allows for undefined values on a graph.

OVERFLOW You attempted to enter, or you have calculated, a number that is beyond the range of the calculator. This error is not returned during graphing. The TI-83 Plus allows for undefined values on a graph.

RESERVED You attempted to use a system variable inappropriately. See Appendix A.

SINGULAR MAT A singular matrix (determinant = 0) is not valid as the argument for L1.

The SinReg instruction or a polynomial regression generated a singular matrix (determinant = 0) because it could not find a solution, or a solution does not exist.

This error is not returned during graphing. The TI-83 Plus allows for undefined values on a graph.

Page 754

TI-83 Plus General Information 751

Error Type Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

SINGULARITY expression in the solve( function or the equation solver contains a singularity (a point at which the function is not defined). Examine a graph of the function. If the equation has a solution, change the bounds or the initial guess or both.

STAT You attempted a stat calculation with lists that are not appropriate.

Statistical analyses must have at least two data points.

Med.Med must have at least three points in each partition.

When you use a frequency list, its elements must be 0.

(Xmax N Xmin) Xscl must be 47 for a histogram.

STAT PLOT You attempted to display a graph when a stat plot that uses an undefined list is turned on.

SYNTAX The command contains a syntax error. Look for misplaced functions, arguments, parentheses, or commas. See Appendix A and the appropriate chapter.

TOL NOT MET You requested a tolerance to which the algorithm cannot return an accurate result.

Page 755

TI-83 Plus General Information 752

Error Type Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

UNDEFINED You referenced a variable that is not currently defined. For example, you referenced a stat variable when there is no current calculation because a list has been edited, or you referenced a variable when the variable is not valid for the current calculation, such as a after Med.Med.

VALIDATION Electrical interference caused a link to fail or this calculator is not authorized to run the application.

VARIABLE You have tried to archive a variable that cannot be archived or you have have.tried to unarchive an application or group.

Examples of variables that cannot be archived include:

Real numbers LRESID, R, T, X, Y, Theta, Statistic variables under Vars, STATISTICS menu, Yvars, and the AppIdList.

VERSION You have attempted to receive an incompatible variable version from another calculator.

Page 756

TI-83 Plus General Information 753

Error Type Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

WINDOW RANGE A problem exists with the window variables.

You defined Xmax Xmin or Ymax Ymin.

You defined qmax qmin and qstep > 0 (or vice versa).

You attempted to define Tstep=0.

You defined Tmax Tmin and Tstep > 0 (or vice versa).

Window variables are too small or too large to graph correctly. You may have attempted to zoom in or zoom out to a point that exceeds the TI-83 Pluss numerical range.

ZOOM A point or a line, instead of a box, is defined in ZBox.

A ZOOM operation returned a math error.

Page 757

TI-83 Plus General Information 754

Accuracy Information

Computational Accuracy

To maximize accuracy, the TI-83 Plus carries more digits internally than it displays. Values are stored in memory using up to 14 digits with a two- digit exponent.

You can store a value in the window variables using up to 10 digits (12 for Xscl, Yscl, Tstep, and qstep).

Displayed values are rounded as specified by the mode setting with a maximum of 10 digits and a two-digit exponent.

RegEQ displays up to 14 digits in Float mode. Using a fixed-decimal setting other than Float causes RegEQ results to be rounded and stored with the specified number of decimal places.

Xmin is the center of the leftmost pixel, Xmax is the center of the next-to- the-rightmost pixel. (The rightmost pixel is reserved for the busy indicator.) @X is the distance between the centers of two adjacent pixels.

In Full screen mode, @X is calculated as (Xmax N Xmin) 94. In G.T split-screen mode, @X is calculated as (Xmax N Xmin) 46.

If you enter a value for @X from the home screen or a program in Full screen mode, Xmax is calculated as Xmin + @X 94. In G.T split- screen mode, Xmax is calculated as Xmin + @X 46.

Page 758

TI-83 Plus General Information 755

Ymin is the center of the next-to-the-bottom pixel; Ymax is the center of the top pixel. @Y is the distance between the centers of two adjacent pixels.

In Full screen mode, @Y is calculated as (Ymax N Ymin) 62. In Horiz split-screen mode, @Y is calculated as (Ymax N Ymin) 30. In G.T split-screen mode, @Y is calculated as (Ymax N Ymin) 50.

If you enter a value for @Y from the home screen or a program in Full screen mode, Ymax is calculated as Ymin + @Y 62. In Horiz split- screen mode, Ymax is calculated as Ymin + @Y 30. In G.T split- screen mode, Ymax is calculated as Ymin + @Y 50.

Cursor coordinates are displayed as eight-character numbers (which may include a negative sign, decimal point, and exponent) when Float mode is selected. X and Y are updated with a maximum accuracy of eight digits.

minimum and maximum on the CALCULATE menu are calculated with a tolerance of 1EL5; f(x)dx is calculated at 1EL3. Therefore, the result displayed may not be accurate to all eight displayed digits. For most functions, at least five accurate digits exist. For fMin(, fMax(, and fnInt( on the MATH menu and solve( in the CATALOG, the tolerance can be specified.

Page 759

TI-83 Plus General Information 756

Function Limits

Function Range of Input Values

sin x, cos x, tan x 0 |x| < 1012 (radian or degree)

sinL1 x, cosL1 x L1 x 1

ln x, log x 10L100 < x < 10100

ex L10100 < x 230.25850929940

10x L10100 < x < 100

sinh x, cosh x |x| 230.25850929940

tanh x |x| < 10100

sinhL1 x |x| < 5 1099

coshL1 x 1 x < 5 1099

tanhL1 x L1 < x < 1

x (real mode) 0 x < 10100

x (complex mode) |x| < 10100

x! L.5 x 69, where x is a multiple of .5

Page 760

TI-83 Plus General Information 757

Function Results

Function Range of Result

sinL1 x, tanL1 x L90 to 90 or Lp2 to p2 (radians)

cosL1 x 0 to 180 or 0 to p (radians)

Page 761

TI-83 Plus General Information 758

Texas Instruments (TI) Support and Service

For General Information

Home Page: education.ti.com

KnowledgeBase and E-mail Inquiries: education.ti.com/support

Phone: (800) TI-CARES; (800) 842-2737 For U.S., Canada, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands only

International Information: education.ti.com/support (Click the International Information link.)

For Technical Support

KnowledgeBase and Support by E-mail: education.ti.com/support

Phone (not toll-free): (972) 917-8324

Page 762

TI-83 Plus General Information 759

For Product (hardware) Service

Customers in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands: Always contact TI Customer Support before returning a product for service.

All other customers: Refer to the leaflet enclosed with this product (hardware) or contact your local TI retailer/distributor.

Page 763

TI-83 Plus General Information 760

Warranty Information

Customers in the U.S. and Canada Only

One-Year Limited Warranty for Commercial Electronic Product

This Texas Instruments (TI) electronic product warranty extends only to the original purchaser and user of the product.

Warranty Duration. This TI electronic product is warranted to the original purchaser for a period of one (1) year from the original purchase date.

Warranty Coverage. This TI electronic product is warranted against defective materials and construction. THIS WARRANTY IS VOID IF THE PRODUCT HAS BEEN DAMAGED BY ACCIDENT OR UNREASONABLE USE, NEGLECT, IMPROPER SERVICE, OR OTHER CAUSES NOT ARISING OUT OF DEFECTS IN MATERIALS OR CONSTRUCTION.

Warranty Disclaimers. ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES ARISING OUT OF THIS SALE, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE LIMITED IN DURATION TO THE ABOVE ONE-YEAR PERIOD. TEXAS INSTRUMENTS SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR LOSS OF USE OF THE PRODUCT OR OTHER INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL COSTS, EXPENSES, OR DAMAGES INCURRED BY THE CONSUMER OR ANY OTHER USER.

Some states/provinces do not allow the exclusion or limitation of implied warranties or consequential damages, so the above limitations or exclusions may not apply to you.

Page 764

TI-83 Plus General Information 761

Legal Remedies. This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights that vary from state to state or province to province.

Warranty Performance. During the above one (1) year warranty period, your defective product will be either repaired or replaced with a reconditioned model of an equivalent quality (at TIs option) when the product is returned, postage prepaid, to Texas Instruments Service Facility. The warranty of the repaired or replacement unit will continue for the warranty of the original unit or six (6) months, whichever is longer. Other than the postage requirement, no charge will be made for such repair and/or replacement. TI strongly recommends that you insure the product for value prior to mailing.

Software. Software is licensed, not sold. TI and its licensors do not warrant that the software will be free from errors or meet your specific requirements. All software is provided AS IS.

Copyright. The software and any documentation supplied with this product are protected by copyright.

Australia & New Zealand Customers only

One-Year Limited Warranty for Commercial Electronic Product

This Texas Instruments electronic product warranty extends only to the original purchaser and user of the product.

Warranty Duration. This Texas Instruments electronic product is warranted to the original purchaser for a period of one (1) year from the original purchase date.

Page 765

TI-83 Plus General Information 762

Warranty Coverage. This Texas Instruments electronic product is warranted against defective materials and construction. This warranty is void if the product has been damaged by accident or unreasonable use, neglect, improper service, or other causes not arising out of defects in materials or construction.

Warranty Disclaimers. Any implied warranties arising out of this sale, including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, are limited in duration to the above one- year period. Texas Instruments shall not be liable for loss of use of the product or other incidental or consequential costs, expenses, or damages incurred by the consumer or any other user.

Except as expressly provided in the One-Year Limited Warranty for this product, Texas Instruments does not promise that facilities for the repair of this product or parts for the repair of this product will be available.

Some jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion or limitation of implied warranties or consequential damages, so the above limitations or exclusions may not apply to you.

Legal Remedies. This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights that vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.

Warranty Performance. During the above one (1) year warranty period, your defective product will be either repaired or replaced with a new or reconditioned model of an equivalent quality (at TIs option) when the product is returned to the original point of purchase. The repaired or replacement unit will continue for the warranty of the original unit or six (6) months, whichever is longer. Other than your cost to return the product, no charge will be made for

Page 766

TI-83 Plus General Information 763

such repair and/or replacement. TI strongly recommends that you insure the product for value if you mail it.

Software. Software is licensed, not sold. TI and its licensors do not warrant that the software will be free from errors or meet your specific requirements. All software is provided AS IS.

Copyright. The software and any documentation supplied with this product are protected by copyright.

All Other Customers

For information about the length and terms of the warranty, refer to your package and/or to the warranty statement enclosed with this product, or contact your local Texas Instruments retailer/distributor.

Page 767

TI-83 Plus Index 764

Index ! (factorial), 94, 692 " " (string indicator), 484 " (seconds notation), 97, 697 (annual interest rate variable), 444,

462 (degrees notation), 692 (division), 63, 696 (exponent), 14, 20, 661 (graph style, animate), 117 (graph style, dot), 117 (graph style, line), 117 (greater than or equal to), 101, 694 (less than or equal to), 101, 694 (multiplication), 63, 695 M (negation), 49, 66, 695 (not equal to), 101, 694 (number of payment periods

variable), 444, 462 p (pi), 66 (plot type, box), 371 (plot type, histogram), 370 (plot type, modified box), 370 (plot type, normal probability), 372 N (subtraction), 63, 696 (user-created list name symbol), 309,

668 ! Store, 29, 686

( (square root) , 64, 695 , (pixel mark), 235, 373 L1 (inverse), 64, 271, 694 c2.Test (chi-square test), 412, 657 c2cdf( (chi-square cdf), 429, 657 c2pdf( (chi-square pdf), 428, 657 cdf(, 430, 662 4Dec (to decimal conversion), 67, 659 !dim( (assign dimension), 275, 301,

660 DIST, 471 4DMS (to degrees/minutes/seconds), 99,

661 DREF, 471 4Eff( (to effective interest rate), 459,

662 f(x)dx operation on a graph, 153 4Frac (to fraction), 67, 664 GInt( (sum of interest), 455, 668 LIGHT, 471 @List(, 303, 669 LREF, 471 4Nom( (to nominal interest rate), 459,

672 pdf(, 429, 664 4Polar (to polar), 91, 675 GPrn( (sum of principal), 455, 676

Page 768

TI-83 Plus Index 765

4Rect (to rectangular), 91, 679 row(, 282, 680 row+(, 282, 680 @Tbl (table step variable), 205 TEMP, 471 TREF, 471 VOLT, 471 VREF, 471 @X window variable, 124 @Y window variable, 124 ' (minutes notation), 97, 697 ( ) (parentheses), 48 + (addition), 63, 696 + (concatenation), 490, 696 + (pixel mark), 235, 373 : (colon), 504 < (less than), 101, 694 = (equal-to relational test), 101, 693 > (greater than), 101, 694 [ ] (matrix indicator), 265 ^ (power), 64, 695 { } (list indicator), 288 1.PropZInt (one-proportion z confidence

interval), 410, 676 1.PropZTest (one-proportion z test),

402, 676 1.Var Stats (one-variable statistics),

357, 689 10^( (power of ten), 65, 695 2 (square) , 64, 694

2.PropZInt (two-proportion z confidence interval), 411, 676

2.PropZTest (two-proportion z test), 403, 677

2.SampTest (two-sample -Test), 414, 681

2.SampTInt (two-sample t confidence interval), 408, 681

2.SampTTest (two-sample t test), 400, 682

2.SampZInt (two-sample z confidence interval), 407, 682

2.SampZTest (two-sample z test), 399, 682

2.Var Stats (two-variable statistics), 358, 689

3 (cube), 68, 693 3( (cube root), 68, 693

A

a+bi (rectangular complex mode), 24, 84, 656

about, 596 above graph style(), 117 abs( (absolute value), 79, 90, 271, 655 accuracy information

computational and graphing, 754 function limits and results, 756 graphing, 132

Page 769

TI-83 Plus Index 766

addition (+), 63, 696 alpha cursor, 12 alpha-lock, 18 alternative hypothesis, 391 amortization

GInt( (sum of interest), 455, 668 GPrn( (sum of principal), 455, 676 bal( (amortization balance), 454,

656 calculating schedules, 454 formula, 731

and (Boolean operator), 103, 655 ANGLE menu, 97 angle modes, 22 angle(, 90, 655 animate graph style (), 117 ANOVA( (one-way variance analysis),

417, 655 formula, 722

Ans (last answer), 36, 599, 655 APD (Automatic Power Down), 6 applications. See examples,

applications Apps, 27, 598 AppVars, 27, 598 arccosine (cosL1(), 63 Archive, 30, 610, 655

archive full error, 628, 742 garbage collection, 623 memory error, 623

archived variables, 719 arcsine (sinL1(), 63 arctangent (tanL1(), 63 Asm(, 537, 655 AsmComp(, 537, 655 AsmPrgm(, 537, 655 assembly language programs, 537 augment(, 277, 307, 656 Automatic Power Down (APD), 6 automatic regression equation, 353 automatic residual list (RESID), 352 axes format, sequence graphing, 187 axes, displaying (AxesOn, AxesOff),

127, 656 AxesOff, 127, 656 AxesOn, 127, 656

B

backing up calculator memory, 638, 650

bal( (amortization balance), 454, 656 bar, 468 batteries, 7, 735 below graph style (), 117 binomcdf(, 431, 656 binompdf(, 430, 656 block, 623 Boolean logic, 103 box pixel mark (), 235, 373

Page 770

TI-83 Plus Index 767

Boxplot plot type ( ), 371 busy indicator, 11

C

C/Y (compounding-periods-per-year variable), 444, 463

CALCULATE menu, 147 Calculate output option, 388, 392 cash flow

calculating, 452 formula, 732 irr( (internal rate of return), 453, 668 npv( (net present value), 453, 673

CATALOG, 481 CBL 2/CBL, 464 CBL/CBR

Quitting, 480 Running, 464 Selecting, 464

CBL/CBR APP menu, 467 CBR, 464, 533, 633, 665 check memory, 596 chi-square cdf (c2cdf(), 429, 657 chi-square pdf (c2pdf(), 428, 657 chi-square test (c2.Test), 412, 657 Circle( (draw circle), 228, 657 Clear Entries, 596, 657 clearing

all lists (ClrAllLists), 596, 657

drawing (ClrDraw), 217, 657 entries (Clear Entries), 596, 657 home screen (ClrHome), 532, 657 list (ClrList), 349, 658 table (ClrTable), 532, 658

ClrAllLists (clear all lists), 596, 657 ClrDraw (clear drawing), 217, 657 ClrHome (clear home screen), 532, 657 ClrList (clear list), 349, 658 ClrTable (clear table), 532, 658 coefficients of determination (r2, R2,

354 colon separator (:), 504 combinations (nCr), 93, 672 compiling an assembly program, 537,

655 complex

modes (a+bi, re^qi), 24, 84, 656, 679

numbers, 24, 84, 679 compounding-periods-per-year variable

(C/Y), 444, 463 concatenation (+), 490, 696 confidence intervals, 392 conj( (conjugate), 88, 658 Connected (plotting mode), 23, 658 connecting two calculators, 633 contrast (display), 8 convergence, sequence graphing, 195 conversions

Page 771

TI-83 Plus Index 768

4Dec (to decimal), 67, 659 4DMS (to degrees/minutes/ seconds),

99, 661 4Eff (to effective interest rate), 459 4Frac (to fraction conversion), 67,

664 4Nom (to nominal interest rate

conversion), 459, 672 4Polar (to polar conversion), 91, 675 4Rect (to rectangular conversion),

91, 679 Equ4String( (equation-to-string

conversion), 491, 662 List4matr( (list-to-matrix

conversion), 279, 308, 670 Matr4list( (matrix-to-list conversion),

278, 308, 670 P4Rx(, P4Ry( (polar-to-rectangular

conversion), 100, 678 R4Pr(, R4Pq( (rectangular-to-polar

conversion), 100, 681 String4Equ( (string-to-equation

conversion), 493, 686 CoordOff, 126, 658 CoordOn, 126, 658 correlation coefficient (r), 354 cosL1( (arccosine), 63, 658 cos( (cosine), 63, 658 coshM1( (hyperbolic arccosine), 496, 658 cosh( (hyperbolic cosine), 496, 658

cosine (cos(), 63, 658 cross pixel mark (+), 235, 373 cube (3), 68, 693 cube root (3(), 68, 693 cubic regression (CubicReg), 359, 658 CubicReg (cubic regression), 359, 658 c*msum( (cumulative sum), 279, 303,

659 cumulative sum (c*msum(), 279, 303,

659 cursors, 12, 18

D

data collection methods, 468 options, 468 results, 471 starting & stopping, 479

Data input option, 388, 390 data logger, 473 data points, 475 data results, 471 days between dates (dbd(), 460, 659,

733 dbd( (days between dates), 460, 659,

733 decimal mode (float or fixed), 21 decrement and skip (DS<(), 521, 661 definite integral, 70, 152, 165

Page 772

TI-83 Plus Index 769

defragmenting, 622 Degree angle mode, 22, 97, 659 degrees notation (), 98, 692 delete variable contents (DelVar), 523,

659 deleting items from memory, 599 DelVar (delete variable contents), 659 DependAsk, 206, 209, 659 DependAuto, 206, 209, 659 derivative. See numerical derivative det( (determinant), 275, 659 determinant (det(), 275, 659 DiagnosticOff, 354, 660 DiagnosticOn, 354, 660 diagnostics display mode(r r2, R2), 354 differentiation, 72, 152, 165, 175 dim( (dimension), 275, 301, 660 dimensioning a list or matrix, 275, 301,

660 directions, 471 DIRECTNS, 471 Disp (display), 528, 529, 660 DispGraph (display graph), 530, 660 display contrast, 8 display cursors, 12 DispTable (display table), 530, 661 DISTR (distributions menu), 424 DISTR DRAW (distributions drawing

menu), 434 distribution functions

c2cdf(, 429, 657 c2pdf(, 428, 657 cdf(, 430, 662 pdf(, 429, 664 binomcdf(, 431, 656 binompdf(, 430, 656 geometcdf(, 433, 665 geometpdf(, 433, 665 invNorm(, 426, 668 normalcdf(, 426, 672 normalpdf(, 425, 673 poissoncdf(, 432, 675 poissonpdf(, 432, 675 tcdf(, 427, 687 tpdf(, 427, 687

distribution shading instructions Shade(, 437, 684 Shadec2(, 436, 684 Shade_t(, 435, 684 ShadeNorm(, 435, 684

division (), 63, 696 DMS (degrees/minutes/seconds entry

notation), 97, 697 Dot (plotting mode), 23, 661 dot graph style (), 117 dot pixel mark (), 235, 373 dr/dq operation on a graph, 175 DRAW menu, 214 Draw output option, 388, 392 DRAW POINTS menu, 233

Page 773

TI-83 Plus Index 770

DRAW STO (draw store menu), 239 DrawF (draw a function), 224, 661 drawing on a graph

circles (Circle(), 228 line segments (Line(), 218 lines (Horizontal, Line(, Vertical),

221 pixels (Pxl.Change, Pxl.Off, Pxl.On,

pxl.Test), 237 points (Pt.Change, Pt.Off, Pt.On),

233 tangents (Tangent), 222 text (Text), 230 using Pen, 232

DrawInv (draw inverse), 224, 661 DS<( (decrement and skip), 521, 661 DuplicateName menu, 644 dx/dt operation on a graph, 152, 165 dy/dx operation on a graph, 152, 165,

175

E

e (constant), 65 e^( (exponential), 65, 661 edit keys table, 17 Else, 514 End, 476, 515, 662 Eng (engineering notation mode), 20,

662

ENTRY (last entry key), 33 entry cursor, 12 EOS (Equation Operating System), 47 eqn (equation variable), 72 Equ4String( (equation-to-string

conversion), 491, 662 equal-to relational test (=), 101, 693 Equation Operating System (EOS), 47 Equation Solver, 72 equations with multiple roots, 77 errors

diagnosing and correcting, 59 messages, 742

examplesapplications area between curves, 578 areas of regular n-sided polygons,

588 box plots, 560 box with lid, 546

defining a, 546 defining a table of values, 547 finding calculated maximum, 557 setting the viewing window, 551 tracing the graph, 553 zooming in on the graph, 555 zooming in on the table, 549

cobweb attractors, 572 fundamental theorem of calculus,

584 guess the coefficients, 574

Page 774

TI-83 Plus Index 771

inequalities, 566 mortgage payments, 592 parametric equations, ferris wheel

problem, 580 piecewise functions, 564 quadratic formula

converting to a fraction, 542 displaying complex results, 544 entering a calculation, 540

Sierpinski triangle, 570 solving a system of nonlinear

equations, 568 unit circle and trig curves, 576

examplesGetting Started coin flip, 61 compound interest, 442 drawing a tangent line, 212 financing a car, 440 forest and trees, 176 generating a sequence, 283 graphing a circle, 105 mean height of a population, 381 path of a ball, 154 pendulum lengths and periods, 315 polar rose, 166 roots of a function, 203 sending variables, 629 solving a system of linear equations,

256 unit circle, 246

volume of a cylinder, 497 examplesmiscellaneous

calculating outstanding loan balances, 456

convergence, 195 daylight hours in Alaska, 363 predator-prey model, 197

exponential regression (ExpReg), 361, 662

expr( (string-to-expression conversion), 491, 662

ExpReg (exponential regression), 361, 662

expression, 13 converting from string (expr(), 491,

662 turning on and off (ExprOn, 128,

662 ExprOff (expression off), 128, 662 ExprOn (expression on), 128, 662

F

factorial (!), 94, 692 family of curves, 131 Fill(, 276, 663 FINANCE CALC menu, 446 FINANCE VARS menu, 462 financial functions

amortization schedules, 454

Page 775

TI-83 Plus Index 772

cash flows, 452 days between dates, 460 interest rate conversions, 459 payment method, 461 time value of money (TVM), 448

Fix (fixed-decimal mode), 21, 663 fixed-decimal mode (Fix), 21, 663 Float (floating-decimal mode), 21, 663 floating-decimal mode (Float), 21, 663 fMax( (function maximum), 69, 663 fMin( (function minimum), 69, 663 fnInt( (function integral), 71, 663 FnOff (function off), 115, 663 FnOn (function on), 115, 664 For(, 515, 664 format settings, 125, 187 formulas

amortization, 731 ANOVA, 722 cash flow, 732 days between dates, 733 factorial, 94 interest rate conversions, 733 logistic regression, 721 sine regression, 722 time value of money, 728 two-sample -Test, 724 two-sample t test, 726

fPart( (fractional part), 80, 273, 664 free-moving cursor, 132

frequency, 357 Full (full-screen mode), 25, 664 full-screen mode (Full), 25, 664 Func (function graphing mode), 23, 664 function graphing

@X and @Y window variables, 124 accuracy, 132 CALC (calculate menu), 147 defining and displaying, 107 defining in the Y= editor, 111 defining on the home screen, in a

program, 112 deselecting, 114, 115 displaying, 108, 121, 129 evaluating, 113 family of curves, 131 format settings, 125 free-moving cursor, 132 graph styles, 117 maximum of (fMax(), 69, 663 minimum of (fMin(), 663 modes, 23, 109, 664 moving the cursor to a value, 135 overlaying functions on a graph,

130 panning, 136 pausing or stopping a graph, 129 Quick Zoom, 136 selecting, 114, 115, 664 shading, 119

Page 776

TI-83 Plus Index 773

Smart Graph, 129 tracing, 134 viewing window, 121 window variables, 121, 122, 123 Y= editor, 111 ZOOM MEMORY menu, 144 ZOOM menu, 138

function integral (fnInt(), 71, 663 function, definition of, 15 functions and instructions table, 654 future value, 444, 451 FV (future-value variable), 444, 462

G

G.T (graph-table split-screen mode), 25, 252, 666

garbage collecting, 622 GarbageCollect, 626, 664 Gauge, 468 gcd( (greatest common divisor), 82, 665 GDB (graph database), 242 geometcdf(, 433, 665 geometpdf(, 433, 665 Get( (get data from CBL 2/CBL or

CBR), 533, 665 GetCalc( (get data from TI.83), 533,

665 getKey, 531, 665

Getting Started. See examples, Getting Started

Goto, 519, 665 graph database (GDB), 242 graph styles, 117 graphing modes, 23 graphing-order modes, 24 GraphStyle(, 524, 665 graph-table split-screen mode (G.T), 25,

252, 666 greater than (>), 101, 694 greater than or equal to (), 101, 694 greatest common divisor (gcd(), 82, 665 greatest integer (int(), 81, 273, 668 GridOff, 127, 666 GridOn, 127, 666 grouping, 616

H

Histogram plot type (), 370 home screen, 10 Horiz (horizontal split-screen mode),

25, 250, 666 Horizontal (draw line), 221, 666 hyperbolic functions, 495 hypothesis tests, 396

I

i (complex number constant), 86

Page 777

TI-83 Plus Index 774

identity(, 277, 666 If instructions

If, 512, 666 If-Then, 513, 666 If-Then-Else, 514, 667

imag( (imaginary part), 89, 667 imaginary part (imag(), 89, 667 implied multiplication, 48 increment and skip (IS>(), 520, 668 independent variable, 206, 209, 667 IndpntAsk, 206, 209, 667 IndpntAuto, 206, 209, 667 inferential stat editors, 388 inferential statistics. See stat tests;

confidence intervals alternative hypotheses, 391 bypassing editors, 393 calculating test results (Calculate),

392 confidence interval calculations, 392 data input or stats input, 390 entering argument values, 390 graphing test results (Draw), 392 input descriptions table, 419 pooled option, 391 STAT TESTS menu, 394 test and interval output variables,

422 Input, 526, 527, 667 insert cursor, 12

inString( (in string), 492, 667 instruction, definition of, 16 int( (greatest integer), 81, 273, 668 integer part (iPart(), 80, 273, 668 integral. See numerical integral interest rate conversions

4Eff( (compute effective interest rate), 459

4Nom( (compute nominal interest rate), 459

calculating, 459 formula, 733

internal rate of return (irr(), 453, 668 intersect operation on a graph, 151 INTRVL (SEC), 475 inverse (L1), 64, 271, 694 inverse cumulative normal distribution

(invNorm(), 426, 668 inverse trig functions, 63 invNorm( (inverse cumulative normal

distribution), 426, 668 iPart( (integer part), 80, 273, 668 irr( (internal rate of return), 453, 668 IS>( (increment and skip), 520, 668

K

keyboard layout, 2 math operations, 63

Page 778

TI-83 Plus Index 775

key-code diagram, 532

L

LabelOff, 127, 668 LabelOn, 127, 668 labels

graph, 127, 668 program, 519, 669

Last Entry, 33 Lbl (label), 519, 669 lcm( (least common multiple), 82, 669 least common multiple (lcm(), 82, 669 length( of string, 492, 669 less than (<), 101, 694 less than or equal to (), 101, 694 Light-Time, 468 line graph style (), 117 line segments, drawing, 218 Line( (draw line), 220, 669 lines, drawing, 220, 221 LINK RECEIVE menu, 644 LINK SEND menu, 634 linking

receiving items, 644 to a CBL 2/CBL or CBR, 633 to a PC or Macintosh, 633 to a TI.82, 641, 646 transmitting items, 629 two TI.83 Plus units, 638

LinReg(a+bx) (linear regression), 360, 669

LinReg(ax+b) (linear regression), 359, 669

LinRegTTest (linear regression t test), 415, 669

LIST MATH menu, 311 LIST NAMES menu, 291 LIST OPS menu, 299 List4matr( (lists-to-matrix conversion),

279, 308, 670 lists

accessing an element, 289 attaching formulas, 293, 294, 336 clearing all elements, 333 copying, 289 creating, 286, 332 deleting from memory, 289, 599 detaching formulas, 296, 340 dimension, 288 entering list names, 292, 330 indicator ({ }), 288 naming lists, 286 storing and displaying, 288 transmitting to and from TI.73, 642 transmitting to and from TI.82, 641,

646 using in expressions, 297 using to graph a family of curves,

131, 290

Page 779

TI-83 Plus Index 776

using to select data points from a plot, 305

using with math operations, 63, 298 ln(, 65, 670 LnReg (logarithmic regression), 360,

670 log(, 65, 670 logic (Boolean) operators, 103 Logistic (regression), 361, 670 logistic regression formula, 721

M

marked for deletion, 623 MATH CPX (complex menu), 88 MATH menu, 67 MATH NUM (number menu), 79 math operations, 63 MATH PRB (probability menu), 92 Matr4list( (matrix-to-list conversion),

278, 308, 670 matrices

accessing elements, 268 copying, 267 defined, 258 deleting from memory, 261 dimensions, 259, 275, 276 displaying a matrix, 267 displaying matrix elements, 260 editing matrix elements, 262

indicator ([ ]), 265 inverse (L1), 271 math functions, 269 matrix math functions (det(, T, dim(,

Fill(, identity(, randM(, augment(, Matr4list(, List4matr(, c*msum(), 274

referencing in expressions, 265 relational operations, 272 row operations(ref(, rref(, rowSwap(,

row+(, row(, row+(), 280 selecting, 258 viewing, 261

MATRX EDIT menu, 258 MATRX MATH menu, 274 MATRX NAMES menu, 265 max, 470 max( (maximum), 81, 311, 670 maximum of a function (fMax(), 69, 663 maximum operation on a graph, 150 mean(, 312, 671 Med.Med (median-median), 358, 671 median(, 312, 671 Mem Mgmt/Del menu, 597 memory

backing up, 650 checking available, 596 clearing all list elements from, 602 clearing entries from, 601 deleting items from, 599

Page 780

TI-83 Plus Index 777

error, 626 insufficient during transmission, 653 resetting defaults, 604 resetting memory, 604

MEMORY menu, 596 Menu( (define menu), 521, 671 menus, 39, 40

defining (Menu(), 521, 671 map, 698 scrolling, 41

meter, 468 min, 470 min( (minimum), 81, 311, 671 minimum of a function (fMin(), 69, 663 minimum operation on a graph, 150 minutes notation ('), 97, 697 ModBoxplot plot type (), 370 mode settings, 19

a+bi (complex rectangular), 24, 84, 656

Connected (plotting), 23, 658 Degree (angle), 22, 99, 659 Dot (plotting), 23, 661 Eng (notation), 20, 662 Fix (decimal), 21, 663 Float (decimal), 21, 663 Full (screen), 25, 664 Func (graphing), 23, 664 G.T (screen), 25, 666 Horiz (screen), 25, 666

Normal (notation), 20, 672 Par/Param (graphing), 23, 674 Pol/Polar (graphing), 23, 675 Radian (angle), 22, 99, 678 re^qi (complex polar), 24, 84, 679 Real, 24, 679 Sci (notation), 20, 683 Seq (graphing), 23, 683 Sequential (graphing order), 24, 683 Simul (graphing order), 24, 685

modified box plot type (), 370 multiple entries on a line, 14 multiplication (), 63, 695 multiplicative inverse, 64

N

nCr (number of combinations), 93, 672 nDeriv( (numerical derivative), 70, 672 negation (M), 49, 66, 695 nonrecursive sequences, 182 normal distribution probability

(normalcdf(), 426, 672 Normal notation mode, 20, 672 normal probability plot type (), 372 normalcdf( (normal distribution

probability), 426, 672 normalpdf( (probability density

function), 425, 673 NormProbPlot plot type (), 372

Page 781

TI-83 Plus Index 778

not equal to (), 101, 694 not( (Boolean operator), 104, 673 nPr (permutations), 93, 673 npv( (net present value), 453, 673 numerical derivative, 70, 152, 165, 175 numerical integral, 70, 153

O

Omit, 619, 645 ON/HALT, 480 one-proportion z confidence interval

(1.PropZInt), 410, 676 one-proportion z test (1.PropZTest),

402, 676 one-sample t confidence interval

(TInterval), 406, 687 one-variable statistics (1.Var Stats),

357, 689 or (Boolean) operator, 103, 673 order of evaluating equations, 47 Output(, 255, 530, 673 Overwrite, 619, 645 Overwrite All, 619

P

P4Rx(, P4Ry( (polar-to-rectangular conversions), 100, 678

P/Y (number-of-payment-periods-per- year variable), 444, 463

panning, 136 Par/Param (parametric graphing mode),

23, 674 parametric equations, 159 parametric graphing

CALC (calculate operations on a graph), 165

defining and editing, 158, 159 free-moving cursor, 163 graph format, 161 graph styles, 159 moving the cursor to a value, 164 selecting and deselecting, 160 setting parametric mode, 158 tracing, 163 window variables, 160 Y= editor, 158 zoom operations, 165

parentheses, 48 path () graph style, 117 Pause, 518, 674 pausing a graph, 129 Pen, 232 permutations (nPr), 93, 673 phase plots, 197 Pi (p), 66 Pic (pictures), 239 pictures (Pic), 239 pixel, 237 pixels in Horiz/G.T modes, 238, 254

Page 782

TI-83 Plus Index 779

PLOT, 476 Plot1(, 373, 674 Plot2(, 373, 674 Plot3(, 373, 674 PlotsOff, 375, 675 PlotsOn, 375, 675 plotting modes, 23 plotting stat data, 368 PMT (payment amount variable), 444,

462 Pmt_Bgn (payment beginning variable),

461, 675 Pmt_End (payment end variable), 461,

675 poissoncdf(, 432, 675 poissonpdf(, 432, 675 Pol/Polar (polar graphing mode), 23,

168, 675 polar equations, 169 polar form, complex numbers, 87 polar graphing

CALC (calculate operations on a graph), 175

defining and displaying, 168 equations, 169 free-moving cursor, 173 graph format, 171 graph styles, 169 mode (Pol/Polar), 23, 168, 675 moving the cursor to a value, 174

selecting and deselecting, 169 tracing, 173 window variables, 170 Y= editor, 168 ZOOM operations, 174

PolarGC (polar graphing coordinates), 126, 676

pooled option, 388, 391 power (^), 64, 695 power of ten (10^(), 65, 695 present value, 444, 450 previous entry (Last Entry), 33 prgm (program name), 522, 676 PRGM CTL (program control menu),

511 PRGM EDIT menu, 510 PRGM EXEC menu, 510 PRGM I/O (Input/Output menu), 525 PRGM NEW menu, 500 probability, 92 probability density function

(normalpdf(), 425, 673 probe, 468 prod( (product), 313, 676 programming

copying and renaming, 509 creating new, 500 defined, 500 deleting, 501 deleting command lines, 508

Page 783

TI-83 Plus Index 780

editing, 507 entering command lines, 504 executing, 505 inserting command lines, 508 instructions, 511 name (prgm), 522, 676 renaming, 509 running assembly language

program, 537 stopping, 506 subroutines, 535

Prompt, 528, 676 Pt.Change(, 235, 677 Pt.Off(, 234, 677 Pt.On(, 233, 677 PV (present value variable), 444, 462 p-value, 422 PwrReg (power regression), 361, 677 Pxl.Change(, 237, 677 Pxl.Off(, 237, 677 Pxl.On(, 237, 677 pxl.Test(, 238, 678

Q

QuadReg (quadratic regression), 359, 678

QuartReg (quartic regression), 360, 678 Quick Zoom, 136 Quit, 619, 645

quitting CBL/CBR, 480

R

r (correlation coefficient), 354 r (radian notation), 99, 692 R4Pr(, R4Pq( (rectangular-to-polar

conversions), 100, 681 r2, R2 (coefficients of determination),

354 Radian angle mode, 22, 99, 678 radian notation (r), 99, 692 RAM ARCHIVE ALL menu, 603 rand (random number), 92, 678 randBin( (random binomial), 96, 678 randInt( (random integer), 95, 679 randM( (random matrix), 277, 679 randNorm( (random Normal), 95, 679 random seed, 92 Ranger, 468 RCL (recall), 31, 297 re^qi (polar complex mode), 24, 84,

679 Real mode, 24, 679 real( (real part), 89, 679 RealTme, 476 RecallGDB, 244, 679 RecallPic, 241, 679 rectangular form, complex numbers, 86

Page 784

TI-83 Plus Index 781

RectGC (rectangular graphing coordinates), 126, 680

recursive sequences, 183 ref( (row-echelon form), 280, 680 reference#, 471 RegEQ (regression equation variable),

353, 599 regression model

automatic regression equation, 353 automatic residual list feature, 352 diagnostics display mode, 354 models, 357

relational operations, 101, 272 Repeat, 517, 680 RESET MEMORY menu, 608 resetting

all memory, 608 archive memory, 606 defaults, 604 memory, 604 RAM memory, 604

residual list (RESID), 352 Return, 523, 680 root (x), 69, 693 root of a function, 148 round(, 80, 271, 680 row+(, 680 rowSwap(, 281, 680 rref( (reduced-row-echelon form), 280,

681

S

samples (# of), 475 Scatter plot type ("), 369 Sci (scientific notation mode), 20, 683 scientific notation, 14 screen modes, 25 second cursor (2nd), 12 second key (2nd), 4 seconds DMS notation ("), 97 sector, 623 Select(, 304, 683 selecting

data points from a plot, 305 functions from the home screen or a

program, 115 functions in the Y= editor, 115 stat plots from the Y= editor, 115

Send( (send to CBL 2/CBL or CBR), 533, 683

SendID, 634 sending. See transmitting SendOS, 635 Seq (sequence graphing mode), 23, 683 seq( (sequence), 302, 683 sequence graphing

axes format, 187 CALC (calculate menu), 191 defining and displaying, 179 evaluating, 192

Page 785

TI-83 Plus Index 782

free-moving cursor, 189 graph format, 188 graph styles, 181 moving the cursor to a value, 190 nonrecursive sequences, 182 phase plots, 197 recursive sequences, 183 selecting and deselecting, 181 setting sequence mode, 179 TI.83 Plus versus TI.82 table, 202 tracing, 189 web plots, 193 window variables, 185 Y= editor, 180 ZOOM (zoom menu), 191

Sequential (graphing order mode), 24, 683

service information, 759 setting

display contrast, 8 graph styles, 118 graph styles from a program, 120 modes, 20 modes from a program, 20 split-screen modes, 248 split-screen modes from a program,

255 tables from a program, 206

SetUpEditor, 350, 683 shade above () graph style, 117

shade below () graph style, 117 Shade(, 437, 684 Shadec2(, 436, 684 Shade(, 226, 684 Shade_t(, 435, 684 ShadeNorm(, 435, 684 shading graph areas, 119, 226 Simul (simultaneous graphing order

mode), 24, 685 sinL1( (arcsine), 63, 685 sin( (sine), 63, 685 sine (sin(), 63, 685 sine regression formula, 722 sinhM1( (hyperbolic arcsine), 496, 685 sinh( (hyperbolic sine), 496, 685 SinReg (sinusoidal regression), 362,

685 Smart Graph, 129 solve(, 77, 685 Solver, 72 solving for variables in the equation

solver, 75 sonic, 468 sonic probe, 468 sonic-time graph, 468 SortA( (sort ascending), 299, 348, 685 SortD( (sort descending), 299, 348, 685 split-screen modes

G.T (graph-table) mode, 252 Horiz (horizontal) mode, 250

Page 786

TI-83 Plus Index 783

setting, 248, 255 split-screen values, 231, 238, 254 square (2), 64, 694 square root ((), 64, 695 STAT CALC menu, 356 STAT EDIT menu, 348 stat list editor

attaching formulas to list names, 336

clearing elements from lists, 333 creating list names, 332 detaching formulas from list names,

340 displaying, 329 edit-elements context, 344 editing elements of formula-

generated lists, 341 editing list elements, 334 entering list names, 330 enter-names context, 346 formula-generated list names, 338 removing lists, 332 restoring list names L1L6, 333 switching contexts, 342 view-elements context, 344 view-names context, 346

STAT PLOTS menu, 373 stat tests and confidence intervals

c.Test (chi-square test), 412

1.PropZInt (one-proportion z confidence interval), 410

1.PropZTest (one-proportion z test), 402

2.PropZInt (two-proportion z confidence interval), 411

2.PropZTest (two-proportion z test), 403

2.SampTest (two-sample .Test), 414

2.SampTInt (two-sample t confidence interval), 408

2.SampTTest (two-sample t test), 400

2.SampZInt (two-sample z confidence interval), 407

2.SampZTest (two-sample z test), 399

ANOVA( (one-way analysis of variance), 415

LinRegTTest (linear regression t test), 415

T.Test (one-sample t test), 397 TInterval (one-sample t confidence

interval), 406 Z.Test (one-sample z test), 396 ZInterval (one-sample z confidence

interval), 405 STAT TESTS menu, 394

Page 787

TI-83 Plus Index 784

statistical distribution functions. See distribution functions

statistical plotting, 368 Boxplot (regular box plot), 371 defining, 373 from a program, 378 Histogram, 370 ModBoxplot (modified box plot),

370 NormProbPlot (normal probability

plot), 372 Scatter, 369 tracing, 376 turning on/off stat plots, 115, 375 viewing window, 376 xyLine, 369

statistical variables table, 365 Stats input option, 388, 390 stdDev( (standard deviation), 314, 686 Stop, 523, 686 Store (!), 29, 686 StoreGDB, 242, 686 StorePic, 239, 686 storing

graph databases (GDBs), 242 graph pictures, 239 variable values, 29

String4Equ( (string-to-equation conversions), 493, 686

strings

concatenation (+), 490, 696 converting, 491 defined, 484 displaying contents, 488 entering, 484 functions in CATALOG, 489 length (length(), 492, 669 storing, 487 variables, 486, 487

student-t distribution probability (tcdf(), 427, 687 probability density function (tpdf(),

427, 687 sub( (substring), 493, 686 subroutines, 522 subtraction (N), 63, 696 sum( (summation), 313, 686 system variables, 719

T T (transpose matrix), 275, 693 T.Test (one-sample t test), 397, 688 TABLE SETUP screen, 205 tables

description, 209 variables, 205, 207

tanL1( (arctangent), 63, 686 tan( (tangent), 63, 686 tangent (tan(), 63, 686

Page 788

TI-83 Plus Index 785

tangent lines, drawing, 222 Tangent( (draw line), 222, 687 tanhM1( (hyperbolic arctangent), 496,

687 tanh( (hyperbolic tangent), 496, 687 TblStart (table start variable), 205 tcdf( (student-t distribution probability),

427, 687 technical support, 758 Temperature, 468 Temp-Time, 468 TEST (relational menu), 101 TEST LOGIC (Boolean menu), 103 Text(

instruction, 230, 254, 687 placing on a graph, 230, 254

Then, 513, 666 thick () graph style, 117 TI.82

link differences, 646 transmitting to/from, 644

TI.83 Link. See linking

TI.83 Plus key code diagram, 532 keyboard, 2 menu map, 698

TI Connect, 632 TI.GRAPH LINK, 632, 633 Time axes format, 187, 687 time value of money (TVM)

variable (annual interest rate), 462

variable (number of payment periods), 462

C/Y variable (number of compounding periods per year), 463

calculating, 448 formulas, 728 FV variable (future value), 462 P/Y variable (number of payment

periods per year), 463 PMT variable (payment amount),

462 PV variable (present value), 462 TVM Solver, 444 tvm_ (# payment periods), 450,

688 tvm_FV (future value), 451, 688 tvm_I% (interest rate), 449, 688 tvm_Pmt (payment amount), 449,

688 tvm_PV (present value), 450, 688 variables, 462

TInterval (one-sample t confidence interval), 406, 687

tpdf( (student-t distribution probability density function), 427, 687

TRACE cursor, 135

Page 789

TI-83 Plus Index 786

entering numbers during, 135, 164, 173, 189

expression display, 128, 135 Trace instruction in a program, 137,

688 transmitting

error conditions, 652 from a TI.73 to a TI.83 Plus, 648 from a TI.82 to a TI.83 Plus, 646 lists to a TI.73, 642 lists to a TI.82, 641 lists to a TI.83 Plus, 648 stopping, 637 to an additional TI.83 Plus, 638

transpose matrix(T), 275, 693 TRIGGER, 480 trigonometric functions, 63 turning on and off

axes, 127 calculator, 6 coordinates, 126 expressions, 128 functions, 115 grid, 127 labels, 127 pixels, 237 points, 233 stat plots, 115, 375

tvm_ (# payment periods), 450, 688 tvm_FV (future value), 451, 688

tvm_I% (interest rate), 449, 688 tvm_Pmt (payment amount), 449, 688 tvm_PV (present value), 450, 688 two-proportion z confidence interval

(2.PropZInt), 411, 676 two-proportion z test (2.PropZTest),

403, 677 two-sample -Test formula, 724 two-sample t test formula, 726 two-variable statistics (2.Var Stats),

358, 689 Type

Bar or Meter, 469

U

u sequence function, 179 UnArchive, 30, 610, 689 ungrouping, 616 units, 470 user variables, 718 uv/uvAxes (axes format), 187, 689 uw/uwAxes (axes format), 187, 689

V

v sequence function, 179 value operation on a graph, 147 variables

complex, 26 displaying and storing values, 30

Page 790

TI-83 Plus Index 787

equation solver, 75 graph databases, 26 graph pictures, 26 independent/dependent, 209 list, 26, 286 matrix, 26, 258 real, 26 recalling values, 31 solver editor, 74 statistical, 365 string, 486, 487 test and interval output, 422 types, 26 user and system, 27, 718 VARS and Y.VARS menus, 44

variance of a list (variance(), 314, 689 variance( (variance of a list), 314, 689 VARS menu

GDB, 44 Picture, 44 Statistics, 44 String, 44 Table, 44 Window, 44 Zoom, 44

Vertical (draw line), 221, 689 viewing window, 121 Volt, 468 Voltage, 468 Volt-Time, 468

vw/uvAxes (axes format), 187, 689

W

w sequence function, 179 warranty information, 760 Web (axes format), 187, 689 web plots, 193 While, 516, 689 window variables

function graphing, 121 parametric graphing, 161 polar graphing, 170

X x (root), 69, 693 XFact zoom factor, 145 x-intercept of a root, 148 xor (Boolean) exclusive or operator,

103, 690 xth root (x), 69 xyLine () plot type, 369

Y

Y.VARS menu Function, 45 On/Off, 45 Parametric, 45 Polar, 45

Page 791

TI-83 Plus Index 788

Y= editor function graphing, 111 parametric graphing, 158 polar graphing, 168 sequence graphing, 180

YFact zoom factor, 145

Z

Z.Test (one-sample z test), 396, 692 ZBox, 139, 690 ZDecimal, 141, 690 zero operation on a graph, 148 ZInteger, 143, 690 ZInterval (one-sample z confidence

interval), 405, 690 zoom, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143,

144, 145, 146 cursor, 139 factors, 145 function graphing, 138

parametric graphing, 165 polar graphing, 174 sequence graphing, 191

Zoom In (zoom in), 140, 690 ZOOM MEMORY menu, 144 ZOOM menu, 138 Zoom Out (zoom out), 140, 690 ZoomFit (zoom to fit function), 143,

691 ZoomRcl (recall stored window), 145,

691 ZoomStat (statistics zoom), 143, 691 ZoomSto (store zoom window), 144,

691 ZPrevious (use previous window), 144,

691 ZSquare (set square pixels), 142, 691 ZStandard (use standard window), 142,

691 ZTrig (trigonometric window), 142, 692

Page 792

TI-83 Plus Quick-Find Locator i

Quick-Find Locator

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition........................ 1

Documentation Conventions.....................................................................1 TI-83 Plus Keyboard .................................................................................2

Keyboard Zones..................................................................................2 Using the Color.Coded Keyboard.......................................................4 Using the y and Keys ...........................................................4

Turning On and Turning Off the TI-83 Plus ..............................................6 Turning On the Calculator...................................................................6 Turning Off the Calculator...................................................................7 Batteries..............................................................................................7

Setting the Display Contrast .....................................................................8 Adjusting the Display Contrast............................................................8 When to Replace Batteries .................................................................9

The Display.............................................................................................10 Types of Displays..............................................................................10 Home Screen ....................................................................................10 Displaying Entries and Answers .......................................................10 Returning to the Home Screen .........................................................11 Busy Indicator ...................................................................................11 Display Cursors.................................................................................12

Entering Expressions and Instructions....................................................13 What Is an Expression? ....................................................................13 Entering an Expression.....................................................................13 Multiple Entries on a Line..................................................................14

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TI-83 Plus Quick-Find Locator ii

Entering a Number in Scientific Notation ..........................................14 Functions ..........................................................................................15 Instructions........................................................................................16 Interrupting a Calculation ..................................................................16

TI-83 Plus Edit Keys ...............................................................................17 Setting Modes.........................................................................................19

Checking Mode Settings ...................................................................19 Changing Mode Settings...................................................................20 Setting a Mode from a Program........................................................20 Normal, Sci, Eng ...............................................................................20 Float, 0123456789 ............................................................................21 Radian, Degree.................................................................................22 Func, Par, Pol, Seq...........................................................................23 Connected, Dot .................................................................................23 Sequential, Simul ..............................................................................24 Real, a+bi, re^qi ................................................................................24 Full, Horiz, G-T..................................................................................25

Using TI-83 Plus Variable Names...........................................................26 Variables and Defined Items.............................................................26 Notes about Variables.......................................................................27

Storing Variable Values ..........................................................................29 Storing Values in a Variable..............................................................29 Displaying a Variable Value ..............................................................30 Archiving Variables (Archive, Unarchive)..........................................30

Recalling Variable Values.......................................................................31 Using Recall (RCL) ...........................................................................31

ENTRY (Last Entry) Storage Area..........................................................33 Using ENTRY (Last Entry) ................................................................33

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TI-83 Plus Quick-Find Locator iii

Accessing a Previous Entry ..............................................................34 Reexecuting the Previous Entry........................................................34 Multiple Entry Values on a Line ........................................................35 Clearing ENTRY ...............................................................................36 Using Ans in an Expression ..............................................................36 Continuing an Expression .................................................................37 Storing Answers................................................................................38

TI-83 Plus Menus....................................................................................39 Using a TI-83 Plus Menu ..................................................................39 Displaying a Menu ............................................................................40 Moving from One Menu to Another...................................................41 Scrolling a Menu ...............................................................................41 Selecting an Item from a Menu .........................................................41 Leaving a Menu without Making a Selection.....................................43

VARS and VARS Y-VARS Menus ..........................................................44 VARS Menu ......................................................................................44 Selecting a Variable from the VARS Menu or VARS Y-VARS

Menu ...........................................................................................45 Equation Operating System (EOS).........................................................47

Order of Evaluation ...........................................................................47 Implied Multiplication.........................................................................48 Parentheses......................................................................................48 Negation............................................................................................49

Special Features of the TI-83 Plus .........................................................50 Flash Electronic Upgradability .......................................................50 1.56 Megabytes (M) of Available Memory ........................................50 Applications.......................................................................................51 Archiving ...........................................................................................51

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TI-83 Plus Quick-Find Locator iv

Calculator-Based Laboratory (CBL 2, CBL) and Calculator-Based Ranger (CBR)..........................................52

Other TI-83 Plus Features ......................................................................53 Graphing ...........................................................................................53 Sequences ........................................................................................53 Tables ...............................................................................................54 Split Screen.......................................................................................54 Matrices ............................................................................................54 Lists...................................................................................................55 Statistics............................................................................................55 Inferential Statistics...........................................................................55 Applications.......................................................................................56 CATALOG.........................................................................................56 Programming ....................................................................................57 Archiving ...........................................................................................57 Communication Link .........................................................................57

Error Conditions......................................................................................59 Diagnosing an Error ..........................................................................59 Correcting an Error ...........................................................................60

Chapter 2: Math, Angle, and Test Operations.............................. 61

Getting Started: Coin Flip .......................................................................61 Keyboard Math Operations.....................................................................63

Using Lists with Math Operations .....................................................63 + (Addition), N (Subtraction), (Multiplication), (Division) ...............63 Trigonometric Functions ...................................................................63 ^ (Power), 2 (Square), ( (Square Root) ..........................................64 L1 (Inverse)........................................................................................64

Page 796

TI-83 Plus Quick-Find Locator v

log(, 10^(, ln( .....................................................................................65 e^( (Exponential) .................................................................................65 e (Constant) ......................................................................................65 L (Negation).......................................................................................66 p (Pi) .................................................................................................66

MATH Operations ...................................................................................67 MATH Menu......................................................................................67 4Frac, 4Dec........................................................................................67 3(Cube), 3( (Cube Root) .................................................................68 x (Root)...........................................................................................69 fMin(, fMax( .......................................................................................69 nDeriv( ..............................................................................................70 fnInt(..................................................................................................71

Using the Equation Solver ......................................................................72 Solver................................................................................................72 Entering an Expression in the Equation Solver.................................72 Entering and Editing Variable Values ...............................................74 Solving for a Variable in the Equation Solver....................................75 Editing an Equation Stored to eqn ....................................................77 Equations with Multiple Roots...........................................................77 Further Solutions...............................................................................77 Controlling the Solution for Solver or solve(......................................78 Using solve( on the Home Screen or from a Program ......................78

MATH NUM (Number) Operations..........................................................79 MATH NUM Menu.............................................................................79 abs( ...................................................................................................79 round(................................................................................................80 iPart(, fPart(.......................................................................................80

Page 797

TI-83 Plus Quick-Find Locator vi

int( ....................................................................................................81 min(, max( .........................................................................................81 lcm(, gcd( ..........................................................................................82

Entering and Using Complex Numbers...................................................84 Complex-Number Modes ..................................................................84 Entering Complex Numbers..............................................................85 Note about Radian Versus Degree Mode .........................................85 Interpreting Complex Results............................................................86 Rectangular-Complex Mode .............................................................86 Polar-Complex Mode ........................................................................87

MATH CPX (Complex) Operations .........................................................88 MATH CPX Menu .............................................................................88 conj( ..................................................................................................88 real(...................................................................................................89 imag( .................................................................................................89 angle( ................................................................................................90 abs( ...................................................................................................90 4Rect .................................................................................................91 4Polar ................................................................................................91

MATH PRB (Probability) Operations.......................................................92 MATH PRB Menu .............................................................................92 rand...................................................................................................92 nPr, nCr.............................................................................................93 ! (Factorial)........................................................................................94 randInt(..............................................................................................95 randNorm(.........................................................................................95 randBin( ............................................................................................96

ANGLE Operations .................................................................................97

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TI-83 Plus Quick-Find Locator vii

ANGLE Menu....................................................................................97 Entry Notation ...................................................................................97 (Degree) .........................................................................................98 r (Radians) ........................................................................................99 8DMS................................................................................................99 R8Pr (, R8Pq( , P8Rx(, P8Ry( ........................................................100

TEST (Relational) Operations...............................................................101 TEST Menu.....................................................................................101 =, , >, , <, ..................................................................................101 Using Tests .....................................................................................102

TEST LOGIC (Boolean) Operations .....................................................103 TEST LOGIC Menu.........................................................................103 Boolean Operators..........................................................................103 and, or, xor......................................................................................103 not(..................................................................................................104 Using Boolean Operations ..............................................................104

Chapter 3: Function Graphing..................................................... 105

Getting Started: Graphing a Circle........................................................105 Defining Graphs....................................................................................107

TI-83 PlusGraphing Mode Similarities.........................................107 Defining a Graph.............................................................................107 Displaying and Exploring a Graph ..................................................108 Saving a Graph for Later Use .........................................................108

Setting the Graph Modes......................................................................109 Checking and Changing the Graphing Mode..................................109 Setting Modes from a Program .......................................................110

Defining Functions ................................................................................111

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TI-83 Plus Quick-Find Locator viii

Displaying Functions in the Y= Editor .............................................111 Defining or Editing a Function.........................................................111 Defining a Function from the Home Screen or a Program..............112 Evaluating Y= Functions in Expressions.........................................113

Selecting and Deselecting Functions....................................................114 Selecting and Deselecting a Function.............................................114 Turning On or Turning Off a Stat Plot in the Y= Editor....................115 Selecting and Deselecting Functions from the Home Screen

or a Program .............................................................................115 Setting Graph Styles for Functions .......................................................117

Graph Style Icons in the Y= Editor..................................................117 Setting the Graph Style...................................................................118 Shading Above and Below..............................................................119 Setting a Graph Style from a Program............................................120

Setting the Viewing Window Variables .................................................121 The TI-83 Plus Viewing Window .....................................................121 Displaying the Window Variables....................................................121 Changing a Window Variable Value ...............................................122 Storing to a Window Variable from the Home Screen or a

Program ....................................................................................123 @X and @Y........................................................................................124

Setting the Graph Format .....................................................................125 Displaying the Format Settings .......................................................125 Changing a Format Setting .............................................................125 RectGC, PolarGC ...........................................................................126 CoordOn, CoordOff.........................................................................126 GridOff, GridOn...............................................................................127 AxesOn, AxesOff ............................................................................127

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TI-83 Plus Quick-Find Locator ix

LabelOff, LabelOn...........................................................................127 ExprOn, ExprOff..............................................................................128

Displaying Graphs ................................................................................129 Displaying a New Graph .................................................................129 Pausing or Stopping a Graph..........................................................129 Smart Graph ...................................................................................129 Overlaying Functions on a Graph ...................................................130 Graphing a Family of Curves ..........................................................131

Exploring Graphs with the Free-Moving Cursor....................................132 Free-Moving Cursor ........................................................................132 Graphing Accuracy .........................................................................132

Exploring Graphs with TRACE..............................................................134 Beginning a Trace...........................................................................134 Moving the Trace Cursor ................................................................134 Moving the Trace Cursor from Function to Function.......................135 Moving the Trace Cursor to Any Valid X Value...............................135 Panning to the Left or Right ............................................................136 Quick Zoom.....................................................................................136 Leaving and Returning to TRACE...................................................137 Using TRACE in a Program ............................................................137

Exploring Graphs with the ZOOM Instructions......................................138 ZOOM Menu ...................................................................................138 Zoom Cursor ...................................................................................139 ZBox................................................................................................139 Zoom In, Zoom Out.........................................................................140 ZDecimal.........................................................................................141 ZSquare ..........................................................................................142 ZStandard .......................................................................................142

Page 801

TI-83 Plus Quick-Find Locator x

ZTrig................................................................................................142 ZInteger...........................................................................................143 ZoomStat ........................................................................................143 ZoomFit...........................................................................................143

Using ZOOM MEMORY........................................................................144 ZOOM MEMORY Menu ..................................................................144 ZPrevious........................................................................................144 ZoomSto .........................................................................................144 ZoomRcl..........................................................................................145 ZOOM FACTORS ...........................................................................145 Checking XFact and YFact .............................................................145 Changing XFact and YFact.............................................................146 Using ZOOM MEMORY Menu Items from the Home Screen

or a Program .............................................................................146 Using the CALC (Calculate) Operations ...............................................147

CALCULATE Menu.........................................................................147 value ...............................................................................................147 zero .................................................................................................148 minimum, maximum........................................................................150 intersect ..........................................................................................151 dy/dx ...............................................................................................152 f(x)dx ..............................................................................................153

Chapter 4: Parametric Graphing ................................................. 154

Getting Started: Path of a Ball ..............................................................154 Defining and Displaying Parametric Graphs.........................................158

TI-83 Plus Graphing Mode Similarities ...........................................158 Setting Parametric Graphing Mode.................................................158

Page 802

TI-83 Plus Quick-Find Locator xi

Displaying the Parametric Y= Editor ...............................................158 Selecting a Graph Style ..................................................................159 Defining and Editing Parametric Equations ....................................159 Selecting and Deselecting Parametric Equations ...........................160 Setting Window Variables ...............................................................160 Setting the Graph Format ...............................................................161 Displaying a Graph .........................................................................161 Window Variables and Y.VARS Menus..........................................161

Exploring Parametric Graphs................................................................163 Free-Moving Cursor ........................................................................163 TRACE............................................................................................163 Moving the Trace Cursor to Any Valid T Value...............................164 ZOOM .............................................................................................165 CALC ..............................................................................................165

Chapter 5: Polar Graphing ........................................................... 166

Getting Started: Polar Rose..................................................................166 Defining and Displaying Polar Graphs..................................................168

TI-83 Plus Graphing Mode Similarities ...........................................168 Setting Polar Graphing Mode..........................................................168 Displaying the Polar Y= Editor ........................................................168 Selecting Graph Styles ...................................................................169 Defining and Editing Polar Equations .............................................169 Selecting and Deselecting Polar Equations ....................................169 Setting Window Variables ...............................................................170 Setting the Graph Format ...............................................................171 Displaying a Graph .........................................................................171 Window Variables and Y.VARS Menus..........................................171

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TI-83 Plus Quick-Find Locator xii

Exploring Polar Graphs.........................................................................173 Free-Moving Cursor ........................................................................173 TRACE............................................................................................173 Moving the Trace Cursor to Any Valid q Value ...............................174 ZOOM .............................................................................................174 CALC ..............................................................................................175

Chapter 6: Sequence Graphing................................................... 176

Getting Started: Forest and Trees ........................................................176 Defining and Displaying Sequence Graphs ..........................................179

TI-83 Plus Graphing Mode Similarities ...........................................179 Setting Sequence Graphing Mode..................................................179 TI-83 Plus Sequence Functions u, v, and w ...................................179 Displaying the Sequence Y= Editor ................................................180 Selecting Graph Styles ...................................................................181 Selecting and Deselecting Sequence Functions.............................181 Defining and Editing a Sequence Function.....................................182 Nonrecursive Sequences................................................................182 Recursive Sequences .....................................................................183 Setting Window Variables ...............................................................185

Selecting Axes Combinations ...............................................................187 Setting the Graph Format ...............................................................187 Setting Axes Format .......................................................................187 Displaying a Sequence Graph ........................................................188

Exploring Sequence Graphs.................................................................189 Free-Moving Cursor ........................................................................189 TRACE............................................................................................189 Moving the Trace Cursor to Any Valid n Value ...............................190

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TI-83 Plus Quick-Find Locator xiii

ZOOM .............................................................................................191 CALC ..............................................................................................191 Evaluating u, v, and w.....................................................................192

Graphing Web Plots..............................................................................193 Graphing a Web Plot.......................................................................193 Valid Functions for Web Plots.........................................................193 Displaying the Graph Screen ..........................................................194 Drawing the Web ............................................................................194

Using Web Plots to Illustrate Convergence ..........................................195 Example: Convergence...................................................................195

Graphing Phase Plots ...........................................................................197 Graphing with uv, vw, and uw .........................................................197 Example: Predator-Prey Model.......................................................197

Comparing TI-83 Plus and TI-82 Sequence Variables .........................201 Sequences and Window Variables .................................................201

Keystroke Differences Between TI-83 Plus and TI-82..........................202 Sequence Keystroke Changes .......................................................202

Chapter 7: Tables.......................................................................... 203

Getting Started: Roots of a Function ....................................................203 Setting Up the Table .............................................................................205

TABLE SETUP Screen ...................................................................205 TblStart, @Tbl...................................................................................205 Indpnt: Auto, Indpnt: Ask, Depend: Auto, Depend: Ask ..................206 Setting Up the Table from the Home Screen or a Program ............206

Defining the Dependent Variables ........................................................207 Defining Dependent Variables from the Y= Editor ..........................207 Editing Dependent Variables from the Table Editor........................207

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TI-83 Plus Quick-Find Locator xiv

Displaying the Table .............................................................................209 The Table........................................................................................209 Independent and Dependent Variables ..........................................209 Clearing the Table from the Home Screen or a Program ...............210 Scrolling Independent-Variable Values...........................................210 Displaying Other Dependent Variables...........................................211

Chapter 8: Draw Instructions....................................................... 212

Getting Started: Drawing a Tangent Line .............................................212 Using the DRAW Menu.........................................................................214

DRAW Menu ...................................................................................214 Before Drawing on a Graph ............................................................215 Drawing on a Graph........................................................................215

Clearing Drawings ................................................................................217 Clearing Drawings When a Graph Is Displayed..............................217 Clearing Drawings from the Home Screen or a Program ...............217

Drawing Line Segments........................................................................218 Drawing a Line Segment Directly on a Graph.................................218 Drawing a Line Segment from the Home Screen or a Program .....219

Drawing Horizontal and Vertical Lines..................................................220 Drawing a Line Directly on a Graph ................................................220 Drawing a Line from the Home Screen or a Program.....................221

Drawing Tangent Lines.........................................................................222 Drawing a Tangent Line Directly on a Graph..................................222 Drawing a Tangent Line from the Home Screen or a Program.......223

Drawing Functions and Inverses ..........................................................224 Drawing a Function .........................................................................224 Drawing an Inverse of a Function ...................................................224

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TI-83 Plus Quick-Find Locator xv

Shading Areas on a Graph ...................................................................226 Shading a Graph.............................................................................226

Drawing Circles.....................................................................................228 Drawing a Circle Directly on a Graph..............................................228 Drawing a Circle from the Home Screen or a Program ..................229

Placing Text on a Graph .......................................................................230 Placing Text Directly on a Graph ....................................................230 Placing Text on a Graph from the Home Screen or a Program ......230 Split Screen.....................................................................................231

Using Pen to Draw on a Graph.............................................................232 Using Pen to Draw on a Graph .......................................................232

Drawing Points on a Graph...................................................................233 DRAW POINTS Menu.....................................................................233 Drawing Points Directly on a Graph with Pt.On(.............................233 Erasing Points with Pt.Off( ..............................................................234 Changing Points with Pt.Change( ...................................................235 Drawing Points from the Home Screen or a Program.....................235

Drawing Pixels ......................................................................................237 TI-83 Plus Pixels .............................................................................237 Turning On and Off Pixels with Pxl.On( and Pxl.Off( ......................237 Using pxl.Test( ................................................................................238 Split Screen.....................................................................................238

Storing Graph Pictures (Pic) .................................................................239 DRAW STO Menu...........................................................................239 Storing a Graph Picture ..................................................................239

Recalling Graph Pictures (Pic)..............................................................241 Recalling a Graph Picture ...............................................................241 Deleting a Graph Picture.................................................................241

Page 807

TI-83 Plus Quick-Find Locator xvi

Storing Graph Databases (GDB) ..........................................................242 What Is a Graph Database? ...........................................................242 Storing a Graph Database ..............................................................242

Recalling Graph Databases (GDB).......................................................244 Recalling a Graph Database...........................................................244 Deleting a Graph Database ............................................................245

Chapter 9: Split Screen ................................................................ 246

Getting Started: Exploring the Unit Circle .............................................246 Using Split Screen ................................................................................248

Setting a Split-Screen Mode ...........................................................248 Horiz (Horizontal) Split Screen..............................................................250

Horiz Mode......................................................................................250 Moving from Half to Half in Horiz Mode ..........................................251 Full Screens in Horiz Mode.............................................................251

G.T (Graph-Table) Split Screen............................................................252 G.T Mode........................................................................................252 Moving from Half to Half in G.T Mode ............................................252 Using r in G.T Mode...............................................................253 Full Screens in G.T Mode...............................................................253

TI-83 Plus Pixels in Horiz and G.T Modes............................................254 TI-83 Plus Pixels in Horiz and G.T Modes......................................254 DRAW POINTS Menu Pixel Instructions ........................................254 DRAW Menu Text( Instruction ........................................................254 PRGM I/O Menu Output( Instruction...............................................255 Setting a Split-Screen Mode from the Home Screen or a

Program ....................................................................................255

Page 808

TI-83 Plus Quick-Find Locator xvii

Chapter 10: Matrices .................................................................... 256

Getting Started: Systems of Linear Equations......................................256 Defining a Matrix ...................................................................................258

What Is a Matrix? ............................................................................258 Selecting a Matrix ...........................................................................258 Accepting or Changing Matrix Dimensions .....................................259

Viewing and Editing Matrix Elements....................................................260 Displaying Matrix Elements.............................................................260 Deleting a Matrix .............................................................................261 Viewing a Matrix..............................................................................261 Viewing-Context Keys.....................................................................262 Editing a Matrix Element .................................................................262 Editing-Context Keys ......................................................................264

Using Matrices with Expressions ..........................................................265 Using a Matrix in an Expression .....................................................265 Entering a Matrix in an Expression .................................................265

Displaying and Copying Matrices..........................................................267 Displaying a Matrix..........................................................................267 Copying One Matrix to Another.......................................................267 Accessing a Matrix Element............................................................268

Using Math Functions with Matrices .....................................................269 Using Math Functions with Matrices ...............................................269 + (Add), (Subtract), (Multiply) ....................................................269 L (Negation).....................................................................................270 abs( .................................................................................................271 round(..............................................................................................271 M1 (Inverse)......................................................................................271

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Powers ............................................................................................272 Relational Operations .....................................................................272 iPart(, fPart(, int(..............................................................................273

Using the MATRX MATH Operations ...................................................274 MATRX MATH Menu ......................................................................274 det(..................................................................................................275 T (Transpose) .................................................................................275 Accessing Matrix Dimensions with dim(..........................................275 Creating a Matrix with dim( .............................................................276 Redimensioning a Matrix with dim( ...................................................276 Fill( ..................................................................................................276 identity( ...........................................................................................277 randM(.............................................................................................277 augment(.........................................................................................277 Matr4list( ..........................................................................................278 List4matr(.........................................................................................279 c*msum(.........................................................................................279 Row Operations ..............................................................................280 ref(, rref( ..........................................................................................280 rowSwap( ........................................................................................281 row+(...............................................................................................281 row(...............................................................................................282 row+(.............................................................................................282

Chapter 11: Lists........................................................................... 283

Getting Started: Generating a Sequence..............................................283 Naming Lists .........................................................................................286

Using TI-83 Plus List Names L1 through L6 ...................................286

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Creating a List Name on the Home Screen ....................................286 Storing and Displaying Lists..................................................................288

Storing Elements to a List ...............................................................288 Displaying a List on the Home Screen............................................288 Copying One List to Another...........................................................289 Accessing a List Element................................................................289 Deleting a List from Memory ...........................................................289 Using Lists in Graphing...................................................................290

Entering List Names .............................................................................291 Using the LIST NAMES Menu ........................................................291 Entering a User-Created List Name Directly...................................292

Attaching Formulas to List Names........................................................293 Attaching a Formula to a List Name................................................293 Attaching a Formula to a List on the Home Screen or in a

Program ....................................................................................294 Detaching a Formula from a List.....................................................296

Using Lists in Expressions....................................................................297 Using a List in an Expression..........................................................297 Using Lists with Math Functions .....................................................298

LIST OPS Menu....................................................................................299 LIST OPS Menu..............................................................................299 SortA(, SortD( .................................................................................299 Using dim( to Find List Dimensions ................................................301 Using dim( to Create a List .............................................................301 Using dim( to Redimension a List ...................................................301 Fill( ..................................................................................................302 seq( .................................................................................................302 c*msum(.........................................................................................303

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@List( ...............................................................................................303 Select(.............................................................................................304 Before Using Select( .......................................................................304 Using Select( to Select Data Points from a Plot..............................305 augment(.........................................................................................307 List4matr(.........................................................................................308 Matr4list( ..........................................................................................308

LIST MATH Menu .................................................................................311 LIST MATH Menu ...........................................................................311 min(, max( .......................................................................................311 mean(, median(...............................................................................312 sum(, prod(......................................................................................313 Sums and Products of Numeric Sequences ...................................313 stdDev(, variance(...........................................................................314

Chapter 12: Statistics ................................................................... 315

Getting Started: Pendulum Lengths and Periods..................................315 Setting Up Statistical Analyses .............................................................328

Using Lists to Store Data ................................................................328 Setting Up a Statistical Analysis .....................................................328 Displaying the Stat List Editor .........................................................329

Using the Stat List Editor ......................................................................330 Entering a List Name in the Stat List Editor ....................................330 Creating a Name in the Stat List Editor...........................................332 Removing a List from the Stat List Editor........................................332 Removing All Lists and Restoring L1 through L6............................333 Clearing All Elements from a List....................................................333 Editing a List Element .....................................................................334

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Attaching Formulas to List Names........................................................336 Attaching a Formula to a List Name in Stat List Editor ...................336 Using the Stat List Editor When Formula-Generated Lists Are

Displayed ..................................................................................338 Handling Errors Resulting from Attached Formulas........................339

Detaching Formulas from List Names ..................................................340 Detaching a Formula from a List Name ..........................................340 Editing an Element of a Formula-Generated List............................341

Switching Stat List Editor Contexts .......................................................342 Stat List Editor Contexts .................................................................342

Stat List Editor Contexts .......................................................................344 View-Elements Context...................................................................344 Edit-Elements Context ....................................................................344 View-Names Context ......................................................................346 Enter-Name Context .......................................................................346

STAT EDIT Menu .................................................................................348 STAT EDIT Menu............................................................................348 SortA(, SortD( .................................................................................348 ClrList..............................................................................................349 SetUpEditor.....................................................................................350 Restoring L1 through L6 to the Stat List Editor ...............................351

Regression Model Features..................................................................352 Regression Model Features............................................................352 Automatic Residual List ..................................................................352 Automatic Regression Equation......................................................353 Diagnostics Display Mode...............................................................354

STAT CALC Menu ................................................................................356 STAT CALC Menu ..........................................................................356

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Frequency of Occurrence for Data Points.......................................357 1.Var Stats......................................................................................357 2.Var Stats......................................................................................358 Med.Med (ax+b) .............................................................................358 LinReg (ax+b) .................................................................................359 QuadReg (ax2+bx+c)......................................................................359 CubicReg(ax3+bx2+cx+d) ..........................................................359 QuartReg(ax4+bx3+cx2+ dx+e)..................................................360 LinReg(a+bx)...............................................................................360 LnReg(a+b ln(x)) .........................................................................360 ExpReg(abx) ...............................................................................361 PwrReg(axb) ...............................................................................361 Logisticc/(1+aeLbx) ...................................................................361 SinRega sin(bx+c)+d...................................................................362 SinReg Example: Daylight Hours in Alaska for One Year ...............363

Statistical Variables...............................................................................365 Q1 and Q3 ......................................................................................366

Statistical Analysis in a Program...........................................................367 Entering Stat Data...........................................................................367 Statistical Calculations ....................................................................367

Statistical Plotting..................................................................................368 Steps for Plotting Statistical Data in Lists .......................................368 " (Scatter) .....................................................................................369 (xyLine) ....................................................................................369 (Histogram) ..............................................................................370 (ModBoxplot) ............................................................................370 (Boxplot) ...................................................................................371 (NormProbPlot) ........................................................................372

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Defining the Plots............................................................................373 Displaying Other Stat Plot Editors...................................................375 Turning On and Turning Off Stat Plots............................................375 Defining the Viewing Window .........................................................376 Tracing a Stat Plot ..........................................................................376

Statistical Plotting in a Program............................................................378 Defining a Stat Plot in a Program....................................................378 Displaying a Stat Plot from a Program............................................380

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions .................. 381

Getting Started: Mean Height of a Population ......................................381 Height (in centimeters) of Each of 10 Women ................................381

Inferential Stat Editors ..........................................................................388 Displaying the Inferential Stat Editors .............................................388 Using an Inferential Stat Editor .......................................................388 Selecting Data or Stats ...................................................................390 Entering the Values for Arguments .................................................390 Selecting an Alternative Hypothesis ( < >)....................................391 Selecting the Pooled Option ...........................................................391 Selecting Calculate or Draw for a Hypothesis Test.........................392 Selecting Calculate for a Confidence Interval .................................392 Bypassing the Inferential Stat Editors .............................................393

STAT TESTS Menu ..............................................................................394 STAT TESTS Menu ........................................................................394 Inferential Stat Editors for the STAT TESTS Instructions ...............395 Z.Test .............................................................................................396 T.Test .............................................................................................397 2.SampZTest ..................................................................................399

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2.SampTTest ..................................................................................400 1.PropZTest....................................................................................402 2.PropZTest....................................................................................403 ZInterval ..........................................................................................405 TInterval ..........................................................................................406 2.SampZInt .....................................................................................407 2.SampTInt .....................................................................................408 1.PropZInt.......................................................................................410 2.PropZInt.......................................................................................411 c2.Test............................................................................................412 2.SampTest..................................................................................414 LinRegTTest ...................................................................................415 ANOVA( ..........................................................................................417

Inferential Statistics Input Descriptions.................................................419 Test and Interval Output Variables .......................................................422 Distribution Functions ...........................................................................424

DISTR menu ...................................................................................424 normalpdf(.......................................................................................425 normalcdf( .......................................................................................426 invNorm( .........................................................................................426 tpdf(.................................................................................................427 tcdf( .................................................................................................427 c2pdf(..............................................................................................428 c2cdf( ..............................................................................................429 pdf( ...............................................................................................429 cdf(................................................................................................430 binompdf .........................................................................................430 binomcdf( ........................................................................................431

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poissonpdf( .....................................................................................432 poissoncdf(......................................................................................432 geometpdf(......................................................................................433 geometcdf( ......................................................................................433

Distribution Shading..............................................................................434 DISTR DRAW Menu .......................................................................434 ShadeNorm(....................................................................................435 Shade_t( .........................................................................................435 Shadec2( ........................................................................................436 Shade( ..........................................................................................437

Chapter 14: Applications .............................................................. 438

The Applications Menu .........................................................................438 Steps for Running the Finance Application.....................................439

Getting Started: Financing a Car ..........................................................440 Getting Started: Computing Compound Interest...................................442 Using the TVM Solver ...........................................................................444

Using the TVM Solver .....................................................................444 Using the Financial Functions...............................................................446

Entering Cash Inflows and Cash Outflows......................................446 FINANCE CALC Menu....................................................................446 TVM Solver .....................................................................................447

Calculating Time Value of Money (TVM) ..............................................448 Calculating Time Value of Money ...................................................448 tvm_Pmt..........................................................................................449 tvm_.............................................................................................449 tvm_PV ...........................................................................................450 tvm_..............................................................................................450

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tvm_FV............................................................................................451 Calculating Cash Flows ........................................................................452

Calculating a Cash Flow .................................................................452 npv(, irr(...........................................................................................453

Calculating Amortization .......................................................................454 Calculating an Amortization Schedule ............................................454 bal( ..................................................................................................454 GPrn(, GInt(......................................................................................455 Amortization Example: Calculating an Outstanding Loan

Balance .....................................................................................456 Calculating Interest Conversion............................................................459

Calculating an Interest Conversion .................................................459 4Nom(..............................................................................................459 4Eff( .................................................................................................459

Finding Days between Dates/Defining Payment Method ..........................460 dbd(.................................................................................................460 Defining the Payment Method.........................................................461 Pmt_End .........................................................................................461 Pmt_Bgn .........................................................................................461

Using the TVM Variables ......................................................................462 FINANCE VARS Menu ...................................................................462 , , PV, PMT, FV .........................................................................462 P/Y and C/Y ....................................................................................463

The CBL/CBR Application.....................................................................464 Steps for Running the CBLCBR Application .................................464 Selecting the CBL/CBR Application ................................................466

Data Collection Methods and Options ..................................................467

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Specifying the Data Collection Method from the CBL/CBR APP Menu.................................................................................467

Specifying Options for Each Data Collection Method .....................468 GAUGE ...........................................................................................468 TYPE...............................................................................................469 MIN and MAX..................................................................................470 UNITS .............................................................................................470 DIRECTNS (Directions) ..................................................................471 Data Collection Comments and Results .........................................471 DATA LOGGER ..............................................................................473 #SAMPLES .....................................................................................475 INTRVL (SEC) ................................................................................475 UNITS .............................................................................................475 PLOT...............................................................................................476 Ymin and Ymax...............................................................................476 DIRECTNS (Directions) ..................................................................476 Data Collection Results...................................................................477 RANGER.........................................................................................478

Starting Data Collection ........................................................................479 Collecting the Data..........................................................................479

Stopping Data Collection ......................................................................480

Chapter 15: CATALOG, Strings, Hyperbolic Functions ........... 481

Browsing the TI-83 Plus CATALOG......................................................481 What Is the CATALOG?..................................................................481 Selecting an Item from the CATALOG............................................482

Entering and Using Strings ...................................................................484 What Is a String? ............................................................................484

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Entering a String .............................................................................484 Storing Strings to String Variables ........................................................486

String Variables...............................................................................486 Storing a String to a String Variable................................................487 Displaying the Contents of a String Variable ..................................488

String Functions and Instructions in the CATALOG..............................489 Displaying String Functions and Instructions in the CATALOG ......489 + (Concatenation)............................................................................490 Selecting a String Function from the CATALOG.............................490 Equ4String( ......................................................................................491 expr(................................................................................................491 inString(...........................................................................................492 length( .............................................................................................492 String4Equ( ......................................................................................493 sub( .................................................................................................493 Entering a Function to Graph during Program Execution ...............494

Hyperbolic Functions in the CATALOG ................................................495 Hyperbolic Functions ......................................................................495 sinh(, cosh(, tanh( ...........................................................................496 sinhL1(, coshL1(, tanhL1(..................................................................496

Chapter 16: Programming............................................................. 497

Getting Started: Volume of a Cylinder ..................................................497 Creating and Deleting Programs ..........................................................500

What Is a Program? ........................................................................500 Creating a New Program ................................................................500 Managing Memory and Deleting a Program ...................................501

Entering Command Lines and Executing Programs.............................504

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Entering a Program Command Line ...............................................504 Executing a Program ......................................................................505 Breaking a Program ........................................................................506

Editing Programs ..................................................................................507 Editing a Program ...........................................................................507 Inserting and Deleting Command Lines..........................................508

Copying and Renaming Programs........................................................509 Copying and Renaming a Program.................................................509 Scrolling the PRGM EXEC and PRGM EDIT Menus......................510

PRGM CTL (Control) Instructions.........................................................511 PRGM CTL Menu ...........................................................................511 Controlling Program Flow ...............................................................512 If ..................................................................................................512 If.Then ............................................................................................513 If.Then.Else ....................................................................................514 For( .................................................................................................515 While ...............................................................................................516 Repeat ............................................................................................517 End..................................................................................................518 Pause..............................................................................................518 Lbl, Goto .........................................................................................519 IS>( .................................................................................................520 DS<(................................................................................................521 Menu(..............................................................................................521 prgm................................................................................................522 Return .............................................................................................523 Stop.................................................................................................523 DelVar .............................................................................................523

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GraphStyle(.....................................................................................524 PRGM I/O (Input/Output) Instructions...................................................525

PRGM I/O Menu .............................................................................525 Displaying a Graph with Input .........................................................526 Storing a Variable Value with Input.................................................527 Prompt ............................................................................................528 Displaying the Home Screen ..........................................................528 Displaying Values and Messages ...................................................529 DispGraph.......................................................................................530 DispTable........................................................................................530 Output( ............................................................................................530 getKey.............................................................................................531 TI-83 Plus Key Code Diagram ........................................................532 ClrHome, ClrTable ..........................................................................532 GetCalc(..........................................................................................533 Get(, Send( .....................................................................................533

Calling Other Programs as Subroutines ...............................................535 Calling a Program from Another Program.......................................535 Notes about Calling Programs ........................................................536

Running an Assembly Language Program ...........................................537

Chapter 17: Activities ................................................................... 540

The Quadratic Formula.........................................................................540 Entering a Calculation.....................................................................540 Converting to a Fraction..................................................................542 Displaying Complex Results ...........................................................544

Box with Lid ..........................................................................................546 Defining a Function .........................................................................546

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Defining a Table of Values..............................................................547 Zooming In on the Table .................................................................549 Setting the Viewing Window ...........................................................551 Displaying and Tracing the Graph ..................................................553 Zooming In on the Graph ................................................................555 Finding the Calculated Maximum....................................................557

Comparing Test Results Using Box Plots .............................................560 Problem...........................................................................................560 Procedure .......................................................................................561

Graphing Piecewise Functions .............................................................564 Problem...........................................................................................564 Procedure .......................................................................................564

Graphing Inequalities............................................................................566 Problem...........................................................................................566 Procedure .......................................................................................566

Solving a System of Nonlinear Equations.............................................568 Problem...........................................................................................568 Procedure .......................................................................................568

Using a Program to Create the Sierpinski Triangle...............................570 Setting up the Program ...................................................................570 Program ..........................................................................................570

Graphing Cobweb Attractors ................................................................572 Problem...........................................................................................572 Procedure .......................................................................................572

Using a Program to Guess the Coefficients..........................................574 Setting Up the Program ..................................................................574 Program ..........................................................................................574

Graphing the Unit Circle and Trigonometric Curves .............................576

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Problem...........................................................................................576 Procedure .......................................................................................576

Finding the Area between Curves ........................................................578 Problem...........................................................................................578 Procedure .......................................................................................578

Using Parametric Equations: Ferris Wheel Problem.............................580 Problem...........................................................................................580 Procedure .......................................................................................581

Demonstrating the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus ........................584 Problem 1........................................................................................584 Procedure 1 ....................................................................................584 Problem 2........................................................................................586 Procedure 2 ....................................................................................586

Computing Areas of Regular N-Sided Polygons...................................588 Problem...........................................................................................588 Procedure .......................................................................................588

Computing and Graphing Mortgage Payments ....................................592 Problem...........................................................................................592 Procedure .......................................................................................592

Chapter 18: Memory and Variable Management........................ 596

Checking Available Memory .................................................................596 MEMORY Menu..............................................................................596 Displaying the MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE Menu.............597

Deleting Items from Memory.................................................................599 Deleting an Item..............................................................................599

Clearing Entries and List Elements.......................................................601 Clear Entries ...................................................................................601

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ClrAllLists ........................................................................................602 Resetting the TI-83 Plus .......................................................................603

RAM ARCHIVE ALL Menu..............................................................603 Displaying the RAM ARCHIVE ALL Menu ......................................604 Resetting RAM Memory..................................................................604 Resetting Archive Memory..............................................................606 Resetting All Memory......................................................................608

Archiving and UnArchiving Variables....................................................610 Archiving and UnArchiving Variables..............................................610

Grouping and Ungrouping Variables ....................................................616 Grouping Variables .........................................................................616 Ungrouping Variables .....................................................................619 DuplicateName Menu .....................................................................619

Garbage Collection ...............................................................................622 Garbage Collection Message..........................................................622 Responding to the Garbage Collection Message ...........................622 Why Not Perform Garbage Collection Automatically Without a

Message?..................................................................................623 Why Is Garbage Collection Necessary? .........................................623 How Unarchiving a Variable Affects the Process............................625 If the MEMORY Screen Shows Enough Free Space......................626 The Garbage Collection Process ....................................................626 Using the GarbageCollect Command .............................................627

ERR:ARCHIVE FULL Message............................................................628

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Chapter 19: Communication Link ................................................ 629

Getting Started: Sending Variables.......................................................629 TI-83 Plus Silver Edition LINK...............................................................632

Connecting Two Calculators with a Unit-to-Unit Cable ...................633 Linking to the CBL/CBR System .....................................................633 Linking to a Computer.....................................................................633

Selecting Items to Send........................................................................634 LINK SEND Menu ...........................................................................634 Sending the Selected Items ............................................................636 Stopping a Transmission ................................................................637 Sending to a TI-83 Plus Silver Edition or TI-83 Plus.......................638 Sending to a TI-83 ..........................................................................640 Sending Lists to a TI-82 ..................................................................641 Sending to a TI-73 ..........................................................................642

Receiving Items ....................................................................................644 LINK RECEIVE Menu .....................................................................644 Receiving Unit.................................................................................644 DuplicateName Menu .....................................................................644 Receiving from a TI-83 Plus Silver Edition or TI-83 Plus ................645 Receiving from a TI-83....................................................................646 Receiving from a TI-82 Resolved Differences............................646 Receiving from a TI-82 Unresolved Differences.........................647 Receiving from a TI-73....................................................................648

Backing Up RAM Memory.....................................................................650 Memory Backup Complete..............................................................651

Error Conditions....................................................................................652 Insufficient Memory in Receiving Unit .............................................653

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Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information........................ 654

Table of Functions and Instructions......................................................654 TI-83 Plus Menu Map ...........................................................................698 Variables...............................................................................................718

User Variables ................................................................................718 Archive Variables ............................................................................719 System Variables ............................................................................719

Statistics Formulas ...............................................................................721 Logistic............................................................................................721 SinReg ............................................................................................722 ANOVA( ..........................................................................................722 2.SampTest..................................................................................724 2.SampTTest ..................................................................................726

Financial Formulas ...............................................................................728 Time Value of Money ......................................................................728 Amortization ....................................................................................731 Cash Flow .......................................................................................732 Interest Rate Conversions ..............................................................733 Days between Dates.......................................................................733

Appendix B: General Information ............................................... 735

Battery Information ...............................................................................735 When to Replace the Batteries .......................................................735 Effects of Replacing the Batteries...................................................736 Battery Precautions.........................................................................737 Replacing the Batteries...................................................................737

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In Case of Difficulty ...............................................................................739 Handling a Difficulty ........................................................................739

Error Conditions....................................................................................742 Accuracy Information ............................................................................754

Computational Accuracy .................................................................754 Function Limits................................................................................756 Function Results .............................................................................757

Support and Service Information ..........................................................758 Product Support ..............................................................................758 Product Service...............................................................................759

Warranty Information ......................................................

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